Salzburg (German pronunciation: [ˈsaltsbʊʁk], German: [ˈzaltsbʊʁk] i;[note 1]Austro-Bavarian: Soizbuag, also known as Salzburgerland; Italian: Salisburghese) is a province (Land) of Austria. It is officially named Land Salzburg to distinguish it from its eponymous capital — the city of Salzburg. For centuries, it was an independent Prince-Bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire.
|Anthem: Salzburger Landeshymne|
|• Governor||Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP)|
|• Deputy Governors|
|• Total||7,156.03 km2 (2,762.96 sq mi)|
|• Density||79/km2 (200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||AT-5|
very high · 2nd of 9
|Votes in Bundesrat||4 (of 62)|
Salzburg Province covers an area of 7,156 km2 (2,763 sq mi). It stretches along its main river — the Salzach – which rises in the Central Eastern Alps in the south to the Alpine foothills in the north. It is located in the north-west of Austria, close to the border with the German state of Bavaria; to the northeast lies the province of Upper Austria; to the east the province of Styria; to the south the provinces of Carinthia and Tyrol. With 561,714 inhabitants, it is one of the country's smaller provinces in terms of population.
Running through the south are the main ranges of the Alpine divide (incl. the Hohe Tauern mountains) with numerous three-thousanders. The Dachstein massif and the Berchtesgaden Alps ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps border Salzburg Province to the east and north.
- In the northern part:
- Flachgau (Salzburg city and environs), the flat (German: flach) Salzburg Basin around the confluence of Salzach and Saalach, stretching from the slopes of the Salzkammergut Mountains in the east to the Untersberg massif and the Chiemgau Alps in the west.
- Tennengau (district capital Hallein), named after the Tennen Mountains, including the broad Salzach Valley south of Salzburg and the surrounding ranges of the Limestone Alps.
- The southern, mountainous (colloquially Innergebirg) part is divided into:
Major cities and towns Edit
Salzburg municipalities with town privileges:
Wals-Siezenheim, a common municipality with about 12,000 inhabitants, is known as 'Austria's largest village'.
Salt has played an important role in the region's development; Salzburg means "salt castle".
Salzburg as an independent state Edit
Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent prince-bishopric and State of the Holy Roman Empire until German Mediatisation in 1803.
Electorate of Salzburg Edit
The end of independence Edit
Following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz in 1805, Salzburg was annexed by Austria as compensation for the loss of Tyrol to the Kingdom of Bavaria, and Ferdinand was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
Bavarian Salzburg Edit
After Austria's defeat in 1809, the province was handed over to Bavaria in 1810.
The country divided between Bavaria and Austria Edit
In 1816, following the defeat of Napoleon and the provision of adequate compensation to Bavaria at the Congress of Vienna, it was returned to Austria with the exception of the north-western Rupertiwinkel which remained Bavarian. The Salzburger Land was administered as the department of Salzach from Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. In 1849 the Duchy of Salzburg was established as a crown land of the Austrian Empire and, after 1866, Austria-Hungary.
World War I Edit
Post-World War I Austrian republics Edit
In 1918 after World War I, the Duchy of Salzburg was dissolved and replaced with the State of Salzburg, as a component part initially of German Austria and subsequently of the First Republic of Austria, the separate state which was mandated by the Allied powers.
Salzburg in Germany Edit
American control Edit
After the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the Allies occupied the territory of Austria, being recognized as an independent territory under their rule. Salzburg Province was occupied by the United States.
Salzburg as an Austrian province Edit
In 1955, Austria was again declared an independent state and Salzburg was once again one of the reconstituted provinces of the Second Republic of Austria.
The historical population is given in the following chart:
Salzburg adopted its current provincial constitution in 1999. The provincial government (Landesregierung) is headed by a governor (Landeshauptmann), who is elected by a majority in the provincial parliament Landtag. Provincial elections are held every five years.
After World War II, most provincial governments were led by the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). ÖVP politician Josef Klaus (1910-2001), later chancellor of Austria, served as governor of Salzburg from 1949 till 1961. In 2004 Gabi Burgstaller became the first Social Democratic (and first female) governor of Salzburg.
