Shapsug Adyghe dialect

The Shapsug dialect (Adyghe: Шапсыгъабзэ; Kabardian: Шапсыгъэбзэ) is a dialect of Adyghe.[1] The Shapsug dialect is spoken by the Shapsugs, which are one of the largest Circassian population in the diaspora outside Republic of Adygea, alongside Abzakhs. The Shapsug dialect is very similar to the Natukhai dialect and together, they make the Black Sea coast dialects of Adyghe. The Shapsug dialect consists of three main sub dialects: Great Shapsug (North Shapsug), Small Shapsug (South Shapsug) and Hakuchi. The Shapsug dialect is best known as the dialect with palatalized velar stops.

Shapsug Adyghe dialect
Native toRepublic of Adygea, Turkey, Israel Kfar Kama, Jordan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologshap1240

SubdialectsEdit

 
The black sea coast Adyghe dialects family tree.
  • The Black Sea coast dialects
    • Natukhai dialect (Adyghe: Нэтӏхъуаджэбзэ)
    • Shapsug dialect (Adyghe: Шапсыгъабзэ)
      • North Shapsugs, Great Shapsugs, Kuban Shapsugs dialect (Шапсыгъэ шху).
      • South Shapsugs, Small Shapsugs, Coastal Shapsugs Black Sea Shapsugs (Шапсыгъэ-цӏыкӏу) dialect.
    • Hakuchi dialect (ХьакӀуцубзэ, Къарацхаибзэ)

PhonologyEdit

Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Alveolo-
palatal
Retroflex Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain lab. lat. plain lab. plain lab. pal. plain lab. plain lab.
Plosive voiceless p t q ʔ ʔʷ
voiced b d ɡʷ ɡʲ
ejective tʷʼ kʷʼ kʲʼ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ t͡ʃʷ
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ
Fricative voiceless f s ɬ ʃ ʃʷ ɕ ʂ x χ χʷ ħ
voiced z ʒ ʒʷ ʑ ʐ ɣ ʁ ʁʷ
ejective ɬʼ ʃʼ ʃʷʼ
Nasal m n
Approximant l j w
Trill r

Palatalized velar stopsEdit

In the Shapsug and Natukhai dialects there is a palatalized voiced velar stop [ɡʲ] ⟨гь⟩, a palatalized voiceless velar stop [kʲ] ⟨кь⟩ and a palatalized velar ejective [kʲʼ] ⟨кӏь⟩ that were merged with дж [d͡ʒ], ч [t͡ʃ] and кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] in most Adyghe dialects.[2][3][4][5] Note that the Shapsug dialect also has ч [t͡ʃ], дж [d͡ʒ] and кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] in words like чэмы "cow", джэмышх "spoon" and кӏалэ "boy".

  • Shapsug гь [ɡʲ] became дж [d͡ʒ] in other dialects:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
shirt гьанэ ɡʲaːna джанэ dʒaːna джанэ dʒaːna
pants гъошэгь ʁʷaʃaɡʲ гъончэдж ʁʷant͡ʃad͡ʒ гъуэншэдж ʁʷanʃad͡ʒ
now гьы ɡʲə джы dʒə джы dʒə
fur coat гьэдыгу ɡʲadəɡʷ джэдыгу dʒadəɡʷ джэдыгу dʒadəɡʷ
to study
to read
егьэн jaɡʲan еджэн jadʒan еджэн jadʒan
game гьэгу ɡʲagʷ джэгу d͡ʒagʷ джэгу d͡ʒagʷ
bitter дыгьы dəɡʲə дыджы dəd͡ʒə дыдж dəd͡ʒ
sick сымагьэ səmaːɡʲa сымаджэ səmaːd͡ʒa сымаджэ səmaːd͡ʒa
bold шъхьэгьашъо ʂħaɡʲaːʃʷa шъхьэджашъо ʂħad͡ʒaːʃʷa
evil бзагьэ bzaːɡʲa бзаджэ bzaːd͡ʒa бзаджэ bzaːd͡ʒa
that's it гьары ɡʲaːrə джары d͡ʒaːrə джары d͡ʒaːrə
noon щэгьагъо ɕaɡʲaːʁʷa щэджагъо ɕad͡ʒaːʁʷa шэджагъуэ ʃad͡ʒaːʁʷa
infidel гьаур ɡʲaːwər джаур d͡ʒaːwər джаур d͡ʒaːwər
to stand up тэгьын taɡʲən тэджын tad͡ʒən тэджын tad͡ʒən
dance угь wəɡʲ удж wəd͡ʒ удж wəd͡ʒ
  • Shapsug кь [] became ч [t͡ʃ] in other dialects:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
sword кьатэ kʲaːta чатэ t͡ʃaːta джатэ d͡ʒaːta
throat кьый kʲəj чый t͡ʃəj чий t͡ʃəj
chicken кьэт kʲat чэты t͡ʃatə джэд d͡ʒad
chick кьэтжъые kʲatʐəja чэтыжъые t͡ʃatəʐəja джэджьей d͡ʒadʑej
cat кьэтыу kʲatəw чэтыу t͡ʃatəw джэдыу d͡ʒadəw
glass апкь ʔaːpkʲ апч ʔaːpt͡ʃ абдж ʔaːbd͡ʒ
brushwood кьы kʲə чы t͡ʃə чы t͡ʃə
crack кьэ kʲa чэ t͡ʃa чэ t͡ʃa
to crack кьэн kʲən чэн t͡ʃən чэн t͡ʃən
shop тукьан təkʲaːn тучан tət͡ʃaːn тучан tət͡ʃaːn
goatling кьэцӏы kʲat͡sʼə чэцӏы t͡ʃat͡sʼə
gate кьэупчъ kʲawəpt͡ɕ чэупчъ t͡ʃawəpt͡ʂ чоубжэ t͡ʃawbdʒa
marriage нэкьыхь nakʲəħ нэчыхь nat͡ʃəħ нэчыхь nat͡ʃəħ
cheerful кьэфы kʲafə чэфы t͡ʃafə джэху d͡ʒaxʷ
hovel кьыл kʲəl чыл t͡ʃəɮ чыл t͡ʃəɮ
humming top кьынэ kʲəna чынэ t͡ʃəna чын t͡ʃən
to spin гъэкьэрэзын ʁakʲarazən гъэчэрэзын ʁat͡ʃrazən гъэджэрэзын ʁad͡ʒarazən
to pick (fruit) пыкьын pəkʲən пычын pət͡ʃən пычын pət͡ʃən
to tear (paper) кьэтхъэн kʲatχan чэтхъэн t͡ʃatχan зэфӏэтхъын zafʼatχən
  • Shapsug кӏь [kʲʼ] became кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] in other dialects:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
tail кӏьэ kʲʼa кӏэ t͡ʃʼa кӏэ t͡ʃʼa
egg кӏьакӏьэ kʲʼaːkʲʼa кӏэнкӏэ t͡ʃʼant͡ʃʼa джэдыкӏэ d͡ʒadət͡ʃʼa
skirt кӏьэпхын kʲʼapxən кӏэпхын t͡ʃʼapxən кӏэпхын t͡ʃʼapxən
Temirgoy кӏьэмгуе kʲʼamɡʷəja кӏэмгуе t͡ʃʼamɡʷəja кӏэмгуе t͡ʃʼamɡʷəja
smithy кӏьыщ kʲʼəɕ кӏыщ t͡ʃʼəɕ кӏыщ t͡ʃʼəɕ
ceiling кӏьашъо kʲʼaːʃʷa кӏашъо t͡ʃʼaːʃʷa кӏафэ t͡ʃʼaːfa
rope кӏьапсэ kʲʼaːpsa кӏапсэ t͡ʃʼaːpsa кӏапсэ t͡ʃʼaːpsa
edge цакӏьэ t͡saːkʲʼa цакӏэ t͡saːt͡ʃʼa дзакӏэ d͡zaːt͡ʃʼa
to scream кӏьыин kʲʼəjən кӏыин t͡ʃʼəjən кӏыин t͡ʃʼəjən
gun кӏьэрахъо kʲʼaraːχʷa кӏэрахъо t͡ʃʼaraːχʷa кӏэрахъуэ t͡ʃʼaraːχʷa
long кӏьэхьы kʲʼaħə кӏыхьэ t͡ʃʼəħa кӏыхь t͡ʃʼəħ
short кӏьако kʲʼaːkʷa кӏако t͡ʃʼaːkʷa кӏагуэ t͡ʃʼaːɡʷa
to kill укӏьын wkʲʼən укӏын wt͡ʃʼən укӏын wt͡ʃʼən
to move away ӏукӏьын ʔʷəkʲʼən ӏукӏын ʔʷət͡ʃʼən ӏукӏын ʔʷət͡ʃʼən
key ӏукӏьыбзэ ʔʷəkʲʼəbza ӏункӏыбзэ ʔʷənt͡ʃʼəbza ӏункӏыбз ʔʷənt͡ʃʼəbz
day after tomorrow нэущымыщкӏь nawɕəməʃkʲʼ неущымыкӏ najwɕəmət͡ʃʼ пщэдей pɕadaj
to wink енэкӏьэон janakʲʼawan енэкӏэон janat͡ʃʼawan енэкӏэуэн janat͡ʃʼawan
beard жакӏьэ ʒaːkʲʼa жакӏэ ʒaːt͡ʃʼa жьакӏэ ʑaːt͡ʃʼa
poor тхьэмыщкӏь tħaməɕkʲʼ тхьамыкӏ tħaːmət͡ʃʼ тхьэмыщкӏэ tħaməɕt͡ʃʼa
to be ashamed укӏьытэн wəkʲʼətan укӏытэн wət͡ʃʼətan укӏытэн wət͡ʃʼətan

