Salzburg (German pronunciation: [ˈzaltsbʊɐ̯k] ( listen);[note 1] literally "Salt Fortress") is a state (Land) of Austria. It is officially named Land Salzburg, colloquially Salzburgerland, to distinguish it from its eponymous capital Salzburg city. By its centuries-long history as an independent Prince-Bishopric, Salzburg's tradition differs from the other Austrian lands.
|State of Austria|
|• Governor||Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP)|
|• Deputy Governor||
|• Total||7,156.03 km2 (2,762.96 sq mi)|
|• Density||74/km2 (190/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||AT-5|
|Votes in Bundesrat||4 (of 62)|
Salzburg state stretches along its primary river, the Salzach running from the Central Eastern Alps in the south – reaching a height of 3,657 metres (11,998 ft) at the mountain Großvenediger – down into the Alpine foothills in the north, with an area of 7,156 km2 (2,763 sq mi). It is located in the north of the country, close to the border with the German state of Bavaria. It is surrounded by the Austrian lands of Upper Austria in the northeast, by Styria in the east, by Carinthia in the south as well as by Tyrol, South Tyrol (Italy) and East Tyrol in the southwest. With 529,085 inhabitants, it is one of the country's smaller states in terms of population.
Running through the south are the main ranges of the Alpine divide (incl. the Hohe Tauern mountains) with numerous three-thousanders. The Dachstein massif and the Berchtesgaden Alps ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps border Salzburg Land to the east and north.
- In the northern part:
- Flachgau (Salzburg city and environs), the flat (German: flach) Salzburg Basin around the confluence of Salzach and Saalach, stretching from the slopes of the Salzkammergut Mountains in the east to the Untersberg massif and the Chiemgau Alps in the west.
- Tennengau (district capital Hallein), named after the Tennen Mountains, including the broad Salzach Valley south of Salzburg and the surrounding ranges of the Limestone Alps.
- The southern, mountainous (colloquially Innergebirg) part is divided into:
Major cities and townsEdit
Salzburg municipalities with town privileges:
Wals-Siezenheim, a common municipality with about 12,000 inhabitants, is known as 'Austria's largest village'.
Salt has played an important role in the region's development; Salzburg means "salt castle".
Salzburg as an independent countryEdit
Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent prince-bishopric and State of the Holy Roman Empire until German Mediatisation in 1813.
Electorate of SalzburgEdit
The end of the independenceEdit
Following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz in 1805, Salzburg was annexed by Austria as compensation for the loss of Tyrol to the Kingdom of Bavaria, and Ferdinand was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
After Austria's defeat in 1809, the province was handed over to Bavaria in 1810.
The country divided between Bavaria and AustriaEdit
In 1816, following the defeat of Napoleon and the provision of adequate compensation to Bavaria at the Congress of Vienna, it was returned to Austria with the exception of the north-western Rupertiwinkel which remained Bavarian. The Salzburger Land was administered as the department of Salzach from Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. In 1849 the Duchy of Salzburg was established as a crown land of the Austrian Empire and, after 1866, Austria-Hungary.
World War IEdit
Post-World War I Austrian RepublicsEdit
In 1918 after World War I, the Duchy of Salzburg was dissolved and replaced with the State of Salzburg, as a component part initially of German Austria and subsequently of the First Republic of Austria, the separate state which was mandated by the Allied powers. (However, in the November Plebiscite 99% of Salzburgers voted in favor of union with Germany.)
Salzburg in GermanyEdit
After the plebiscite of 1938, Salzburg state and all the territory of Austria was annexed to the Third Reich.
Salzburg as an Austrian StateEdit
In 1955 Austria was again declared independent of the Allies and Salzburg was once again one of the reconstituted federal states of the second Republic Austria.
Salzburg adopted its current state constitution in 1999. The state government (Landesregierung) is headed by a Landeshauptmann (governor), who is elected by a majority in the Landtag parliament. State elections are held every five years.
After World War II, most state governments were led by the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). The ÖVP politician Josef Klaus (1910-2001), later Chancellor of Austria, served as Landeshauptmann from 1949 to 1961. In 2004 Gabi Burgstaller became the first Social Democratic (and first female) Salzburg governor.
The last results, in May 2013 (compared to 2009) were:
Party Average Seats Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) 29.0% (36.6%) 11 (14) Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) 23.8% (39.4%) 9 (15) Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) 17.0% (13.0%) 6 (5) The Greens (Die Grünen) 20.2% (7.4%) 7 (2) Team Stronach (TS) 8.3% (-) 3 (-)
The elected Salzburg Landeshauptmann is Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP), chairing a coalition government of ÖVP, Greens and Team Stronach ministers (Landesräte). The current president (speaker) of the Salzburg Landtag is his party fellow Brigitta Pallauf.
Landeshauptmann Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP)Edit
- Employment market
- Municipality administration
- Internal affairs
- Fire departments
- Public safety
- Governor's office
- European affairs.
1st Deputy Astrid Rössler (Greens)Edit
- Water protection
- Regional development
- Building law.
2nd Deputy Christian Stöckl (ÖVP)Edit
- State properties and interests
- Public health and hospitals.
