Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to thousands of species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. The term includes some types of Rhodophyta (red), Phaeophyta (brown) and Chlorophyta (green) macroalgae. Seaweed species such as kelps provide essential nursery habitat for fisheries and other marine species and thus protect food sources; other species, such as planktonic algae, play a vital role in capturing carbon and producing at least 50% of Earth's oxygen.[3]

Informal group of macroscopic marine algae
"Fucus serratus"
Fucus serratus
Scientific classificationEdit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Seaweeds can be found in the following groups
Photo of seaweed with small swollen areas at the end of each frond
Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada
Photo of detached seaweed frond lying on sand
Dead man's fingers (Codium fragile) off the Massachusetts coast in the United States
Photo of seaweed with the tip floating at the surface
The top of a kelp forest in Otago, New Zealand

Natural seaweed ecosystems are sometimes under threat from human activity. For example, mechanical dredging of kelp destroys the resource and dependent fisheries. Other forces also threaten some seaweed ecosystems; for example, a wasting disease in predators of purple urchins has led to an urchin population surge which has destroyed large kelp forest regions off the coast of California.[4]

Humans have a long history of cultivating seaweeds for their uses. In recent years, seaweed farming has become a global agricultural practice, providing food, source material for various chemical uses (such as carrageenan), cattle feeds and fertilizers. Due to their importance in marine ecologies and for absorbing carbon dioxide, recent attention has been on cultivating seaweeds as a potential climate change mitigation strategy for biosequestration of carbon dioxide, alongside other benefits like nutrient pollution reduction, increased habitat for coastal aquatic species, and reducing local ocean acidification.[5] The IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate recommends "further research attention" as a mitigation tactic.[6]



"Seaweed" lacks a formal definition, but seaweed generally lives in the ocean and is visible to the naked eye. The term refers to both flowering plants submerged in the ocean, like eelgrass, as well as larger marine algae. Generally, it is one of several groups of multicellular algae; red, green and brown.[7] They lack one common multicellular ancestor, forming a polyphyletic group. In addition, blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) are occasionally considered in seaweed literature.[8]

The number of seaweed species is still a topic of discussed among scientists, but it is most likely that there are several thousand species of seaweed.[9]


Claudea elegans tetrasporangia

The following table lists a very few example genera of seaweed.

Genus Algae
Caulerpa   Green Submerged.
Fucus   Brown In intertidal zones on rocky shores.
Gracilaria   Red Cultivated for food.
Laminaria   Brown Also known as kelp
8–30 m under water and
cultivated for food.
Macrocystis   Brown Giant kelp
forming floating canopies.
Monostroma   Green
Porphyra   Red Intertidal zones in temperate climate and
cultivated for food.
Sargassum   Brown Pelagic especially in the Sargasso Sea.



Seaweed's appearance resembles non-woody terrestrial plants. Its anatomy includes:[10][11]

  • Thallus: algal body
    • Lamina or blade: flattened structure that is somewhat leaf-like
      • Sorus: spore cluster
      • pneumatocyst, air bladder: a flotation-assisting organ on the blade
      • Kelp, float: a flotation-assisting organ between the lamina and stipe
    • Stipe: stem-like structure, may be absent
    • Holdfast: basal structure providing attachment to a substrate
      • Haptera: finger-like extension of the holdfast that anchors to a benthic substrate

The stipe and blade are collectively known as the frond.


Seaweed covers this rocky seabed on the east coast of Australia.

Two environmental requirements dominate seaweed ecology. These are seawater (or at least brackish water) and light sufficient to support photosynthesis. Another common requirement is an attachment point, and therefore seaweed most commonly inhabits the littoral zone (nearshore waters) and within that zone, on rocky shores more than on sand or shingle. In addition, there are few genera (e.g., Sargassum and Gracilaria) which do not live attached to the sea floor, but float freely.