Retroflex affricatesEdit

The retroflex affricate consonants чъ [ʈʂ] and чӏ [ʈʂʼ] (that exist in Chemguy and Bzhedug dialects) merged with the palato-alveolar affricate consonants ч [t͡ʃ] and кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] in the Shapsug and Natukhai dialects.[6]

  • Chemguy чъ [ʈʂ] became ч [t͡ʃ] in Shapsug :
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
tree чыг t͡ʃəɣ чъыгы ʈʂəɣə жыг ʒəɣ
to sleep чыен t͡ʃəjan чъыен ʈʂəjan жыен ʒəjan
cold чыӏэ t͡ʃəʔa чъыӏэ ʈʂəʔa щӏыӏэ ɕʼəʔa
to run чэн t͡ʃan чъэн ʈʂan жэн ʒan
to run down ечэхын jat͡ʃaxən ечъэхын jaʈʂaxən ежэхын jaʒaxən
goat ачэ aːt͡ʃa ачъэ aːʈʂa ажэ aːʒa
number пчагъэ pt͡ʃaːʁa пчъагъэ pʈʂaːʁa бжагъэ bʒaːʁa
door пчэ pt͡ʃa пчъэ pʈʂa бжэ bʒa
door handle пчэпсы pt͡ʃapsə пчъэпсы pʈʂapsə бжэпсы bʒapsə
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
stands under кӏэт t͡ʃʼat чӏэт ʈʂʼat щӏэт ɕʼat
sits under кӏэс t͡ʃʼas чӏэс ʈʂʼas щӏэс ɕʼas
lies under кӏэлъ t͡ʃʼaɬ чӏэлъ ʈʂʼaɬ щӏэлъ ɕʼaɬ
area кӏыпӏэ t͡ʃʼəpʼa чӏыпӏэ ʈʂʼəpʼa щӏыпӏэ ɕʼəpʼa
debt кӏыфэ t͡ʃʼəfa чӏыфэ ʈʂʼəfa щӏыхуэ ɕʼəxʷa
earth кӏыгу t͡ʃʼəɡʷ чӏыгу ʈʂʼəɡʷ щӏыгу ɕʼəɡʷ
bottom кӏэ t͡ʃʼa чӏэ ʈʂʼa щӏэ ɕʼa
strong, force кӏуакӏэ kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa кӏуачӏэ kʷʼaːʈʂʼa кӏуащӏэ kʷʼaːɕʼa
iron гъукӏы ʁʷət͡ʃʼə гъучӏы ʁʷəʈʂʼə гъущӏы ʁʷəɕʼə
daw къуакӏэ qʷaːt͡ʃʼa къуанчӏэ qʷaːnʈʂʼa къуанщӏэ qʷaːnɕʼa
bumblebee кӏыбжь t͡ʃʼəbʑ чӏыбжь ʈʂʼəbʑ щӏыбжь ɕʼəbʑ
badger кӏыкъо t͡ʃʼəqʷa чӏыкъу ʈʂʼəqʷ щӏыкъу ɕʼəqʷ
dark кӏапсӏэ t͡ʃʼaːpsʼa чӏапцӏэ ʈʂʼaːpt͡sʼa щӏапцӏэ ɕʼaːpt͡sʼa
to ask упкӏэн wəpt͡ʃʼan упчӏэн wəpʈʂʼan упщӏэн wəpɕʼan
gem, jewel мыкӏы mət͡ʃʼə мычӏы məʈʂʼə мыщӏы məɕʼə
clew хъукӏанэ χʷət͡ʃʼaːna хъучӏанэ χʷəʈʂʼaːna хъущӏанэ χʷəɕʼaːna
to bury кӏэтӏэн t͡ʃʼatʼan чӏэтӏэн ʈʂʼatʼan щӏэтӏэн ɕʼatʼan

