Supreme Advisory Council

The Supreme Advisory Council (Indonesian: Dewan Pertimbangan Agung, DPA), is a defunct advisory council for the President of Indonesia. Its function was to give advice on state and foreign affairs.

Supreme Advisory Council
Dewan Pertimbangan Agung
Supreme Advisory Council building.jpg
Office of the Supreme Advisory Council
Agency overview
FormedSeptember 25, 1945 (1945-09-25)
DissolvedJuly 31, 2003; 18 years ago (2003-07-31)
Superseding agency
Agency executive
  • Margono Djojohadikusumo (first)
    Achmad Tirtosudiro (last), Chairman

The council was established on September 25, 1945 by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, under the name of Advisory Council (Indonesian: Majelis Pertimbangan, MP). Eventually, the name was changed into Supreme Advisory Body (Indonesian: Badan Pertimbangan Agung, BPA), and later into the current name.

During the liberal democracy period in Indonesia, the organization was dissolved in 1950, and was restructured into the National Council (Indonesian: Dewan Nasional) on 1957. The National Council was dissolved on 1959, and formed the Temporary Supreme Advisory Council, with Sukarno, the president of Indonesia, as its chairman.

After the fall of Sukarno, the council was restored as a structural organization in 1967. It was dissolved on 31 July 2003 after the amendments to the Constitution of Indonesia. The functions of the council, which is previously regulated in the section IV of the constitution, was removed.

Professor Harun Al-Rasjid from the Law Faculty of the University of Indonesia, a critic of the operations of the Council, dubbed the DPA as the Dewan Paling Anteng (Most Serene Council). Rasjid stated that the result of the Supreme Advisory Council was unknown by the public and that its existence should be reviewed.[clarification needed]

BackgroundEdit

There was no credible source about the background of the council's formation when it was embodied in the Constitution of Indonesia. In the supplement of the constitution, the council was compared to the Council of State, leading to possibility that the council was based on the Raad van Indië [nl] in the Dutch East Indies. In the founding fathers of Indonesia itself, there was an opinion that the council was based on the village traditions in Indonesia, on which the villagers decided matters and resolve conflict with a "council of elders". This "council of elders" was in par with the Supreme Advisory Council, which was composed of retired politicians.

HistoryEdit

FormationEdit

The council was established one month and one week after the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. When it was first established on September 25, 1945. The name for the council was Advisory Council, which was suggested by Mohammad Yamin. The name was approved to use by Sukarno. However, several months later, the name was changed to the Supreme Advisory Body. It was later changed again into the Supreme Advisory Council.[1]

First councilEdit

The Supreme Advisory Council was formed with the announcement of the formation of the council in the Official Gazette No. 4 of 1945. Due to the emergency situation of the country, the council was not formed with a binding law. The priority at that time was to form a temporary advisory council as soon as possible under the Constitution of Indonesia.[2] The council was formed on 25 September 1945 with Margono Djojohadikusumo as its chairman and Radjiman Wediodiningrat, Syech Dahlan Djambek, Agus Salim, K.R.M.T.H. Wurjaningrat, H. Adnan, Mochammad Enoch, Dr. Latumeten, Pangeran Mochammad Noor, Sukiman Wirjosandjojo, Nyonya Soewarni Pringgodigdo, as its members.[3]

Several months after its formation, on 6 November 1945, chairman of the council Margono resigned from his position. He was replaced by Wiranatakusumah on 29 November 1945. Later, in 1948, there was an addition of eleven members to the council, namely Ario Soerjo, Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo, Abdul Wahab Hasbullah, Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Frits Laoh, Daud Beureu'eh, Anwarudin, Oerip Soemohardjo, Ernest Douwes Dekker, Moch. Sjafei, and Liem Ing Hwie.

