Sanusi Hardjadinata

Raden Mohammad Sanusi Hardjadinata (24 June 1914 – 12 December 1995), more commonly referred to as Sanusi Hardjadinata, was an Indonesian politician, who served in a number of positions during presidents Sukarno's Guided Democracy and Suharto's New Order. Most notably, as the 2nd Chairman of the Indonesian Democratic Party from 1975 until 1980.

Sanusi Hardjadinata
Official portrait
Official portrait, c. 1957
2nd Chairman of the Indonesian Democratic Party
In office
20 February 1975 – 16 October 1980
Preceded byMohammad Isnaeni
Succeeded bySunawar Sukowati
6th Governor of West Java
In office
29 June 1951 – 9 July 1957
Preceded bySewaka
Succeeded byIpik Gandamana
Member of the Constitutional Assembly
In office
9 July 1956 – 5 July 1959
ConstituencyWest Java
13th Minister of Education
In office
17 October 1967 – 10 June 1968
PresidentSuharto
Preceded byPrijono
Succeeded byMashuri Saleh
11th Minister of Industry and Development
In office
28 July 1966 – 17 October 1967
PresidentSuharto
Preceded byMohammad Jusuf
Succeeded byAshari Danudirdjo
13th Minister of Home Affairs
In office
9 April 1957 – 10 July 1959
PresidentSukarno
Preceded byAchmad Sunaryo
Succeeded byIpik Gandamana
Personal details
Born
Samaun

(1914-06-24)24 June 1914
Nanggewer, Garut, West Java, Dutch East Indies
Died12 December 1995(1995-12-12) (aged 81)
Jakarta, Indonesia
NationalityIndonesian
Political partyIndonesian Democratic Party
(from 1973)
Other political
affiliations
Indonesian National Party
(1947 – 1964)
Spouse(s)
Iin Sofiah
(m. 1938⁠–⁠1986)

Theodora Walandouw
(m. 1987⁠–⁠1995)
Children8
Parents
  • Raden Djamhad Wirantadidjaja (father)
  • Nyi Mas Taswi (mother)
OccupationPolitician

He was born as Samaun, on 24 June 1914, in the village of Nanggewer, Garut, West Java. He was educated at the Hollandsch-Inlandsche School Garut, and later the Hollandsch-Inlandsche Kweekschool Bandung. After finishing his education in 1936, he became a teacher at a Muhammadiyah school. Following the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, he was elected the Vice Resident of Priangan. In 1947, he was elected the Chair of the Indonesian National Party (PNI) branch in Garut, and assisted the Resident of Madiun in restoring the civilian government following to the attempted communist rising.

In 1951, he was elected as the Governor of the province of West Java. He left the office of governor in 1957, when he was appointed Minister of Home Affairs by Prime Minister Djuanda Kartawidjaja, and he served the Djuanda Cabinet. Prior to becoming Home Affairs minister, he was also elected a member of the Constitutional Assembly. Following the fall of the Djuanda cabinet, he became the Indonesian ambassador to Egypt. He returned to Indonesian in 1964, and became the rector of Padjajaran University. Around this time, he was expelled from the PNI, but retained good relations with president Sukarno.

After the removal of Sukarno from power, and the beginning of the New Order, he became involved in government again. Serving as minister in the Ampera and the Revised Ampera cabinets under president Suharto. In 1975, he appointed the Chairman of the Indonesian Democratic Party, replacing Mohammad Isnaeni. Under his leadership, the party suffered from a number of internal conflicts, and he resigned as chairman in 1980. After his resignation from the party, he became involved with the Petition of Fifty. On 12 December 1995, Sanusi died after suffering from complications in his lungs, kidneys, and liver. His body was interred at the Sirnaraga Public Cemetery.

Early life and educationEdit

Mohammad Sanusi Hardjadinata was born as Samaun, in the village of Nanggewer, Garut, West Java. He came from a relatively well-off ethnically-Sundanese aristocratic family. His father, Raden Djamhad Wirantadidjaja, was a village head. While his mother, Nyi Mas Taswi, was a female aristocrat.[1] He was the third child, of four children.[2] At the age of six, Samaun was brought to Cibatu, a small town located in the northern part of his home town of Garut. There, Samaun lived with Raden Yuda, a doctor which is a relative of his father, Wirantadidjaja.[3] In Cibatu, Sanusi was enrolled into the Tweede Klasse Inlandsche School, an elementary school which used local language as its language of instruction.[1] During his time in Cibatu, his name was changed to Sanusi by Raden Yuda. Raden Yuda stated to him that his name had to be changed, because it was too similar to the name of Semaun, who was then a relatively well known communist leader.[4] Later on, Sanusi moved to Tasikmalaya. In Tasikmalaya, he lived with Bik Endeh, Raden Yuda's daughter.[5] But moved to the house of Bik Mariah, because of the harassment he received from Bik Endeh.[6]

While in Tasikmalaya, he resumed his education at a different Tweede Klasse Inlandsche School. However, he wasn't able finish his education in Tasikmalaya, as he was forced to move back to Cibatu. After only finishing his first grade.[5] After returning to Cibatu, he was raised by his brother, older brother, Idris Hardjadinata, and entered the Hollandsch-Inlandsche School (HIS) in Cibatu. Somehow, most students in the school mistakenly recognized Idris as his father, and he became known as Sanusi Hardjadinata. After two years in Cibatu, Sanusi moved again to Bandung, where he enrolled at the Hollandsch Inlandsche Kweekschool, graduating from the school in 1936.[7] From there, he became an educator, and began to teaching in a Muhammadiyah school from 1936 until 1942.[8]

National RevolutionEdit

Several days following the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, on 1 September 1945, Sanusi was elected by the Indonesian National Committee of Priangan to the office of Vice Resident.[9][10] During the first years of his government, the residency is very instrumental in running the government. The government system was largely influenced by the Japanese system, which prioritizes the residency as the center of local government.[11] As Vice Resident, Sanusi became very close with State Minister Oto Iskandar di Nata. When Oto was kidnapped by a group called the "Laskar Hitam", Oto sent a letter to his wife, telling her ask Sanusi if she needed any form of assistance. Oto was eventually murdered by the "Laskar Hitam".[12]

During the National revolution, heavy fighting took place in the city of Bandung, which was then set ablaze. As a result, the Provincial Government of West Java evacuated to Garut, with his house being used as the office of the government of Priangan Residency. Around c. 1947, Sanusi was elected the Chair of the Indonesian National Party (PNI) branch in Garut.[2] The government remained in Garut for most of the revolution, with only a short stint in Tasikmalaya, after the signing of the Linggadjati Agreement, which ended after the Dutch launched Operation Product.[13] In Garut, the officials of the government began to be arrested by Dutch forces after refusing to cooperate with the Dutch in establishing the State of Pasundan. This included officials such as Mayor of Bandung, Ukar Bratakusumah, Secretary of the Governor of West Java, Raden Enokh, and the resident of Priangan, Raden Indung Ardiwinangun.[14][15]

Sanusi continued to live in his village in Garut, but his location was later discovered by Dutch authorities. Sanusi and his family took refuge in the valley located on the east side of the village. This failed, as a few days later, a group of Dutch soldiers came looking to arrest him.[16] He was then brought to Bandung, and was officially arrested on the Tampomas street, with an official letter dated 14 April 1948. Several months later, on 25 July 1948, he was freed from prison on the condition that he must leave West Java and set for Yogyakarta, where the Republican government's capital was at the time.[17]