Dropped consonantsEdit

In the Great Shapsug dialect (Like Bzhedug dialect) in some cases the consonants н [n], м [m] and р [r] are dropped and are not pronounced.[7]

Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
calm сабыр saːbər самбыр saːmbər самбыр saːmbər
Saturday шэбэт ʃabat шэмбэт ʃambat щэбэт ɕabat
finger ӏэпхъабэ ʔapχaːba ӏэхъуамбэ ʔaχʷaːmba ӏэпхъуамбэ ʔapχʷaːmba
toe лъэпхъабэ ɬapχaːba лъэхъуамбэ ɬaχʷaːmba лъэпхъуамбэ ɬapχʷaːmba
wide шъуабгъо ʃʷaːbʁʷa шъуамбгъо ʃʷaːmbʁʷa фабгъуэ faːbʁʷa
peel шъуапӏэ ʃʷaːpʼa шъуампӏэ ʃʷaːmpʼa фампӏэ faːmpʼa
board пхъэбгъу pχabʁʷ пхъэмбгъу pχambʁʷ пхъэбгъу pχabʁʷ
worm хьэблыу ħabləw хьамлыу ħaːmɮəw хьэмбылыу ħambəɮəw
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
egg кӏьакӏьэ kʲʼaːkʲʼa кӏэнкӏэ t͡ʃant͡ʃa джэдыкӏэ d͡ʒadət͡ʃʼa
sweat пкӏатӏэ pt͡ʃʼaːtʼa пкӏантӏэ pt͡ʃʼaːntʼa пщӏантӏэ pɕʼaːntʼa
broom пхъэкӏыпхъэ pχat͡ʃʼəpχa пхъэнкӏыпхъэ pχant͡ʃʼəpχa жыхапхъэ ʒəxaːpχa
mud псыжъы psəʐə псынжъы psənʐə
flue pipe оджэкъ wad͡ʒaq онджэкъ wand͡ʒaq
rice пыдж pəd͡ʒ пындж pənd͡ʒ пынжь pənʑ
pillow шъхьатэ ʂħaːta шъхьантэ ʂħaːnta щхьэнтэ ɕħanta
bean гьэч ɡʲat͡ʃ джэнчы d͡ʒant͡ʃə джэш d͡ʒaʃ
pants гъочэгь ʁʷaʃaɡʲ гъончэдж ʁʷant͡ʃad͡ʒ гъуэншэдж ʁʷanʃad͡ʒ
fast псыкӏэ psət͡ʃʼa псынкӏэ psənt͡ʃʼa псынщӏэ psənɕʼa
shovel хьацэ ħaːt͡sa хьанцэ ħaːnt͡sa хьэнцэ ħant͡sa
blue шъухъуатӏэ ʃʷχʷaːtʼa шхъуантӏэ ʃχʷaːntʼa шхъуантӏэ ʃχʷaːntʼa
key ӏукӏьыбзэ ʔʷəkʲʼəbza ӏункӏыбзэ ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza ӏункӏыбзэ ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza
vein лъытфэ ɬətfa лъынтфэ ɬəntfa лъынтхуэ ɬəntxʷa
heavy отэгъу wataʁʷ онтэгъу wantaʁʷ уэндэгъу wandaʁʷ
knee лъэгуаджэ ɬaɡʷaːd͡ʒa лъэгуанджэ ɬaɡʷaːnd͡ʒa лъэгуажьэ ɬaɡʷaːʑa
butterfly хьэтӏрэпӏый ħatˈrapˈəj хьэнтӏэрэпӏый ħantˈarapˈəj хьэндырабгъуэ ħandəraːbʁʷa
noise жъот ʒʷat жъонт ʒʷant
peanuts чӏыдэ t͡ʃʼəda чӏындэ t͡ʃʼənda щӏыдэ ɕʼəda
wrong пхэдж pxad͡ʒ пхэндж pxand͡ʒ пхэнж pxandʒ
chair пхъэтӏэкӏу pχatʼakʷʼ пхъэнтӏэкӏу pχantʼakʷʼ пхъэнтӏэкӏу pχantʼakʷʼ
slim гъолагъэ ʁʷalaːʁa гъонлагъэ ʁʷanɮaːʁa - -
to crawl цӏэлъэн t͡sʼaɬan цӏэнлъэн t͡sʼanɬan - -
to loose лэлэн ɮaɮan лэнлэн ɮanɮan лэлэн ɮaɮan
to spit ужъутхэн wəʒʷətxan ужъунтхэн wəʒʷəntxan убжьытхэн wəbʑətxan
to load узэдын wəzadən узэндын wəzandən узэдын wəzadən
glue пцатхьэ pt͡saːtħa пцантхьэ pt͡saːntħa - -
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
corn натыф naːtəf натрыф naːtrəf нартыху naːrtəxʷ
Nart нат naːt нарт naːrt нарт naːrt
gender фыкъо fəqʷa фыркъо fərqʷa хукхъуэ xʷərqχʷa
marj мадж maːd͡ʒ мардж maːrd͡ʒ марж maːrʒ
to crush пӏытӏын pʼətʼən пӏыртӏын pʼərtʼən
to ripen тӏыгъон tʼəʁʷan тӏыргъон tʼərʁʷan тӏыгъуэн tʼəʁʷan
frog хьантӏыкъуакъу ħaːntʼəqʷaːqʷ хьантӏаркъу ħaːntʼarqʷ хьэндыркъуакъуэ ħandərqʷaːqʷa