Seaweed occupies various ecological niches. At the surface, they are only wetted by the tops of sea spray, while some species may attach to a substrate several meters deep. In some areas, littoral seaweed colonies can extend miles out to sea.[citation needed] The deepest living seaweed are some species of red algae. Others have adapted to live in tidal rock pools. In this habitat, seaweed must withstand rapidly changing temperature and salinity and occasional drying.[12]

Macroalgae and macroalgal detritus have also been shown to be an important food source for benthic organisms, because macroalgae shed old fronds.[13] These macroalgal fronds tend to be utilized by benthos in the intertidal zone close to the shore.[14][15] Alternatively, pneumatocysts (gas filled "bubbles") can keep the macroalgae thallus afloat; fronds are transported by wind and currents from the coast into the deep ocean.[13] It has been shown that benthic organisms also at several 100 m tend to utilize these macroalgae remnants.[15]

As macroalgae takes up carbon dioxide and releases oxygen in the photosynthesis, macroalgae fronds can also contribute to carbon sequestration in the ocean, when the macroalgal fronds drift offshore into the deep ocean basins and sink to the sea floor without being remineralized by organisms.[13] The importance of this process for blue carbon storage is currently a topic of discussion among scientists.[16][17][18]

Biogeographic expansion


Nowadays a number of vectors—e.g., transport on ship hulls, exchanges among shellfish farmers, global warming, opening of trans-oceanic canals—all combine to enhance the transfer of exotic seaweeds to new environments. Since the piercing of the Suez Canal, the situation is particularly acute in the Mediterranean Sea, a 'marine biodiversity hotspot' that now registers over 120 newly introduced seaweed species -the largest number in the world.[19]



As of 2019, 35,818,961 tonnes were produced, of which 97.38% were produced in Asian countries.[20]

Seaweed production
Country tonns
per year,
cultured and wild
China 20,351,442
Indonesia 9,962,900
South Korea 1,821,475
Philippines 1,500,326
North Korea 603,000
Chile 427,508
Japan 412,300
Malaysia 188,110
Norway 163,197
United Republic of Tanzania 106,069



Seaweed farming or kelp farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its simplest form farmers gather from natural beds, while at the other extreme farmers fully control the crop's life cycle.

The seven most cultivated taxa are Eucheuma spp., Kappaphycus alvarezii, Gracilaria spp., Saccharina japonica, Undaria pinnatifida, Pyropia spp., and Sargassum fusiforme. Eucheuma and K. alvarezii are attractive for carrageenan (a gelling agent); Gracilaria is farmed for agar; the rest are eaten after limited processing.[21] Seaweeds are different from mangroves and seagrasses, as they are photosynthetic algal organisms[22] and are non-flowering.[21]

The largest seaweed-producing countries as of 2022 are China (58.62%) and Indonesia (28.6%); followed by South Korea (5.09%) and the Philippines (4.19%). Other notable producers include North Korea (1.6%), Japan (1.15%), Malaysia (0.53%), Zanzibar (Tanzania, 0.5%), and Chile (0.3%).[23][24] Seaweed farming has frequently been developed to improve economic conditions and to reduce fishing pressure.[25]

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that world production in 2019 was over 35 million tonnes. North America produced some 23,000 tonnes of wet seaweed. Alaska, Maine, France, and Norway each more than doubled their seaweed production since 2018. As of 2019, seaweed represented 30% of marine aquaculture.[26]

Seaweed farming is a carbon negative crop, with a high potential for climate change mitigation.[27][28] The IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate recommends "further research attention" as a mitigation tactic.[29] World Wildlife Fund, Oceans 2050, and The Nature Conservancy publicly support expanded seaweed cultivation.[26]



Seaweed has a variety of uses, for which it is farmed[30] or foraged.[31]



Seaweed is consumed across the world, particularly in East Asia, e.g., Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan and Southeast Asia, e.g. Brunei, Singapore, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia,[32] as well as in South Africa, Belize, Peru, Chile, the Canadian Maritimes, Scandinavia, South West England,[33] Ireland, Wales, Hawaii and California, and Scotland.

Gim (김, Korea), nori (海苔, Japan) and zicai (紫菜, China) are sheets of dried Porphyra used in soups, sushi or onigiri (rice balls). Gamet in the Philippines, from dried Pyropia, is also used as a flavoring ingredient for soups, salads and omelettes.[34] Chondrus crispus ('Irish moss' or carrageenan moss) is used in food additives, along with Kappaphycus and Gigartinoid seaweed. Porphyra is used in Wales to make laverbread (sometimes with oat flour). In northern Belize, seaweed is mixed with milk, nutmeg, cinnamon and vanilla to make "dulce" ("sweet").