Party Votes in % Change Seats Change Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) 30.37% 7.4% 12 3 Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) 25.75% 6.9% 10 3 Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) 17.87% 2.1% 7 1 Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ) 11.66% 11.3% 4 4 The Greens – The Green Alternative (GRÜNE) 8.20% 1.1% 3 - NEOS – The New Austria and Liberal Forum (NEOS) 4.20% 3.1% 0 3 We are Salzburg (WIRS) 1.19% 1.2% 0 New MFG Austria - People, Freedom, Fundamental Rights (MFG) 0.77% 0.8% 0 New
The current governor of Salzburg, Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP), entered into coalition discussions with the FPÖ, after his proposition of a ÖVP-FPÖ-SPÖ coalition was rejected by the Social Democrats. Haslauer said "I regret that we could not implement the Alliance for Salzburg". If this coalition goes ahead, Salzburg Province will join Lower Austria and Upper Austria as the third black-blue coalition provincial government. The ÖVP will have four seats in the government, while the FPÖ will have three. The current president (speaker) of the Salzburg provincial parliament is Brigitta Pallauf.
Government ministers and their portfolios from the 2018 provincial election until the 2023 provincial election. Because coalition negotiations are underway, the ministry has not been announced, meaning this section is yet to change.
Governor Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP) Edit
- Employment market
- Municipality administration
- Internal affairs
- Fire departments
- Public safety
- Governor's office
- European affairs.
1st Deputy Astrid Rössler (Greens) Edit
- Water protection
- Regional development
- Building law.
2nd Deputy Christian Stöckl (ÖVP) Edit
- Provincial properties and interests
- Public health and hospitals.
Members of the provincial government Edit
- Hans Mayr (TS): Transport, infrastructure, housing
- Martina Berthold (Greens): Childcare, adult education, universities, research, science, youth, family affairs, intergenerational relationships, desegregation, migration, sports, women's affairs, equal opportunities
- Josef Schwaiger (ÖVP): Agriculture, forestry, water management, energy, personnel management
- Heinrich Schellhorn (Greens): Social policy, care nursing, culture, folk culture, museums.
Administrative divisions Edit
Salzburg Province comprises six districts, known as Bezirke or vernacularly Gaue:
- Hallein District (Tennengau region)
- St. Johann im Pongau District (Pongau region)
- Salzburg-Umgebung District (Salzburg environs) (Flachgau region)
- Tamsweg District (Lungau region)
- Zell am See District (Pinzgau region)
Salzburg city is its own administrative district.
The province is divided into 119 municipalities, including Salzburg City. 11 of them have city status (Städte), 24 are market towns (Marktgemeinden) and the other 84 are simple municipalities (Gemeinden). Below is a list of all the municipalities divided by district:
- Hallein District (Tennengau) (13 municipalities): Abtenau, Adnet, Annaberg-Lungötz, Bad Vigaun, Golling an der Salzach, Hallein, Krispl, Kuchl, Oberalm, Puch bei Hallein, Rußbach am Paß Gschütt, Sankt Koloman, Scheffau am Tennengebirge.
- Salzburg-Umgebung District (Flachgau) (37 municipalities): Anif, Anthering, Bergheim, Berndorf, Bürmoos, Dorfbeuern, Ebenau, Elixhausen, Elsbethen, Eugendorf, Faistenau, Fuschl am See, Großgmain, Göming, Grödig, Hallwang, Henndorf, Hintersee, Hof bei Salzburg, Koppl, Köstendorf, Lamprechtshausen, Mattsee, Neumarkt am Wallersee, Nußdorf am Haunsberg, Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Obertrum, Plainfeld, Sankt Georgen, Sankt Gilgen, Schleedorf, Seeham, Seekirchen, Straßwalchen, Strobl, Thalgau, Wals-Siezenheim.