Aspirated consonantsEdit

In the Shapsug dialect (Like the Bzhedug dialect) there exist a series of aspirated consonants (/pʰ/ /tʰ/ /ʃʰ/ /t͡sʰ/ /t͡ʃʰ/ /t͡ʂʰ/ /t͡ɕʰʷ/ /kʲʰ/ /kʰʷ/ /qʰ/ /qʰʷ/) that became plain consonants in other dialects:[8][9]

  • Shapsug пʰ [] ↔ п [p] in other dialects :
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
sharp pʰaːpsʼa пʰапсӏэ paːpt͡sʼa папцӏэ paːpsʼa paːpt͡sʼa
arrogant  pʰaːɣa пʰагэ paːɣa пагэ paːɣa пагэ
nose  pʰa пʰэ pa пэ pa пэ
  • Shapsug тʰ [] ↔ т [t] in other dialects :
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
respect  pχaːtʰa пхъатʰэ pχaːta пхъатэ - -
to give jatʰən етʰын jatən етын jatən етын
to take ʃtʰan штʰэн ʃtan штэн ɕtan щтэн
on tʰajt тʰет tajt тет tat тет
smooth t͡sʼaːʂʷtʰa цӏашъутʰэ t͡sʼaːʃʷta цӏашъутэ t͡sʼaːfta цӏафтэ
to afraid ɕtʰan щтʰэн ɕtan щтэн ɕtan щтэн
pillow  ʂħaːntʰa шъхьантʰэ ʂħaːnta шъхьантэ ɕħaːta щхьатэ
  • Shapsug цʰ [t͡sʰ] ↔ ц [t͡s] in other dialects :
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
wool  t͡sʰə цʰы t͡sə цы t͡sə цы
eyelash nabzət͡sʰ нэбзыцʰ nabzət͡s нэбзыц - -
  • Shapsug шʰ [ʃʰ] ↔ щ [ɕ] in other Adyghe dialects :
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
milk  ʃʰa шʰэ ɕa щэ ʃa шэ
lame  ɬaːʃʰa лъашʰэ ɬaːɕa лъащэ ɬaːʃa лъашэ
salt  ʃʰəʁʷ шʰыгъу ɕəʁʷ щыгъу ʃəʁʷ шыгъу
cloud pʃʰa пшʰэ pɕa пщэ pʃa пшэ
pus  ʃʰənə шʰыны ɕənə щыны ʃən шын
accordion  pʃʰəna пшʰынэ pɕəna пщынэ pʃəna пшынэ
fat  pʃʰarə пшʰэры pɕarə пщэры pʃar пшэр
wax  ʃʰafə шʰэфы ʃafə шэфы ʃaxʷə шэху
horse ʃʰə шʰы ʃə шы ʃə шы
sand  pʃʰaːχʷa пшʰахъо pʃaːχʷa пшахъо pʃaːχʷa пшахъуэ
story  pʃʰəsa пшʰысэ pʃəsa пшысэ pʃəsa пшысэ
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
spleen kʲʰa кьʰэ t͡ʃa чэ t͡ʃa чэ
brushwood
twig
kʲʰə кьʰы t͡ʃə чы t͡ʃə чы
to cough pskʲʰan пскьʰэн pst͡ʃan псчэн pst͡ʃan псчэн
  • Shapsug кʰу [kʰʷ] ↔ ку [] in other dialects :
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
middle  kʰʷə кʰу kʷə ку kʷə ку
thigh  kʰʷa кʰо kʷa ко kʷa куэ
  • Shapsug къʰ [] ↔ къ [q] in other Adyghe dialects :
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Kfar Kama Natukhai Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
grave  qʰa къʰэ χa хъэ q͡χa кхъэ qa къэ q͡χa кхъэ
  • Shapsug къуʰ [qʰʷ] ↔ къу [] in other Adyghe dialects :
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Kfar Kama Natukhai Temirgoy and Abzakh
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
pig  qʰʷa къʰо χʷa хъо q͡χʷa кхъо qʷa къо q͡χʷa кхъуэ
cheese qʰʷaːja къʰуае χʷaːja хъуае q͡χʷaːja кхъуае qʷaːja къуае q͡χʷaj кхъуей
ship qʰʷaħ къʰохь qʷaħ къохь - - qʷəħa къухьэ q͡χʷəħ кхъухь
to fart qaqʰʷəʃʷən къэкъʰушъун qʷaχʷəʃʷən къэхъушъун - - qʷaqʷəʃʷən къэкъушъун qat͡səfən къэцыфын
peer qʰʷəʐə къʰужъы qʷəʐə къужъы - - qʷəʐə къужъы q͡χʷəʑə кхъужьы
Word Adyghe Kabardian
Shapsug Temirgoy
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
jungle/bushy area t͡ɕʰʷənə чъʰуны t͡ʃʷənə цуны fən фын

OthersEdit

In some Shapsug and Natukhai dialects there exist an alveolar ejective fricative [sʼ] ⟨сӏ⟩ that correspond to [t͡sʼ] ⟨цӏ⟩ in other dialects such as Abzakh, Bzhedug, Temirgoy, and Kabardian.[10]

  • Shapsug сӏ [] ↔ цӏ [t͡sʼ] in other dialects:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
name сӏэ sʼa цӏэ t͡sʼa цӏэ t͡sʼa
lie псӏы psʼə пцӏы pt͡sʼə пцӏы pt͡sʼə
black шӏусӏэ ʃʷʼəsʼa шӏуцӏэ ʃʷʼət͡sʼa фӏыцӏэ fʼət͡sʼa
to yell сӏэсӏэн sʼasʼan цӏэцӏэн t͡sʼat͡sʼan цӏэцӏэн t͡sʼat͡sʼan
naked псӏанэ psʼaːna пцӏанэ pt͡sʼaːna пцӏанэ pt͡sʼaːna
wet сӏынэ sʼəna цӏынэ t͡sʼəna цӏынэ t͡sʼəna
sharp папсӏэ paːpsʼa папцӏэ paːpt͡sʼa папцӏэ paːpt͡sʼa
to lay eggs кӏьэсӏын kʲʼəsʼən кӏэцӏын t͡ʃʼət͡sʼən кӏэцӏын t͡ʃʼət͡sʼən
dark-skinned къуапсӏэ qʷaːpsʼa къуапцӏэ qʷaːpt͡sʼa къуапцӏэ qʷaːpt͡sʼa
nit (louse egg) сӏакӏьэ sʼaːkʲʼa цӏакӏэ t͡sʼaːt͡ʃʼa - -
barefoot лъапсӏэ ɬaːpsʼa лъапцӏэ ɬaːpst͡sʼa лъапцӏэ ɬaːpst͡sʼa
swallow (bird) псӏашъухъо psʼaːʃʷχʷa пцӏашхъо pt͡sʼaːʃχʷa пцӏашхъо pt͡sʼaːɕχʷa
to envy енэсӏын janasʼən енэцӏын janat͡sʼən енэцӏын janat͡sʼən
to close eyes гъэупӏысӏэн ʁawpʼəsʼan гъэупӏыцӏэн ʁawpʼət͡sʼan гъэупӏыцӏэн ʁawpʼət͡sʼan
to throw upon хэупсӏэн xawpsʼan хэупцӏэн xawpt͡sʼan хэупцӏэн xawpt͡sʼan
to shit сӏын sʼən цӏын t͡sʼən цӏын t͡sʼən