Alginate, agar and carrageenan are gelatinous seaweed products collectively known as hydrocolloids or phycocolloids. Hydrocolloids are food additives.[35] The food industry exploits their gelling, water-retention, emulsifying and other physical properties. Agar is used in foods such as confectionery, meat and poultry products, desserts and beverages and moulded foods. Carrageenan is used in salad dressings and sauces, dietetic foods, and as a preservative in meat and fish, dairy items and baked goods.

Seaweeds are used as animal feeds. They have long been grazed by sheep, horses and cattle in Northern Europe, even though their nutritional benefits are questionable. Their protein content is low and their heavy metal content is high, especially for arsenic and iodine, which are respectively toxic and nutritious.[36][37]

They are valued for fish production.[38] Adding seaweed to livestock feed can substantially reduce methane emissions from cattle,[39] but only from their feedlot emissions. As of 2021, feedlot emissions account for 11% of overall emissions from cattle. [40]

Medicine and herbs

Seaweed-covered rocks in the United Kingdom
Seaweed on rocks on Long Island

Alginates are used in wound dressings (see alginate dressing), and dental moulds. In microbiology, agar is used as a culture medium. Carrageenans, alginates and agaroses, with other macroalgal polysaccharides, have biomedicine applications. Delisea pulchra may interfere with bacterial colonization.[41] Sulfated saccharides from red and green algae inhibit some DNA and RNA-enveloped viruses.[42]

Seaweed extract is used in some diet pills.[43] Other seaweed pills exploit the same effect as gastric banding, expanding in the stomach to make the stomach feel more full.[44][45]

Climate change mitigation

Seaweed cultivation in the open ocean can act as a form of carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change.[46][47] Studies have reported that nearshore seaweed forests constitute a source of blue carbon, as seaweed detritus is carried into the middle and deep ocean thereby sequestering carbon.[29][28][48][49][50] Macrocystis pyrifera (also known as giant kelp) sequesters carbon faster than any other species. It can reach 60 m (200 ft) in length and grow as rapidly as 50 cm (20 in) a day.[51] According to one study, covering 9% of the world's oceans with kelp forests could produce "sufficient biomethane to replace all of today's needs in fossil fuel energy, while removing 53 billion tons of CO2 per year from the atmosphere, restoring pre-industrial levels".[52][53]

Other uses


Other seaweed may be used as fertilizer, compost for landscaping, or to combat beach erosion through burial in beach dunes.[54]

Seaweed is under consideration as a potential source of bioethanol.[55][56]

Seaweed is lifted out of the top of an algae scrubber/cultivator, to be discarded or used as food, fertilizer, or skin care.

Alginates are used in industrial products such as paper coatings, adhesives, dyes, gels, explosives and in processes such as paper sizing, textile printing, hydro-mulching and drilling. Seaweed is an ingredient in toothpaste, cosmetics and paints. Seaweed is used for the production of bio yarn (a textile).[57]

Several of these resources can be obtained from seaweed through biorefining.

Seaweed collecting is the process of collecting, drying and pressing seaweed. It was a popular pastime in the Victorian era and remains a hobby today. In some emerging countries, seaweed is harvested daily to support communities.

Women in Tanzania grow "Mwani" (seaweed in Swahili). The farms are made up of little sticks in neat rows in the warm, shallow water. Once they harvest the seaweed, it is used for many purposes: food, cosmetics, fabric, etc.

Seaweed is sometimes used to build roofs on houses on Læsø in Denmark.[58]

Health risks


Rotting seaweed is a potent source of hydrogen sulfide, a highly toxic gas, and has been implicated in some incidents of apparent hydrogen sulfide poisoning.[59] It can cause vomiting and diarrhea.[60]

The so-called "stinging seaweed" Microcoleus lyngbyaceus is a filamentous cyanobacteria which contains toxins including lyngbyatoxin-a and debromoaplysiatoxin. Direct skin contact can cause seaweed dermatitis characterized by painful, burning lesions that last for days.[1][61]



Bacterial disease ice-ice infects Kappaphycus (red seaweed), turning its branches white. The disease caused heavy crop losses in the Philippines, Tanzania and Mozambique.[62]

Sea urchin barrens have replaced kelp forests in multiple areas. They are "almost immune to starvation". Lifespans can exceed 50 years. When stressed by hunger, their jaws and teeth enlarge, and they form "fronts" and hunt for food collectively.[62]