On 28 October 1948, he left Yogyakarta for Madiun. In Madiun, he was appointed as a high ranking employee for the Resident of Madiun. There, Sanusi had to recover the war-torn Madiun Residency, which was devastated by the 1948 Communist rebellion, led by the People's Democratic Front.[17] Several months later, on 18 June 1949, Sanusi returned to Bandung. There, he was appointed by the Indonesian Government as the Acting Resident of Priangan in the shadow government of West Java, competing with the Dutch-backed government of the State of Pasundan. Later, during the handover of the State of Pasundan to the central government of United States of Indonesia, Sanusi was appointed as the head of education.[18]

Early Political careerEdit

Governor of West JavaEdit

 
Official portrait as governor, c. 1951

On 7 July 1951, Sanusi was officially inaugurated as Governor of West Java, replacing Sewaka, who was appointed Minister of Defense in the Sukiman Cabinet.[19] He was inaugurated together with the Governor of Central Sumatra, Ruslan Muljohardjo and the Mayor of Jakarta, Sjamsuridjal. His appointment was initially challenged by the West Java Regional Representative Council (DPRD), especially from the Masyumi Party.[20]

Oja Sumantri, a member of the DPRD from Masyumi, protested that the appointment of the Governor was a violation of the province's autonomy, as it was the Ministry of Home Affairs who appointed him governor, not the DPRD. Meanwhile, he continued to be supported amongst some other members of the DPRD, including the West Java commissariat of the Indonesian Civil Service Association. Sanusi asked the DPRD members to be heartened, and do something more constructive for the sake of the province. In the end, the DPRD of West Java gave up the challenge, and Sanusi remained as governor.[20]

During his office term, the Afro–Asian Conference was held in Bandung. Sanusi was tasked with preparing the conference. He must ensure the security of Bandung and its surroundings, which was largely affected by the Darul Islam rebellion by Kartosuwiryo. He also had to ensure the accommodations and provisions for the delegates. He even checked himself the condition of Hotel Homann and Hotel Preanger [id], which was used to accommodate the delegates. A day before the conference, he was seen riding his Chevrolet car around the site of the conference to ensure the success of the conference.[21]

After the conference ended, Sanusi focused on the effort to establish a state university in Bandung. On 14 October 1956, the Committee for the Formation of State University in Bandung was formed, and he was chosen as the patron of the committee. A university was finally established on 11 September 1957.[22]

Sanusi ended his term after being appointed as the Minister of Home Affairs in the Djuanda Cabinet on 9 April 1957. He was replaced by Ipik Gandamana, his vice-governor.[21]

Minister of Home AffairsEdit

After being appointed as the Minister of Home Affairs by Sukarno, Sanusi was deeply involved in the debates of whether to form a new constitution or return to the Constitution of Indonesia in the Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia. Due to the prolonged debates and the West Irian conflict that became more alerting, the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army Abdul Haris Nasution declared that Indonesia is in the state of emergency and forcing the prolonged debates to be ended quickly.[23] Finally, on 5 July 1959, President Sukarno issued a presidential decree. Djuanda returned his mandate as the prime minister to Sukarno, and Sanusi Hardjadinata was replaced as the minister of Home Affairs by Ipik Gandamana, which previously had replaced him as the Governor of West Java.[23] Due to his affiliation with the Indonesian National Party, there is an assumption that during his term, members of the party had many advantages in the bureaucracy.[24]

Ambassador to EgyptEdit

 
Sanusi Hardjadinata as the Ambassador of Indonesia to Egypt

Sanusi was appointed as the ambassador of Indonesia to Egypt, following his dismissal as the Minister of Home Affairs. At first, Sanusi was worried about becoming an ambassador. He felt that he had no previous diplomatic background. When he asked about the problem to Subandrio, the Minister of Foreign Affairs at that time, Subandrio gave him a thick book about the tasks and duties of an ambassador. He read the book before and during his term as the ambassador from 1960 until 1964. The book was very helpful, as Sukarno commenting that his work as an ambassador "wasn't disappointing".[25]

University rectorEdit

After four years in Egypt, Sanusi submitted a request to the president to let him go back to Indonesia due to the worsening condition of his wife. The request was fulfilled, but as soon as he arrived in Indonesia, Sukarno asked him to become the Rector of Padjajaran University. At first, Sanusi refused the offer, claiming that he had no previous academic background.[a] Even though he refused, he had no power to reject it, and by the Presidential Regulation No. 29, Sanusi was officially appointed by the president as the rector of the university from 20 April 1964.[26]

During his term, the university was filled with political competitions between political parties and organizations; many lecturers became affiliated to a certain political party. The students were grouped into several groups, such as the nationalist groups, communist groups, and Islamic groups, the latter was frequently dubbed as the "green group". The conflicts between the groups were reflected in various activities, such as the student senate. Due to the political affiliation of the senate chairman to the Indonesian National Student Movement (Indonesian: Gerakan Mahasiswa Nasional Indonesia, GMNI) — the student wing of the Indonesian National Party — the senate's stamp is very similar to the emblem of the party.[27]

The 30 September Movement also occurred during his term. The movement, which sparked mass arrests and executions of communists, also involved college students, unexcepted to Padjajaran University (Unpad) students. Many Unpad students demonstrating against the Communist Party of Indonesia and Sukarno. Clashes occurred between KAPPI (the demonstrators) and the Indonesian National Student Movement, which supported Sukarno.[28] To cope with this problem, Sanusi requested the help of the Dean of the Law Faculty of Unpad, Sri Soemantri. Sri Soemantri was the youngest member of the Constitutional Assembly in 1957. He also tasked the Chancellor for Student Affairs of Unpad, Yuyun Wirasasmita, to expel lecturers, deans, or students that were allegedly involved in communist activities.[29]

Later political careerEdit

Dismissal from the PNIEdit

At the beginning of 1964, the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) began to get closer with Sukarno. PKI supported every policy made by Sukarno, and the party also formed the Association for Promoting Sukarnoism earlier in 1963. Due to this position, the Indonesian National Party began to adapt its ideology to make it closer to Marxism and communism. In the session of the Working Committee of PNI in Bandung from 13 until 17 November 1964, the party decided that the ideology of the party, Marhaenism was declared as "Marxism with Indonesian characteristics". The decision caused right-wing members of the party to be expelled.

On 4 August 1965, Sanusi, along with 150 other leaders of the party from different regions of Indonesia was dismissed after being accused as "fake marhaenists", capitalists, and feudalists. The chairman of the party, Ali Sastroamidjojo, gradually increased left-wing members of the party.[30] Even though Sanusi was expelled from the party, Sanusi still maintained good relations with Sukarno. Sukarno persuaded the dismissed members to continue forcing the party to hold an extraordinary congress. This was very odd, as Sukarno himself ordered the dismissal and the Ali faction was very reluctant to hold an extraordinary congress.[31]

Minister of IndustryEdit

 
Sanusi (sitting) along with other ministers of the Industry and Development section

After Sukarno failed to restore order and law following the 30 September incidents by forming the two revised Dwikora cabinets, Sukarno handed over his position to the acting president of Indonesia, Suharto. Suharto then formed the Ampera Cabinet on 28 July 1966, which became the first cabinet in the New Order era. In the cabinet, Sanusi was appointed as the Chief Minister of Industry and Development.[32] In his position, Sanusi supervised the Department of Public Works headed by Sutami, the Department of Textile and Handicraft Industry headed by Sanusi, the Department of Basic Industries, Light Industries, and Energy headed Mohammad Jusuf, and the Department of Mining by Bratanata.[33]

Minister of EducationEdit

After the replacement of the Ampera Cabinet by the First Revised Ampera Cabinet on 17 October 1967, Sanusi was appointed as the Minister of Education by Suharto. During his office as the Minister of Education, the only school building he inaugurated was the building of the Bandung Senior High School No. 11.[34] Following the formation of a new cabinet, Sanusi was replaced as the Minister of Education by Mashuri Saleh.[35]