The labialized retroflex consonants шъу [ʂʷ] and жъу [ʐʷ] in the Temirgoy dialect are alveolo-palatal щу [ɕʷ] and жьу [ʑʷ] in the Black Sea coast dialects of Adyghe (Shapsug dialect and Natukhai dialect).

  • Shapsug щу [ɕʷ] ↔ шъу [ʂʷ] in Standard:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
honey щоу ɕʷaw шъоу ʂʷaw фо faw
color що ɕʷa шъо ʂʷa фэ fa
  • Shapsug жьу [ʑʷ] ↔ жъу [ʐʷ] in Standard:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
star жьуагъо ʑʷaːʁʷa жъуагъо ʐʷaːʁʷa вагъуэ vaːʁʷa
rock мыжьо məʑʷa мыжъо məʐʷa мывэ məva
wide ӏужьу ʔʷəʑʷə ӏужъу ʔʷəʐʷə ӏувы ʔʷəvə

The Shapsug and Natukhai dialects has many different variants. The following differences apply to some of them.

  • Shapsug с [s] ↔ ц [t͡s] in Standard:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
to carry out гъэсэкӏэн ʁasat͡ʃʼan гъэцэкӏэн ʁat͡sat͡ʃʼan гъэзэщӏэн ʁat͡saɕʼan
  • Shapsug шъухъу [ʃʷχʷ] ↔ шхъу [ʃχʷ] in Standard:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
blue шъухъуатӏэ ʃʷχʷaːtʼa шхъуантнӏэ ʃχʷaːntʼa шхъуантӏэ ʃχʷaːntʼa
to envy шъухъогъон ʃʷχʷaʁʷan шхъогъон ʃχʷaʁʷan шхъогъуэн ʃχʷaʁʷan
swallow (bird) псӏашъухъо psʼaːʃʷχʷa пцӏашхъо pt͡sʼaːʃχʷa пцӏашхъо pt͡sʼaːʃχʷa
hawk бгъашъухъо bʁaːʃʷχʷa бгъашхъо bʁaːʃχʷa бгъащхъуэ bʁaːʃχʷa
  • Shapsug р [r] ↔ н [n] in Standard:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
wrong ӏортӏагъ ʔʷartʼaːʁ ӏонтӏагъ ʔʷantʼaːʁ ӏуэнтӏа ʔʷantʼa
to pop / to burst пӏэркӏьын pʼarkʲʼən пӏонкӏын pʷʼant͡ʃʼən пӏэнкӏын pʼant͡ʃʼən
mirror гъургьэ ʁʷərɡʲa гъунджэ ʁʷərd͡ʒa гъуджэ ʁʷəd͡ʒa
  • Shapsug ф [f] ↔ м [m] in Standard:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
to try to smell фэмэн faman пэмэн paman пэмэн paman
race зэфачэ zafaːt͡ʃa зэпачъэ zafaːt͡ʂa зэпажэ zafaːʒa
  • Shapsug ц [t͡s] ↔ с [s] in Standard:
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
to thrust хицэн xit͡san хисэн xisan хисэн xisan
be careful фэцакъ fat͡saːq фэсакъ fasaːq хуэсакъ xʷasaːq
snot пэпцы papt͡sə пэпсы papsə пэпсы papsə
thin пцыгъо pt͡səʁʷa псыгъо psəʁʷa псыгъуэ psəʁʷa

Grammar differencesEdit

Instrumental caseEdit

In the instrumental case the noun has the suffix -мгьэ (-mɡʲa) or -гьэ (-gʲa) unlike other dialects that has the suffix -мкӏэ (-mt͡ʃa) or -кӏэ (-t͡ʃa).

  • Shapsug: Кӏалэр Адыгэбзэгьэ мэгущаӏэ ↔ Standard: Кӏалэр Адыгэбзэкӏэ мэгущаӏэ - "The boy speaks (using) Adyghe language".
  • Shapsug: Къэлэмымгьэ сэтхэ ↔ Standard: Къэлэмымкӏэ сэтхэ - "I write (using) with the pencil".

Desirement moodEdit

In the Shapsug dialect, the suffix ~рагъу /raːʁʷ/ is added to verbs to indicate the desirement to do that verb. For example:

  • Туканым сыкӏорагъу - "I want to go to the shop".
  • Есыпӏэм рэкӏорэгъуагъ - "(S)he wanted to go to the pool".
  • Къэкӏорэгъот кӏалэр - "The boy would want to come".
  • Тутын уешъорагъуа? - "Do you want to smoke cigarette?".
  • Нэущы уздэгущаӏэрагъу - "I want to speak with you tomorrow".
  • Сышхэрагъу игь - "I want to eat now".

Upward prefixEdit

In Standard Adyghe, to express that the verb's direction is upward, the prefix дэ- /da-/ and the suffix -е /-ja/ is added to the verb. In Shapsug dialect, the prefix чӏэ- /t͡ʃʼa-/ is added instead.