See also



  1. ^ a b "Escharotic stomatitis caused by the "stinging seaweed" Microcoleus lyngbyaceus (formerly Lyngbya majuscula): case report and literature review".
  2. ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6.
  3. ^ "How much oxygen comes from the ocean?". National Ocean Service. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  4. ^ "California's crashing kelp forest". Retrieved 2021-02-24.
  5. ^ Duarte, Carlos M.; Wu, Jiaping; Xiao, Xi; Bruhn, Annette; Krause-Jensen, Dorte (2017). "Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?". Frontiers in Marine Science. 4. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00100. ISSN 2296-7745.
  6. ^ Bindoff, N. L.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Kairo, J. G.; Arístegui, J.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 5: Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities" (PDF). IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate. pp. 447–587.
  7. ^ "5.4: Algae". Biology LibreTexts. 2019-06-15. Retrieved 2024-02-10.
  8. ^ Lobban, Christopher S.; Harrison, Paul J. (1994). "Morphology, life histories, and morphogenesis". Seaweed Ecology and Physiology: 1–68. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511626210.002. ISBN 9780521408974.
  9. ^ Townsend, David W. (March 2012). Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Introduction to Marine Science. Oxford University Press Inc. ISBN 9780878936021.
  10. ^ "seaweed menu". Archived from the original on 2020-02-17. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
  11. ^ "The Science of Seaweeds". American Scientist. 2017-02-06. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  12. ^ Lewis, J. R. 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. The English Universities Press Ltd.
  13. ^ a b c Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Duarte, Carlos (2016). "Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration". Nature Geoscience. 9 (10): 737–742. Bibcode:2016NatGe...9..737K. doi:10.1038/ngeo2790..
  14. ^ Dunton, K. H.; Schell, D. M. (1987). "Dependence of consumers on macroalgal (Laminaria solidungula) carbon in an arctic kelp community: δ13C evidence". Marine Biology. 93 (4): 615–625. Bibcode:1987MarBi..93..615D. doi:10.1007/BF00392799. S2CID 84714929.
  15. ^ a b Renaud, Paul E.; Løkken, Therese S.; Jørgensen, Lis L.; Berge, Jørgen; Johnson, Beverly J. (June 2015). "Macroalgal detritus and food-web subsidies along an Arctic fjord depth-gradient". Front. Mar. Sci. 2. doi:10.3389/fmars.2015.00031. S2CID 10417856.
  16. ^ Watanabe, Kenta; Yoshida, Goro; Hori, Masakazu; Umezawa, Yu; Moki, Hirotada; Kuwae, Tomohiro (May 2020). "Macroalgal metabolism and lateral carbon flows can create significant carbon sinks". Biogeosciences. 17 (9): 2425–2440. Bibcode:2020BGeo...17.2425W. doi:10.5194/bg-17-2425-2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  17. ^ Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Lavery, Paul; Serrano, Oscar; Marbà, Núria; Masque, Pere; Duarte, Carlos M. (June 2018). "Sequestration of macroalgal carbon: the elephant in the Blue Carbon room". The Royal Society Publishing. 14 (6). doi:10.1098/rsbl.2018.0236. PMC 6030603. PMID 29925564.
  18. ^ Ortega, Alejandra; Geraldi, Nathan R.; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan A.; Acinas, Silvia G; Logares, Ramiro; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Duarte, Carlos M (2019). "Important contribution of macroalgae to oceanic carbon sequestration". Nature Geoscience. 12 (9): 748–754. Bibcode:2019NatGe..12..748O. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0421-8. hdl:10754/656768. S2CID 199448971.
  19. ^ Briand, Frederic, ed. (2015). CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediterranean. Volume 4. Macrophytes. CIESM, Paris, Monaco. p. 364. ISBN 9789299000342.
  20. ^ Global seaweeds and microalgae production(FAO)
  21. ^ a b Reynolds, Daman; Caminiti, Jeff; Edmundson, Scott; Gao, Song; Wick, Macdonald; Huesemann, Michael (2022-07-12). "Seaweed proteins are nutritionally valuable components in the human diet". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 116 (4): 855–861. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac190. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 35820048.
  22. ^ "Seaweeds: Plants or Algae?". Point Reyes National Seashore Association. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  23. ^ Zhang, Lizhu; Liao, Wei; Huang, Yajun; Wen, Yuxi; Chu, Yaoyao; Zhao, Chao (13 October 2022). "Global seaweed farming and processing in the past 20 years". Food Production, Processing and Nutrition. 4 (1). doi:10.1186/s43014-022-00103-2.