- St. Johann im Pongau District (Pongau) (25 municipalities): Altenmarkt im Pongau, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bischofshofen, Dorfgastein, Eben im Pongau, Filzmoos, Flachau, Forstau, Goldegg, Grossarl, Hüttau, Hüttschlag, Kleinarl, Mühlbach am Hochkönig, Pfarrwerfen, Radstadt, Sankt Johann im Pongau, Sankt Martin am Tennengebirge, Sankt Veit im Pongau, Schwarzach im Pongau, Untertauern, Wagrain, Werfen, Werfenweng.
- Tamsweg District (Lungau) (15 municipalities): Göriach, Lessach, Mariapfarr, Mauterndorf, Muhr, Ramingstein, Sankt Andrä im Lungau, Sankt Margarethen im Lungau, Sankt Michael im Lungau, Tamsweg, Thomatal, Tweng, Unternberg, Weißpriach, Zederhaus.
- Zell am See District (Pinzgau) (28 municipalities): Bramberg am Wildkogel, Bruck an der Großglocknerstraße, Dienten am Hochkönig, Fusch an der Großglocknerstraße, Hollersbach im Pinzgau, Kaprun, Krimml, Lend, Leogang, Lofer, Maishofen, Maria Alm, Mittersill, Neukirchen am Großvenediger, Niedernsill, Piesendorf, Rauris, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Sankt Martin bei Lofer, Stuhlfelden, Taxenbach, Unken, Uttendorf, Viehhofen, Wald im Pinzgau, Weißbach bei Lofer, Zell am See.
The province's gross domestic product (GDP) was 29 billion € in 2018, accounting for 7.5% of the Austria's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 46,500 € or 154% of the EU27 average in the same year. Salzburg is the province with the highest GDP per capita in Austria before Vienna.
The Salzburg Cathedral was the first Baroque building in the German-speaking artistic world. Two other important buildings initiated by the Salzburg archbishops were Hohenwerfen Castle and Hohensalzburg Fortress. The first Archbishop of Salzburg was Arno of Salzburg (785–821), in whose honor the world-famous hiking circuit — the Arnoweg — is named.
Visitors' attractions Edit
- Eisriesenwelt: the largest ice cave in the world
- Großglockner Hochalpenstraße: a panoramic road, called Grossglockner High Alpine Road
- Salzkammergut: a lake district situated in Salzburg Province, Upper Austria and Styria
- Liechtensteinklamm: Salzburg is home to one of the longest and deepest gorges of the Alps, the Liechtensteinklamm. It is located near Sankt Johann im Pongau or St.Johann/Pg., a small town in the centre of the province.
- Nonnberg Abbey: a Benedictine monastery that was immortalized in the movie The Sound of Music
- Salzburgring, a permanent racing circuit, north east of the city of Salzburg
- Ski Amadé
- Kitzsteinhorn, skiing the year round on a glacier
- Icespeedway in St. Johann im Pongau
- Aperschnalzen, an old tradition of competitive whipcracking
Ski resorts Edit
Assorted statistics Edit
- Tourist Regions: 21
- Resort Towns: 115
- Guest Beds: 192,000
- Lakes: 185
- Biggest lake: Wolfgangsee
- Longest river: Salzach
- Highest mountain: Großvenediger — elevation 3,666 metres (12,028 ft)
- Hiking paths: 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi)
- Hill farms: 1,800 — 550 of them serving refreshments
- National parks: 1
- Marked cycle paths: 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi)
- Mountainbike trails (including cross-border routes): 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi)
- Golf courses: 13
- Ski slopes: 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi)
- Cross-country ski trails: 2,220 kilometres (1,380 mi)
- Night slopes: 14
- Winter hiking paths: 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi)
- "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org.
- "Salzburg". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08.
- "Salzburg". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Salzburg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Salzburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "In 1816 Salzburg was incorporated into Austria". Archived from the original on 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- red, salzburg ORF at/Agenturen (2023-05-02). "Regierungsbildung: ÖVP verhandelt mit FPÖ". salzburg.ORF.at (in German). Retrieved 2023-05-18.
- salzburg.gov.at[dead link]
- "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.
- Salzburg Province Tourist Board
- Salzburg provincial government (in German)
- Salzburg Travel Guide with entries for all municipalities
- Pictures from Salzburg
- Tours in and around Salzburg