After his replacement as the Minister of Education, Sanusi became a high-ranking employee seconded to the Ministry of Home Affairs from 1968 until 1970. He retired from the ministry in 1971.[35] From 1975 until 1978, Sanusi was appointed by Suharto as a member of the Supreme Advisory Council. During his term, the council was headed by Wilopo, a former prime minister of Indonesia. There weren't any reports on his works in the council, as everything that the council advised to the President must be kept in secret.[36]

Chairman of the PDIEdit

On 10 January 1973, the five political parties: Indonesian National Party, League of Supporters of Indonesian Independence, Murba Party, Indonesian Christian Party, and the Catholic Party signed a declaration that officially merged the parties into the Indonesian Democratic Party. The Deputy Speaker of the People's Representative Council Mohammad Isnaeni was elected as the chairman of the party, while the former secretary-general of the Indonesian Christian Party Sabam Sirait was elected as general secretary. A year after the establishment of the party, there was a conflict between the chairman of the party, Mohammad Isnaeni, with Sunawar Sukowati, the head of the party and the Minister of Welfare at that time. Sunawar, supported by the former Indonesian National Party members, stated that the formation of the Central Executive Council (CEC) of the party must be made proportional based on the number of seats obtained in the 1971 election. Thus, Sukowati wanted to reshuffle the entire CEC of the party in a congress, including the chairman seat.

Meanwhile, Mohammad Isnaeni, supported by the other parties, stated that the congress must only inaugurate the existing CEC rather than forming a new CEC. This means that Isnaeni wanted to keep his position as the chairman of the party. This difference of opinion cause conflict in the party. During this conflict, Sanusi emerged as a neutral party. He stated that he would accept both statements with the condition that both parties have a will to confer; the personal interests of both parties will not be conferred; third parties would not intervene in this conflict. Sanusi's solution wasn't accepted by both parties, and on 17 January 1975, Sunawar and Isnaeni stated their will to resign from their post. The conflict was known by President Suharto, and on 16 February 1975, Suharto called Abdul Madjid and Sabam Sirait about the conflict. Suharto suggested that Sanusi should be the chairman of the party. Suharto had told Sanusi about his suggestion earlier on an event in the Indonesia University of Education. On 20 February 1975, Isnaeni officially handed over the chairman post to Sanusi.

Several days after seating the post of chairman, the former parties agreed to hold a congress as soon as possible, in the face of the upcoming election. Sanusi was tasked with preparing the congress and further meetings by the CEC and the party's council was held in the house of Dr. Hasjim Ning. The first congress was finally held from 12 until 13 April 1976. It was planned that Sanusi would open the congress, but he later went sick, and he was replaced by Usep Ranudwidjaja. The congress was finally opened at 15.30 on the Istora Gelora Bung Karno after being delayed for seven hours. The congress was attended by about 1300 delegates which represented 191 out of 216 branches of the party. During the congress, several delegates who do not have any identification card forced their way into the congress site. Abdul Madjid went to the sick Sanusi and asked him what to do about the commotion. Sanusi suggested that he should allow the delegates outside the congress site to enter. This decision proved right, as no casualties occurred during the congress. The congress was finally closed by Sanusi himself on 13 April 1976. In his final speech, Sanusi stated that the fusion of the party has been completed through the congress.

Even though the congress had finished, the party was still being plagued with internal conflicts. Those who did not agree with the leadership of Sanusi began to bring the internal conflicts of the party into the surface. During the 1978 General Session of the People's Consultative Assembly, there was a conflict between the position of the deputy speaker of the People's Representative Council for the party. The military fraction, supported by Golkar and PPP, agreed to nominate Mohammad Isnaeni as the deputy speaker, while PDI itself nominated Usep Ranuwidjaja. Due to the large support of Isnaeni, he was elected as the deputy speaker. Regarding the issue, PDI felt that the party wasn't being represented in the council.

