The Santal, or Santhal, are an ethnic group native to India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan in South Asia. Santals are the largest indigenous tribe in the Jharkhand state of India in terms of population and are also found in the states of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha. They are the largest ethnic minority in northern Bangladesh's Rajshahi Division and Rangpur Division. The Santals mostly speak Santali, an Austroasiatic language and that is the most widely-spoken of the Munda languages.
A traditional Santali dance
|Regions with significant populations|
|India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan|
|Santali, Odia, Bengali, Hindi|
|Sari Dharam • Sarnaism • Hinduism • Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Mundas • Hos • Kols • Kharia|
The first records of the Santals appear in the British, who started encroaching on their land. This sparked the Santal rebellion by Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu, two brothers who led the Santals against the Britishers but were defeated.
One of the most studied, the Santal religion worships Marang buru or Bonga as the Supreme Deity. The majority of reverence, however, falls on a court of spirits (Bonga), who handle different aspects of the world and who are placated with prayers and offerings in order to ward off evil influences. These spirits operate at the village, household, ancestor, and sub-clan level, along with evil spirits that cause disease and can inhabit village boundaries, mountains, water, tigers, and the forest. A characteristic feature of a Santal village is a sacred grove (known as the Jaher or "Santal Sthal") on the edge of the village where many spirits live and where a series of annual festivals take place. There are also a number of christians in santal tribes
A yearly round of rituals connected with the agricultural cycle, along with life-cycle rituals for birth, marriage and burial at death, involve petitions to the spirits and offerings that include the sacrifice of animals, usually birds. Religious leaders are male specialists in medical cures who practice divination and witchcraft (the socio-historic meaning of the term, used here, refers to the ritual practice of magic and is not pejorative). Similar beliefs are common among other tribes of northeast and central India such as the Kharia, Munda, and Oraon.
Smaller and more isolated tribes often demonstrate articulated classification systems of the spiritual hierarchy less well documented, described as animism or a generalized worship of spiritual energies connected with locations, activities, and social groups. Religious concepts are intricately entwined with ideas about nature and interaction with local ecological systems. As in Santal religion, religious specialists are drawn from the village or family and serve a wide range of spiritual functions that focus on placating potentially dangerous spirits and coordinating rituals.
Sohrai is the principal festival of Santal community. Besides that Baha, Karam, Dansai, Sakrat, Mahmore, Rundo, Magsim etc. are important. The Santal traditionally accompany many of their dances during these festivals with two drums: the Tamak‘ and the Tumdak’.
- Sidhu Murmu and Kanhu Murmu, freedom fighters who rebelled against the British
- Raghunath Murmu, philosopher
- Babulal Marandi
- Shibu Soren
- Hemant Soren
- Draupadi Murmu, governor of Jharkhand, India
- Gobinda Chandra Majhi
- G. C. Murmu
- Louis Marandi
- Uma Saren
- Hansda Sowvendra Shekhar
- Jauna Murmu
- Laxmirani Majhi
- Birbaha Hansda
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- "Santali: Also spoken in Nepal". Retrieved 1 April 2011.
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- Sidwell, Paul. 2018. Austroasiatic Studies: state of the art in 2018. Presentation at the Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, May 22, 2018.
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- "Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age" (PDF). NCERT. p. 46. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- "Jaher Worshiping Place of Santals". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "The Green Revolution in India". U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies (released in public domain). Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- "Chadar Badar". Telegraph. 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
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- Bodding, P. O. Santal Folk Tales. Cambridge, Massachusetts: H. Aschehoug; Harvard University Press, 1925.
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- Bodding, P. O. A Santal Dictionary (5 volumes), 1933–36 Oslo: J. Dybwad, 1929.
- Bodding, P. O. Materials for a Santali Grammar I, Dumka 1922
- Bodding, P. O. Studies in Santal Medicine and Connected Folklore (3 volumes), 1925–40
- Bompas, Cecil Henry, and Bodding, P. O. Folklore of the Santal Parganas. London: D. Nutt, 1909. Full text at Project Gutenberg.
- Chakrabarti, Dr. Byomkes, A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali, KP Bagchi, Calcutta, 1994
- Culshaw, W. J. Tribal Heritage; a Study of the Santals. London: Lutterworth Press, 1949.
- Edward Duyker Tribal Guerrillas: The Santals of West Bengal and the Naxalite Movement, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1987, pp. 201, SBN 19 561938 2.
- Hembrom. T, The Santals: Anthropological-Theological Reflections on Santali & Biblical Creation Traditions. 1st ed. Calcutta: Punthi Pustak, 1996.
- Orans, Martin. "The Santal; a Tribe in Search of a Great Tradition." Based on thesis, University of Chicago., Wayne State University Press, 1965.
- Prasad, Onkar. Santal Music: A Study in Pattern and Process of Cultural Persistence, Tribal Studies of India Series; T 115. New Delhi: Inter-India Publications, 1985.
- Roy Chaudhury, Indu. Folk Tales of the Santals. 1st ed. Folk Tales of India Series, 13. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1973.
- Troisi, J. The Santals: A Classified and Annotated Bibliography. New Delhi: Manohar Book Service, 1976.
- ———. Tribal Religion: Religious Beliefs and Practices among the Santals. New Delhi: Manohar, 2000.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Santal.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Santals.|
- Saontal Voice in Bangladesh
- Santal Rebellion
- Santal Engineers' Welfare Association – Working for all round development of Adivasi
- All India Santal Welfare and Cultural Society
- Santal Arts
- Santal Dance
- Boro Baski: Santal worries
- Santal culture on Daricha Foundation website (Kolkata)
- Banam The bowed music instrument played by the Santals
- http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage)
- http://hdl.handle.net/10050/00-0000-0000-0003-A6AF-2@view Santali language in RWAAI Digital Archive