- Hans Mayr (TS): Transport, infrastructure, housing
- Martina Berthold (Greens): Childcare, adult education, universities, research, science, youth, family affairs, intergenerational relationships, desegregation, migration, sports, women's affairs, equal opportunities
- Josef Schwaiger (ÖVP): Agriculture, forestry, water management, energy, personnel management
- Heinrich Schellhorn (Greens): Social policy, care nursing, culture, folk culture, museums.
Salzburg comprises five districts, known as Bezirke or vernacularly Gaue:
- Pinzgau (district capital in Zell am See)
- Pongau (Sankt Johann im Pongau)
- Lungau (Tamsweg)
- Tennengau (Hallein)
- Flachgau/Bezirk Salzburg und Umgebung (Salzburg and environs)
Salzburg city is its own administrative district.
The state is divided into 119 municipalities, including Salzburg city. 11 of them have city status (Städte), 24 are market towns (Marktgemeinden) and the other 84 are simple municipalities (Gemeinden). Below it is shown a list of all the municipalities divided per district:
- Hallein District (Tennengau) (13 municipalities): Abtenau, Adnet, Annaberg-Lungötz, Bad Vigaun, Golling an der Salzach, Hallein, Krispl, Kuchl, Oberalm, Puch bei Hallein, Rußbach am Paß Gschütt, Sankt Koloman, Scheffau am Tennengebirge.
- Salzburg-Umgebung District (Flachgau) (37 municipalities): Anif, Anthering, Bergheim, Berndorf, Bürmoos, Dorfbeuern, Ebenau, Elixhausen, Elsbethen, Eugendorf, Faistenau, Fuschl am See, Großgmain, Göming, Grödig, Hallwang, Henndorf, Hintersee, Hof bei Salzburg, Koppl, Köstendorf, Lamprechtshausen, Mattsee, Neumarkt am Wallersee, Nußdorf am Haunsberg, Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Obertrum, Plainfeld, Sankt Georgen, Sankt Gilgen, Schleedorf, Seeham, Seekirchen, Straßwalchen, Strobl, Thalgau, Wals-Siezenheim.
- St. Johann im Pongau District (Pongau) (25 municipalities): Altenmarkt im Pongau, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bischofshofen, Dorfgastein, Eben im Pongau, Filzmoos, Flachau, Forstau, Goldegg, Grossarl, Hüttau, Hüttschlag, Kleinarl, Mühlbach am Hochkönig, Pfarrwerfen, Radstadt, Sankt Johann im Pongau, Sankt Martin am Tennengebirge, Sankt Veit im Pongau, Schwarzach im Pongau, Untertauern, Wagrain, Werfen, Werfenweng.
- Tamsweg District (Lungau) (15 municipalities): Göriach, Lessach, Mariapfarr, Mauterndorf, Muhr, Ramingstein, Sankt Andrä im Lungau, Sankt Margarethen im Lungau, Sankt Michael im Lungau, Tamsweg, Thomatal, Tweng, Unternberg, Weißpriach, Zederhaus.
- Zell am See District (Pinzgau) (28 municipalities): Bramberg am Wildkogel, Bruck an der Großglocknerstraße, Dienten am Hochkönig, Fusch an der Großglocknerstraße, Hollersbach im Pinzgau, Kaprun, Krimml, Lend, Leogang, Lofer, Maishofen, Maria Alm, Mittersill, Neukirchen am Großvenediger, Niedernsill, Piesendorf, Rauris, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Sankt Martin bei Lofer, Stuhlfelden, Taxenbach, Unken, Uttendorf, Viehhofen, Wald im Pinzgau, Weißbach bei Lofer, Zell am See.
The Salzburg Cathedral was the first Baroque building in the German-speaking artistic world. Two other important buildings initiated by the Salzburg archbishops were Hohenwerfen Castle and Hohensalzburg Fortress. The first Archbishop of Salzburg was Arno of Salzburg (785-821), in whose honor the world-famous hiking circuit — the Arnoweg — is named.
- Eisriesenwelt, the largest ice cave in the world
- Großglockner Hochalpenstraße: a panoramic road, called Grossglockner High Alpine Road
- Salzkammergut: a lake district situated in Salzburg state, Upper Austria and Styria
- Liechtensteinklamm: Salzburg is home to one of the longest and deepest gorges of the Alps, the Liechtensteinklamm. It is located near Sankt Johann im Pongau or St.Johann/Pg., a small town in the middle of the state.
- Nonnberg Abbey, a Benedictine monastery that was immortalized in the movie The Sound of Music.
- Salzburgring, a permanent racing circuit, north east of the city of Salzburg
- Ski Amadé
- Kitzsteinhorn, skiing the year round on a glacier
- Icespeedway in St. Johann im Pongau
- Aperschnalzen, an old tradition of competitive whipcracking
- Tourist Regions: 21
- Resort Towns: 115
- Guest Beds: 192,000
- Lakes: 185
- Biggest lake: Wolfgangsee
- Longest river: Salzach
- Highest mountain: Großvenediger — elevation 3,666 metres (12,028 ft)
- Hiking paths: 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi)
- Hill farms: 1,800 — 550 of them serving refreshments
- National parks: 1
- Marked cycle paths: 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi)
- Mountainbike trails (including cross-border routes): 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi)
- Golf courses: 13
- Ski slopes: 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi)
- Cross-country ski trails: 2,220 kilometres (1,380 mi)
- Night slopes: 14
- Winter hiking paths: 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi)