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Shanghainese people (Chinese: 上海人; pinyin: Shànghǎirén; Shanghainese: Zaanhe-nyin [zɑ̃̀hɛ́.ɲɪ̀ɲ]) are people of Shanghai Hukou or people who have ancestral roots from Shanghai. Most Shanghainese are descended from immigrants from all over China. Only a minority are Shanghai natives, those with ancestral roots in Shanghai.
A Shanghainese man and woman on a wheel barrow, pre-1898.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Hong Kong||As part of Demographics of Hong Kong population|
|Macau||As part of Demographics of Macau population|
|Taiwan||As part of Taiwanese population|
|United States||As part of Chinese American population|
|Canada||As part of Chinese Canadian population|
|Australia||As part of Chinese Australian population|
|Singapore||As part of Chinese Singaporean population|
|Shanghainese and other Taihu Wu dialects (parent tongues), Mandarin, Cantonese (by those residing in Hong Kong) and English (those who live in the Overseas Chinese diaspora population)|
|Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others), with many non religious. Minority: Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Wuyue people, Ningbo people, other Han Chinese|
The Old City of Shanghai was a minor settlement until the later Qing Dynasty and many districts of the present municipality of Shanghai originally had separate identities, including separate but related dialects of Taihu Wu. In recent decades, millions of Chinese have moved to the city, both as internal immigrants and as migrant workers. The 2010 Chinese census found 9 million of Shanghai's 23 million residents (almost 40%) were migrants without a Shanghai hukou, triple the number from the year 2000 census. These "New Shanghainese" (新上海人) are generally distinguished from the Shanghainese proper as they usually do not speak the Shanghainese language or have it as their ancestral home. Comparisons can be made between the vast proportion of immigrants and immigrant-descendants that make up the population of Shanghai and that of New York City in the United States, historically a hub for immigrants to the country.
The term "Shanghainese" may thus apply to several different groups of varying exclusivity. Legally, it refers to those holding a hukou for one of the local governments in the municipality of Shanghai. Culturally, it most often means those who consider Shanghai to be their home city, although this is sometimes restricted to those in the central districts or who speak the Shanghainese dialects of those districts (as opposed, for example, to the mutually unintelligible sub-dialects in Jinshan).
Although Shanghai was long a cosmopolitan city as one of Qing Dynasty's treaty ports, its people was not connected with the large-scale emigration seen amongst the Fujianese and Cantonese. Maritime commerce did, however, create a Shanghainese community in Hong Kong. These Shanghainese or their forebears fled China prior to the formation of the People's Republic of China by the Communist Party of China in 1949. Some actors and actresses on the TVB network, a television network based in Hong Kong, are originally from Shanghai, such as Liza Wang, Tracy Ip and Lydia Shum.
More recently, appreciable numbers of Shanghainese have migrated to other countries. There is a significant Shanghainese community in Sydney, especially in the suburbs of Ashfield, Burwood and Epping. Less-prominent communities exist in the Chinatowns of other large metropolitan areas such as New York and San Francisco in the United States, as well as Toronto and Vancouver in Canada.
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- Goodstadt 2010, p. 208 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGoodstadt2010 (help)