Meaning Standard Adyghe Shapsug
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
to go upward дэкӏоен dakʷʼajan чӏыкӏьын t͡ʃʼəkʲʼən
to run upward дэчъэен dat͡ʂajan чӏышъутын t͡ʃʼəʃʷtən
to look upward дэплъыен dapɬəjan чӏыплъын t͡ʃʼəpɬən
to jump upward дэпкӏыен dapt͡ʃʼəjan чӏыпкӏьын t͡ʃʼəpkʲʼən
to raise дэщыен daɕəjan чӏыщын t͡ʃʼəɕən
to carry upward дэхьыен daħəjan чӏыхын t͡ʃʼəxən
to fly upward дэбыбыен dabəbəjan чӏыбыбын t͡ʃʼəbəbən
to throw upward дедзыен dajd͡zəjan чӏыдзын t͡ʃʼəd͡zən
to shoot upward дэоен dawajan чӏыун t͡ʃʼəwən
to elevate дэгъэкӏоен daʁakʷʼajan чӏыгъэкӏьын t͡ʃʼəʁakʲʼən

DemonstrativesEdit

Shapsug has six demonstratives: а /ʔaː/, гьэ /ɡʲa/, у /wə/, дыу /dəwə/, дымы /dəmə/ and мы /mə/.

а /ʔaː/

  1. that
    а ӏанэthat table
    а пшъашъэthat girl
    а кӏалэм еӏоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner 'а' /ʔaː/ refer to a referent that is far away and invisible to both the speaker and the listener(s). It is similar to the English language determiner that, but with the condition that the referent has to be invisible or far away.

у /wə/ (мо /mo/ in other dialects)

  1. that
    у ӏанэthat table
    у пшъашъэthat girl
    у кӀалэм еӀоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner 'у' refer to a referent that is visible and in a known distance from both the speaker and the listener(s) (both the speaker and the listener(s) can see the referent). It is similar to the English language determiner that, but with the condition that the referent has to be visible.

мы /mə/

  1. this
    мы ӏанэthis table
    мы пшъашъэthis girl
    мы кӀалэм еӀоthis boy is saying
    мы мэгъэthis year
  • The determiner 'мы' refer to a referent that is close to both the speaker and the listener(s). It is exactly like the English language determiner this.

дыу /dəwə/ (дымо /dəmo/ in other dialects)

  1. that (over there)
    дыу ӏанэthat table over there
    дыу пшъашъэthat girl over there
    дыу кӀалэм еӀоthat boy over there is saying
    дыу цӀыфэр улъэгъуа? — Do you see that person over there?
  • The determiner 'дыу' refer to a referent that is visible. This determiner is used when the speaker wants to emphasizes that the object is in his sight, so that the listener(s) will expect the referent to be the thing (s)he looks at. It is usually used to introduce a new referent, for example it can be used to refer to a stranger on the street or to refer to a certain object on the field that is visible. This determiner might be used while pointing one's finger at the people or objects in question.

дымы /dəmə/

  1. this (over here)
    дымы ӏанэthis table over here
    дымы пшъашъэthis girl over here
    дымы кӀалэм еӀоthis boy over here is saying
    дымы цӀыфэр улъэгъуа? — Do you see this person over here?
  • The determiner 'дымы' refer to a referent that is visible. This determiner is similar to the determiner дымо. This is used instead of дымо when the referent is very near. Like the determiner дымо, it might be used while pointing one's finger at the referent in question. Even without pointing fingers the listener(s) will expect the referent to be the thing the speaker looks at. It can be used to point on objects in a room for example.

гьэ /gʲa/ (гьэ джэ /d͡ʒa/ in other dialects)

  1. that
    гьэ ӏанэthat table
    гьэ пшъашъэthat girl
    гьэ кӏалэм еӏоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner 'гьэ' refer to a referent which is usually invisible. This determiner is used when the referent in the conversation is clear to both the speaker and the listener(s). Someone would use this determiner in order to emphasizes that both he and the listener(s) have the same referent in mind.

У vs. МоEdit

Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
that (abs.) ур wər мор mawr мор mawr
that (erg.) ущ wəɕ мощ mawɕ мобы mawbə
using that ущгьэ wəɕɡʲa мощкӏэ mawɕt͡ʃʼa - -
like that ущтэу wəɕtaw мощтэу mawɕaw мопхуэдэу mawpxʷadaw
that is it уары waːrə моры mawrə мораш mawraːɕ
there удэ wəda модэ mawda модэ mawda
there оу waw моу maw - -
other удрэ wədra модрэ mawdra модрэ mawdra
then ущгъум wəɕʁʷəm мощгъум mawɕʁʷəm - -
like that ущфэд wəɕfad мощфэд maɕfad мопхуэд mawpxʷad
SampleEdit
English Shapsug Standard Adyghe
Did you heard how that boy speaks? the one standing there, that is the dialect I referred to. We don't talk like that, the way that person is speaking is like how they speak in Caucasus. у кӏалэр зэрэгущаӏэрэр оӏугъа? удэ ӏутыр, уары диалектэу зыфэсӏуагъагъэр. Тэ ущтэу тыгущаӏэрэп, ур зэрэгущаӏэрэр къэфкъазымгьэ зэрэгущаӏэхэрэмэ яфэд. мо кӏалэр зэрэгущыӏэрэр оӏугъа? модэ ӏутыр, моры диалектэу зыфэсӏуагъагъэр. Тэ мощтэу тыгущыӏэрэп, мор зэрэгущыӏэрэр къэфкъазымкӏэ зэрэгущаӏэхэрэмэ афэд.

Future tenseEdit

In the Great Shapsug sub dialect (like Bzhedug) the future tense suffix is ~эт (~at) and in some cases ~ыт (~ət) unlike the Small Shapsug sub dialect that has (like Chemirguy) the Suffix ~щт (~ɕt)).

Word Adyghe Standard Kabardian
Small Shapsug Great Shapsug Standard Adyghe
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
I will go səkʷʼaɕt сыкӏощт səkʷʼat сыкӏот səkʷʼaɕt сыкӏощт səkʷʼanəwɕ сыкӏуэнущ
you will go wəkʷʼaɕt укӏощт wəkʷʼat укӏот wəkʷʼaɕt укӏощт wəkʷʼanəwɕ укӏуэнущ
he will go raʷʼaɕt рэкӏощт rakʷʼat рэкӏот kʷʼaɕt кӏощт kʷʼanəwɕ кӏуэнущ
we will go təkʷʼaɕt тыкӏощт təkʷʼat тыкӏот təkʷʼaɕt тыкӏощт dəkʷʼanəwɕ дыкӏуэнущ
you (plural) will go ʃʷəkʷʼaɕt шъукӏощт ʃʷəkʷʼat шъукӏот ʃʷəkʷʼaɕt шъукӏощт fəkʷʼanəwɕ фыкӏуэнущ
they will go rakʷʼaɕtəx рэкӏощтых rakʷʼatəx рэкӏотых kʷʼaɕtəx кӏощтых jaːkʷʼanəwɕ якӏуэнущ

Interrogative wordsEdit

The word "what" in Standard Adyghe is сыд while in Shapsug it is шъыд and from it derives different terms.

Word Adyghe
Great Shapsug Small Shapsug
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
what ʂəd шъыд səd сыд
why ʂədaː шъыда sədaː сыда
when ʂədʁʷa, ʂədəjʁʷa шъыдгъо, шъыдигъо sədəjʁʷa сыдигъо
whenever ɕədʁʷaməj шъыдгъоми sədəjʁʷaməj сыдигъоми
so ʂtaw шъыдэу sədaw сыдэу
with what ʂədɡʲa шъыдгьэ sədt͡ʃʼa сыдкӏэ
how ʂədawɕtaw шъыдэущтэу sədawɕtaw сыдэущтэу
how much ʂəd fadəjz шъыд фэдиз səd fadəjz сыд фэдиз
how much ʂədəχaːt шъыдыхъат - -
always ʂədəʁʷəj шъыдгъуи sədəʁʷəj сыдигъуи

Shapsug has two words for "what":

  • шъыд (Refers to an inanimate object, typically tangible).
  • лӏэу (Refers to an inanimate object, typically intangible).

The word "лӏэу" was lost in other Adyghe dialects. In Shapsug, from it derives different terms :

Word Shapsug Standard Adyghe
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
what ɬʼaw лӏэу səd сыд
who, what ɬʼawʑəm лӏэужьым sədəm сыдым
what on earth?! ɬʼawəʑ лӏэужь səd сыд
what could it be? ɬʼawɕət лӏэужьыщт sədəɕt сыдыщт
with what ɬʼawəʑəɡʲa лӏэужьыгьэ sədt͡ʃʼa сыдкӏэ
whatever ɬʼawəʑəʁʷaməj лӏэужыгъоми səd ɬʼawəʑəʁʷaməj сыд лӏэужыгъоми
whatever ɬʼawəʑəməj лӏэужьыми sədməj сыдми
whatever ɬʼawəʑaw лӏэужьэу sədaw сыдэу

Shapsugs also have different interrogative words from the word тэ "which":

Word Shapsug Standard Adyghe
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
like what taɕfad тэщ фэд səd fad сыд фэд
how much taɕ fadəz тэщ фэдиз səd fadəz сыд фэдиз
when taɕʁʷəm тэщгъум sədəjʁʷa сыдигъо
how taɕtaw тэщтэу sədawɕtaw сыдэущтэу
which one taːrə тары sədər сыдыр
which one taɕ тэщ sədəm сыдым

LocationEdit

Word Shapsug Standard Adyghe
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
here məw, məwɡʲa мыу, мыугьэ mət͡ʃʼa мыкӏэ
there (visible) waw, wawɡʲa оу, оугьэ mot͡ʃʼa мокӏэ
there (invisible) aːw, aːwɡʲa ау, аугьэ aːt͡ʃʼa акӏэ
there (emphasis) ɡʲaw, ɡʲawɡʲa гьэу, гьэугьэ d͡ʒət͡ʃʼa джэкӏэ
where taw, tawɡʲa тэу, тэугьэ tət͡ʃʼa тэкӏэ

Big suffix (~фо)Edit

  • The standard Adyghe's suffix -шхо /-ʃxʷa/ which means big or mighty is -фo /-fˠa/ in the Shapsug dialect :
Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe Bzhedugh
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
mighty God тхьэфo tħafˠa тхьэшхо tħaʃxʷa тхьэшко tħaʃkʷa
large house унэфo wənafˠa унэшхо wənaʃxʷa унэшко wənaʃkʷa

Positional prefix directly (джэхэ~)Edit

  • The standard Adyghe's positional prefix -жэхэ /-ʒaxa/ which designates action directed at something or someone forcefully is -джэхэ /-d͡ʒaxa/ in the Shapsug dialect :
Meaning Shapsug Chemirguy
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
to collide with джэхэхьэн d͡ʒaxaħan жэхэхьэн ʒaxaħan
to hit someone джэхэон d͡ʒaxawan жэхэон ʒaxawan
to throw at someone джэхэдзэн d͡ʒaxad͡zan жэхэдзэн ʒaxad͡zan
to look steadily at джэхэплъэн d͡ʒaxapɬan жэхэплъэн ʒaxapɬan
to jump on someone for assault джэхэпкӏьэн d͡ʒaxapkʲʼan жэхэпкӏэн ʒaxapt͡ʃʼan

Positional prefix merging (го~)Edit

  • In the Shapsug and Natukhai dialects, the verbal prefix го~ /ɡʷa-/ designates process of joining or merging with an object on a body. This positional conjugation does not exist in other Circassian dialects. for example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw at годзэн ɡʷad͡zan to throw an object on a steed or someone's neck
to merge to гохьэн ɡʷaħan to merge with an object
to look at гоплъэн ɡʷapɬan to look at a steed or someone's neck
to fit at
to fall at
гофэн ɡʷafan to fit on a steed or someone's neck
an object to fall on a steed or someone's neck
to take from гохын ɡʷaxən to take an object a steed or someone's neck
to come down from гокӏын ɡʷat͡ʃʼən to get off a steed or someone's neck
to put at голъхьэн ɡʷaɬħan to put an object on a steed or someone's neck
to stand on гоуцон ɡʷawt͡sʷan to beat up someone
to fall from гозын ɡʷazən to fall from the body of something or someone
цум бжъитӏу гот
цу-м бжъ-итӏу го-т
[t͡sʷəm bʐəjtʷʼ ɡʷat]
ox (erg.) two horns it have on his body
"the ox have two horns."
шыор шым гос
шыо-р шы-м го-с
[ʃəwar ʃəm ɡʷas]
the horseman (abs.) horse (erg.) (s)he is sitting on a body
"the horseman is sitting on the horse."
лӏыжъым зылъакъо готэп
лӏыжъы-м зы-лъакъо го-тэ-п
[ɬʼəʐəm zəɬaːqʷa ɡʷatap]
the old man (erg.) one leg (s)he doesn't have on his body
"the old man doesn't have one leg."
шым зеохьыжьым кӏалэу госэр гозэгъ
шы-м зеохьы-жь-ым кӏалэ-у го-сэ-р го-зэ-гъ
[ʃəm zajwaħəʑəm t͡ʃʼaːɮaw ɡʷasar ɡʷazaʁ]
house (erg.) to get out of control boy (adv.) the one on the body (s)he fell off the body
"when the horse got out of control the boy sitting on it fell."