On 24 April 1948, Wiranatakusumah was installed as the Wali Negara of Pasundan. Ario Soerjo replaced him as the chairman, but several days later he was assassinated on 10 November 1948. To replace him, the vice chairman of the council Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo was installed on 15 November 1948. Ki Hadjar Dewantara was later appointed as vice chairman of the council.

List of chairmenEdit

No. Photo Name From Until Period Deputy Notes
1   Margono Djojohadikusumo 25 September 1945 6 November 1945 1 Agus Salim (until 1946)
Sukiman Wirjosandjojo (until January 1948)
Ario Soerjo (until April 1948)
Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo (until November 1948)
2   Raden Adipati Aria Muharam Wiranatakusumah 29 November 1945 24 April 1948
3   Ario Soerjo 24 April 1948 10 November 1948
4   Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo 10 November 1948 17 August 1950
Supreme Advisory Council dissolved (17 August 1950 - 22 July 1959)
5   Sukarno 22 July 1959 23 April 1966 2 Roeslan Abdulgani (until 1962)
Sartono (from 1962)
Sujono Hadinoto (from 1964)
-   Johannes Leimena 23 April 1966 4 March 1968 Sartono
Muhammad Dahlan
6   Wilopo 4 March 1968 28 March 1973 4 Muhammad Ilyas (until 1970) [4]
28 March 1973 31 March 1978 5 M. Sarbini (until 1977)
Alamsyah Ratu Prawiranegara (from 1977)
[5]
7   Idham Chalid 31 March 1978 19 March 1983 6 Sunawar Sukowati
Soedjono
MMR Kartakusuma (until 1979)
GBH Djatikusumo (from 1979)
Jailani Naro
8   Maraden Panggabean 19 March 1983 23 March 1988 7 Sunawar Sukowati (until 1986)
Wignyosumarsono (from 1986)
Jailani Naro
Ali Murtopo (until 1984)
Makmun Murod (from 1984)
Sapardjo
 
9   Sudomo 23 March 1988 17 March 1993 8 Makmun Murod
Hartono Mardjono
Ben Mang Reng Say
Sugandhi
[6]
17 March 1993 16 March 1998 9 Sugiarto
Suhardiman
Imam Kadri
Cholil Badawi
[7]
10   Achmad Arnold Baramuli 16 March 1998 29 October 1999 10 Achmad Tirtosudiro
Suparman Achmad
Jusuf Syakir
Agus Sudono
[8]
11 Achmad Tirtosudiro 29 October 1999 31 July 2003 11 Sulasikin Murpratomo
Tarub
Ahmad Bagdja
Agus Sudono
 

BibliographyEdit

  • Baramuli, Arnold Achmad; Gafur, Abdul (2000), DPA Dari Zaman Ke Zaman [DPA From Time to Time] (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan
  • Wantimpres (2017), The Presidential Advisory Council 2015-2019: History, Tasks, and Functions (PDF), Jakarta, ISBN 978-602-61565-0-1
  • Indonesian Presidential Documentation Team (2003), Jejak Langkah Pak Harto 21 Maret 1988 – 11 Maret 1993 [Footsteps of Mr. Harto 21 March 1988 – 11 March 1993] (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Citra Kharisma Bunda Jakarta

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wantimpres 2017, p. 3
  2. ^ Baramuli & Gafur 2000, p. 17
  3. ^ Baramuli & Gafur 2000, p. 17-18
  4. ^ "Wilopo dan Iljas dilantik" [Wilopo and Iljas is installed]. Kompas (in Indonesian). Jakarta. 4 March 1968. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  5. ^ "Presiden lantik para anggota DPA" [President installed members of the Supreme Advisory Council]. Kompas (in Indonesian). Jakarta. 9 August 1973. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  6. ^ Indonesian Presidential Documentation Team 2003, pp. 64–65
  7. ^ "Sudomo Menjadi Ketua DPA" [Sudomo Becomes the Chairman of the Supreme Advisory Council]. Kompas (in Indonesian). Jakarta. 29 June 1993. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  8. ^ Pour 2000, p. 387