After several years into Sanusi's leadership, there were already signs of polarization in the leadership of the party. Isnaeni began to reconcile with Sunawar, and bring Achmad Sukarmadidjaja, the head of PDI in Sanusi's leadership, and Marsoesi, the chairman of the East Java branch of PDI. The faction began calling for an extraordinary congress, which in turn would overthrow the Sanusi-Usep faction. Achmad warned Sanusi to hold an extraordinary congress but was ignored. Achmad's faction announced a unilateral reshuffle of the CEC on 25 November 1977. The reshuffle only affected former PNI members. Sanusi's position as the chairman of the party was replaced by Isnaeni, and other functionaries of the CEC was replaced. The reshuffle caused the party to be split into two factions. The reshuffle CEC was supported by the former members of IPKI and Murba, while the CEC led by Sanusi was supported by the former members of the Indonesian Christian Party and the Catholic Party.

The dualism of leadership inside PDI caused the external intervention of the government through the State Intelligence Coordinating Agency (BAKIN), which was represented by Ali Murtopo. Ali was appointed by the government to resolve the problem. On 16 January 1978, both factions agreed to form a new CEC, on which Isnaeni and Sukowati would be installed as the head of the party. The agreement didn't solve the conflict, as was later known, that the reshuffle CEC had already formed new branches, causing dualism of leadership at the regional level. This was used by Sanusi against Isnaeni and Sunawar, where Sanusi relinquished Isnaeni and Sunawar from their position. Isnaeni and Sunawar retaliated by firing Sanusi as the chairman on behalf of the Indonesian National Party.

The conflict caused the emergence of a minor third party, dubbed as the "Tugu Group". The group threatened both CEC to finish the internal conflict immediately, or the group will take over the CEC. The group held meetings in Pandaan to prepare a plan that would overthrow Sanusi, Isnaeni, and Sukowati from the party. The group consisted of members of the CEC, functionaries of the Pancasila Youth, and members of the Marhaen Youth Movement. Even though the group had plans, there was no clear intent about what the group would do. The conflict escalates to its peak when a group of youths from the party tried to barge into the party's office in Diponegoro Street. To avoid physical clashes, Sanusi handed over the keys of the office to the Kopkamtib and entrusted the security of the office to Kopkamtib. The office was later sealed. Since then, a real attempt to reconcile both factions began. Kopkamtib proposed to form an ad hoc committee to resolve the problems. The committee was finally dissolved on 6 September 1980, when both CEC was announced as the United CEC of PDI, and the tasks of the CEC was back to normal.

On 16 October 1980, Sanusi held a press conference in the office of PDI. Accompanied by his colleagues, he announced that he was resigning from the party. The decision was made a day before. On the evening of 15 October, Sanusi called his typist and stated that he wanted to resign as the chairman of the party. He then swore his typist not to tell it to anybody prior to 16 October. Sanusi later revealed that his resignation was due to his attempt to keep his mental stability. The conflicts that struck the party caused personal pressures to him. On one occasion, he also revealed that he was pressured by Suharto to sack Usep and Abdul Madjid, his colleagues, as the functionaries of the party. On another occasion, he told one of his students, Eka Santosa, that since the conflict occurred, he was offered an amount of money and the position of commissioner in any government bank if he was willing to resign. Without accepting the offers, he resigned voluntarily.

Later lifeEdit

Criticism of SuhartoEdit

After his resignation from the party, Sanusi became more involved in the 1945 Institution for Constitution Awareness (Lembaga Kesadaran Berkonstitusi 1945, LKB 1945). The institution was established on June 1, 1978, by Mohammad Hatta, and Sanusi became one of the members since 1978. The organization was the main opposition to the Suharto regime, due to it being filled by former influential ministers and politicians in the Sukarno era. The members of this organization then issued the Petition of Fifty on 5 May 1980, which criticized Suharto's compulsory instruction in the state philosophy, Pancasila.