  24. ^ Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Camus, Carolina; Infante, Javier; Neori, Amir; Israel, Álvaro; Hernández-González, María C.; Pereda, Sandra V.; Gomez-Pinchetti, Juan Luis; Golberg, Alexander; Tadmor-Shalev, Niva; Critchley, Alan T. (2 October 2017). "Seaweed production: overview of the global state of exploitation, farming and emerging research activity". European Journal of Phycology. 52 (4): 391–406. Bibcode:2017EJPhy..52..391B. doi:10.1080/09670262.2017.1365175. ISSN 0967-0262. S2CID 53640917.
  25. ^ Ask, E.I (1990). Cottonii and Spinosum Cultivation Handbook. Philippines: FMC BioPolymer Corporation. p. 52.
  26. ^ a b Jones, Nicola (March 15, 2023). "Banking on the Seaweed Rush". Hakai Magazine. Retrieved 2023-03-19.
  27. ^ Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Davis, Jonathan; Edmundson, Scott J. (2022-05-01). Quantifying Nitrogen Bioextraction by Seaweed Farms – A Real-time Modeling-Monitoring Case Study in Hood Canal, WA (Technical report). Office of Scientific and Technical Information. doi:10.2172/1874372.
  28. ^ a b Duarte, Carlos M.; Wu, Jiaping; Xiao, Xi; Bruhn, Annette; Krause-Jensen, Dorte (2017). "Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?". Frontiers in Marine Science. 4. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00100. hdl:10754/623247. ISSN 2296-7745.
  29. ^ a b Bindoff, N. L.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Kairo, J. G.; Arístegui, J.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 5: Changing Ocean, Marine Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities" (PDF). IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate. pp. 447–587.
  30. ^ "Seaweed farmers get better prices if united". Sun.Star. 2008-06-19. Archived from the original on 2008-09-09. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
  31. ^ "Springtime's foraging treats". The Guardian. London. 2007-01-06. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
  32. ^ Mohammad, Salma (4 Jan 2020). "Application of seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) in Malaysian food products". International Food Research Journal. 26: 1677–1687.
  33. ^ "Devon Family Friendly – Tasty Seaweed Recipe – Honest!". BBC. 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
  34. ^ Adriano, Leilanie G. (21 December 2005). "'Gamet' sushi festival launched". The Manila Times. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  35. ^ Round F. E. 1962 The Biology of the Algae. Edward Arnold Ltd.
  36. ^ Makkar, Harinder P.S.; Tran, Gilles; Heuzé, Valérie; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Lessire, Michel; Lebas, François; Ankers, Philippe (2016). "Seaweeds for livestock diets: A review". Animal Feed Science and Technology. 212: 1–17. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.09.018.
  37. ^ Mæhre, Hanne K.; Malde, Marian K.; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O. (2014). "Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 94 (15): 3281–3290. Bibcode:2014JSFA...94.3281M. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6681. PMID 24700148.
  38. ^ Heuzé V., Tran G., Giger-Reverdin S., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2017. Seaweeds (marine macroalgae). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Last updated on May 29, 2017, 16:46
  39. ^ "Seaweed shown to reduce 99% methane from cattle". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  40. ^ Dutkiewicz, Jan. "Want Carbon-Neutral Cows? Algae Isn't the Answer". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  41. ^ Francesca Cappitelli; Claudia Sorlini (2008). "Microorganisms attack synthetic polymers in items representing our cultural heritage". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (3): 564–569. Bibcode:2008ApEnM..74..564C. doi:10.1128/AEM.01768-07. PMC 2227722. PMID 18065627.
  42. ^ Kazłowski B.; Chiu Y. H.; Kazłowska K.; Pan C. L.; Wu C. J. (August 2012). "Prevention of Japanese encephalitis virus infections by low-degree-polymerisation sulfated saccharides from Gracilaria sp. and Monostroma nitidum". Food Chem. 133 (3): 866–74. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.106.