VocabularyEdit

Meaning Shapsug Standard Adyghe
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
all зэужь, купэ zawəʑ, kʷəpa зэкӏэ zat͡ʃʼa
everyone
eveything
псэуми psawəməj пстэуми pstawəməj
to chew упэшӏын wəpaʃʼən гъэунэшкӏун ʁawnaʃkʷʼən
to push егукӏэн jagʷət͡ʃʼan еӏункӏэн jaʔʷənt͡ʃʼan
funny гушӏуагъэ gʷəʃʷʼaːʁa щхэны ɕxanə
to laugh гушӏон gʷəʃʷʼan щхын ɕxən
to smile гушӏопсӏын gʷəʃʷʼapsʼənn щхыпцӏын ɕxəpt͡sʼən
to get sad зэгожъын zagʷaʐən нэшхъэин naʃχanjən
to laugh at щыгушӏукӏьн ɕʷgʷəʃʷʼəkʲʼəən дэхьащхын daħaːɕxən
to unbuckle гъэтӏэпкӏьын ʁatʼapkʲʼən птӏэтэн ptʼatan
to lower гъэшъхъын ʁaʂχən - -
walnut дэ da дэшхо daʃxʷa
back of the neck дий dəj пшъэб pʂab
drum даулэ
домбаз
dawəla
dawmbaz
шъондырып ʃʷandərəp
to fall down етӏэрэхын jatʼaraxən ефэхын jafaxən
to arrange зэгъэфэн zaʁafan гъэкӏэрэкӏэн ʁat͡ʃʼarat͡ʃʼan
smell гъуамэ ʁʷaːma мэ ma
stairs лъэугъуае ɬawʁʷaːja лъэой ɬawaj
bucket къуао qʷaːwa щалъ ɕaːɬ
to left (left over) къыдэфэн qədafan къэнэжьын qanaʑən
thorn къэцы qat͡sə панэ paːna
axe майтэ maːjta отыч watət͡ʃ
apple мые məja мыӏэрыс məʔarəs
intestine ныпсӏэ nəpsʼa кӏэтӏэй t͡ʃatʼaj
flower нэкъыгъэ naqəʁa къэгъагъэ qaʁaːʁa
to plant тӏэн tʼan гъэтӏысын ʁatʼəsən
big фуэ fwa шхо ʃxʷa
tip цыпэ t͡səpa - -
to crawl цӏэлъэн t͡sʼaɬan пшын pʃən
to breath фэпщэн fapɕən жьы къэщэн ɕə qaɕan
sharp чыян t͡ʃʼəjaːn чан t͡ʃʼaːn
coward щтапхэ ɕtaːpxa къэрабгъэ qaraːbʁa
to block a hole шъыбын ʂəbənto - -
jug шъхьахъу ʂħaːχʷ къошын qʷaʃən
small thing шъхъэ ʂχa жъгъэй ʐʁaj
soft щынэ ɕəna шъабэ ʂaːba
clabber щэгъэпсӏагъ ɕaʁapsʼaːʁ щхыу ɕa
milk щэзэн ɕazan щэ ɕa
bag; sack щэуалэ ɕawaːɮa дзыо; къапщыкъ d͡zəwa; qapɕəq
ships хьаджыгъэпс ħaːd͡ʒəʁaps щыпс ɕəps
mataz мэтазэ mataːza псыхьалыжъо psəħaːɮəʒʷa

Sample textEdit

Псэкӏодишъэ Зыгъэхъагъэр :

Сэтэнай-гуащэ ныо рэхъугъэу, е ыкӏуакӏэ къыщыкӏагъэу, е ынэгу зэлъагъэу цӏыф къыӏуатэу хэти зэхихыгъэп. Зэхихына, — Сэтэнае егъашӏи жъы рэхъугъэп! Мыӏэрысэм ыку фыжьэу тхъу сӏынэм фэдэр ынэгу щифэти; — фыжьыбзэу, ышъо жъыутэхэу къабзэу, моу укъищэу рэхъущтыгъэ; ышъуапӏэ ыжъоу, ащ ыпс ригъашъорэр — ыгугьэ кьэфэу, хьалэлэу, гукӏьегъуфо хэлъэу ышӏэущтыгъ. Ащ фэдэ мыӏэрысэ Нат ябын зэриӏэр Емынэжъ ышӏагъ.; Арыти, нэшъоу зишӏи, лъащэу зишӏи Сэтэнай-гуащэ дэжь къэкӏуагъ.

— Сэтэнай! — ыӏуи къегьагъ Емынэжъ,

— Шъыд? — ыӏожьыгъ Сэтэнае,

— Слъакъомэ сахьыжьырэп, сынэмэ алъэгъужьырэп, сшъхьэ акъыл чыян илъыжьэп, сыгугьэ мэхъаджэ сыхъугъ, гъашӏэу къысфэнэжьыгъэри макӏэ. Джэуап къысфэхъу! — ыӏуагъ Емынэжъы. — Уимыӏэрысэфо ищэнсэн сэмышӏэу уенэгуя?!.

— Сэ симыӏэрысэфо ишӏуагъэ къыокӏьыщтэп, — ыӏуагъ Сэтэнай-гуащэ. — О жъалымэгъэ бащэ зэпхьагъ.

ӏэзэгъу къыритыгъэп.

«Ащ ишӏуагъэ сэ къысэмыкӏьынэу щытмэ, шъори къышъозгъэкӏьынэп!» — ыӏуи, чэщ горэм къекӏуашъи Нат ябын идышъэ мыӏэрысэ чыг Емынэжъы риупкӏыгь. А чыгэр яӏагъэемэ, нэпэ къагу натхэр псэоу, тхъэжьэу, жъы рэмыхъухэу щыӏэнхи!.

See alsoEdit

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