Suharto later revoked the signatories' travel privileges and forbade newspapers from printing their pictures or quoting them. Members of the group were unable to obtain bank loans and contracts. Even so, the signatories formed the Petition of Fifty Working Group, based on Ali Sadikin's house. Sanusi frequently came to the working group meeting and gave advice. A year later, one of the members of the Petition of Fifty, HR Dharsono, issued the Petition of Sixty-One on 21 August 1981. The content of the petition was similar to the previous one, but this time, Sanusi was put as number one in the list of signatories, meaning that he officially opposed the government. Due to his support to the petition, Sanusi was ignored and disrespected by several politicians and government officials in the events at the Gedung Sate.

Death and funeralEdit

At a quarter past midnight on 12 December 1995, Sanusi died after suffering complications in his lungs, kidney, and liver. He had been treated since 1993, and since 29 October 1995, he was put under intensive treatment under the supervision of Dr. Demin Sheng and Dr. Frans. He was buried at the Sirnaraga Public Cemetery on 12 December 1995, with the inspector Lieutenant General Mashudi.

Personal lifeEdit

Sanusi was married to Iin Sofiah on 12 May 1938. Sofiah lived in his aunt's house. Sofiah and Sanusi went to the same school, but Sofiah was a year younger than Sanusi. Sofiah was the daughter of Muhammad Abdullah Kusumah Atmadja, the head of a people's bank in Ciamis, commonly known as Juragan Ajun and Siti Rukayah.[37] Iin Sofiah gave birth to eight children. Iin died on 28 April 1986 after suffering from heart disease.[38]

A year later, on 8 November 1987, Sanusi married Theodora Walandouw, a member of the Indonesian Democratic Party. He stated that the marriage was not a political marriage, but based on love, as he and Theodora was both a widower. Sanusi had already met Theodora since 1952 when he was the Governor of West Java and Theodora as the Chairwoman of the Indonesian Women Congress of Bandung.[39]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ To date, he became the only rector of the university with no academic title.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b Lubis 2003, p. 20.
  2. ^ a b Tempo 2021.
  3. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 25.
  4. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 26.
  5. ^ a b Lubis 2003, p. 27.
  6. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 30.
  7. ^ Lubis 2003, pp. 38–39.
  8. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 40.
  9. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 53.
  10. ^ Syafrudin 1993, p. 390.
  11. ^ Syafrudin 1993, p. 354.
  12. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 54.
  13. ^ Syafrudin 1993, p. 460.
  14. ^ Syafrudin 1993, p. 495.
  15. ^ Syafrudin 1993, pp. 507–520.
  16. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 65.
  17. ^ a b Lubis 2003, pp. 66–67.
  18. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 79.
  19. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 80.
  20. ^ a b Sjafari 2012.
  21. ^ a b Lubis 2003, p. 87
  22. ^ Lubis 2003, pp. 86–87
  23. ^ a b Lubis 2003, p. 90
  24. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 111
  25. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 91
  26. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 94
  27. ^ Lubis 2003, pp. 94–95
  28. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 99
  29. ^ Lubis 2003, pp. 101–102
  30. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 113
  31. ^ Lubis 2003, pp. 113–114
  32. ^ Lubis 2003, pp. 103–104
  33. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 104
  34. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 105
  35. ^ a b Lubis 2003, p. 106
  36. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 107
  37. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 44
  38. ^ Lubis 2003, p. 149
  39. ^ Tempo 1987.

BibliographyEdit

  • Lubis, Nina Herlina (2003). Negarawan dari Desa Cinta: biografi R.H. Moh. Sanusi Hardjadinata, 1914-1995 [Statesman from the Village of Love: biography of R.H. Moh. Sanusi Hardjadinata, 1914-1995] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Satya Historika. ISBN 9789799635396. Retrieved 26 November 2021.CS1 maint: date and year (link)