  43. ^ Maeda, Hayato; Hosokawa, Masashi; Sashima, Tokutake; Funayama, Katsura; Miyashita, Kazuo (2005-07-01). "Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 332 (2): 392–397. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.002. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 15896707.
  44. ^ "New Seaweed Pill Works Like Gastric Banding". Fox News. 25 March 2015.
  45. ^ Elena Gorgan (6 January 2009). "Appesat, the Seaweed Diet Pill that Expands in the Stomach". softpedia.
  46. ^ Duarte, Carlos M.; Wu, Jiaping; Xiao, Xi; Bruhn, Annette; Krause-Jensen, Dorte (2017). "Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?". Frontiers in Marine Science. 4: 100. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00100. hdl:10754/623247. ISSN 2296-7745.
  47. ^ Temple, James (2021-09-19). "Companies hoping to grow carbon-sucking kelp may be rushing ahead of the science". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2021-11-25.
  48. ^ Queirós, Ana Moura; Stephens, Nicholas; Widdicombe, Stephen; Tait, Karen; McCoy, Sophie J.; Ingels, Jeroen; Rühl, Saskia; Airs, Ruth; Beesley, Amanda; Carnovale, Giorgia; Cazenave, Pierre (2019). "Connected macroalgal-sediment systems: blue carbon and food webs in the deep coastal ocean". Ecological Monographs. 89 (3): e01366. Bibcode:2019EcoM...89E1366Q. doi:10.1002/ecm.1366. ISSN 1557-7015.
  49. ^ Wernberg, Thomas; Filbee-Dexter, Karen (December 2018). "Grazers extend blue carbon transfer by slowing sinking speeds of kelp detritus". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 17180. Bibcode:2018NatSR...817180W. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-34721-z. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6249265. PMID 30464260.
  50. ^ Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Lavery, Paul; Serrano, Oscar; Marbà, Núria; Masque, Pere; Duarte, Carlos M. (2018-06-30). "Sequestration of macroalgal carbon: the elephant in the Blue Carbon room". Biology Letters. 14 (6): 20180236. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2018.0236. PMC 6030603. PMID 29925564.
  51. ^ Schiel, David R. (May 2015). The biology and ecology of giant kelp forests. Foster, Michael S. Oakland, California. ISBN 978-0-520-96109-8. OCLC 906925033.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  52. ^ N‘Yeurt, Antoine de Ramon; Chynoweth, David P.; Capron, Mark E.; Stewart, Jim R.; Hasan, Mohammed A. (2012-11-01). "Negative carbon via Ocean Afforestation". Process Safety and Environmental Protection. Special Issue: Negative emissions technology. 90 (6): 467–474. doi:10.1016/j.psep.2012.10.008. ISSN 0957-5820. S2CID 98479418.
  53. ^ Buck, Holly Jean (April 23, 2019). "The desperate race to cool the ocean before it's too late". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
  54. ^ Rodriguez, Ihosvani (April 11, 2012). "Seaweed invading South Florida beaches in large numbers". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved 2012-04-11.
  55. ^ "Seaweed Power: Ireland Taps New Energy Source". 2008-06-24. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  56. ^ Chen, Huihui; Zhou, Dong; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin (2015). "Macroalgae for biofuels production: Progress and perspectives". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 47: 427–437. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.086.
  57. ^ "The promise of Bioyarn from AlgiKnit". MaterialDriven.[permanent dead link]
  58. ^ "Seaweed Thatch". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  59. ^ "Algues vertes: la famille du chauffeur décédé porte plainte contre X" [Green algae: the family of the deceased driver files a complaint against X] (in French). Saint-Brieuc: AFP. 2010-04-22. Archived from the original on 2014-02-24. Retrieved 2010-04-22 – via Google News.
  60. ^ Contaminants, National Research Council (US) Committee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine (2009), "Hydrogen Sulfide", Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 3, National Academies Press (US), retrieved 2024-02-10
  61. ^ Werner, K. A.; Marquart, L.; Norton, S. A. (2012). "Lyngbya dermatitis (toxic seaweed dermatitis)". International Journal of Dermatology. 51 (1): 59–62. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05042.x. PMID 21790555. S2CID 22375739.
  62. ^ a b Buck, Holly Jean (April 23, 2019). "The desperate race to cool the ocean before it's too late". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2019-04-28.

Further reading

  • Iselin, Josie. An Ocean Garden: The Secret Life of Seaweed (Oregon State University Press, 2023) online book review