Salzburg (German pronunciation: [ˈsaltsbʊʁk], German: [ˈzaltsbʊʁk] i;[note 1]Austro-Bavarian: Soizbuag, also known as Salzburgerland; Italian: Salisburghese) is a province (Land) of Austria. It is officially named Land Salzburg to distinguish it from its eponymous capital — the city of Salzburg. For centuries, it was an independent Prince-Bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire.

Land Salzburg
Flag of Salzburg
Coat of arms of Salzburg
Anthem: Salzburger Landeshymne
Location of Salzburg
Country Austria
 • GovernorWilfried Haslauer (ÖVP)
 • Deputy Governors
  • Heinrich Schellhorn (Grüne)
  • Christian Stöckl (ÖVP)
 • Total7,156.03 km2 (2,762.96 sq mi)
 • Total562,606
 • Density79/km2 (200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeAT-5
HDI (2019)0.939[1]
very high · 2nd of 9
NUTS RegionAT3
Votes in Bundesrat4 (of 62)

Geography Edit

Typical Salzburg Alpine landscape near Sankt Koloman

Location Edit

Salzburg Province covers an area of 7,156 km2 (2,763 sq mi). It stretches along its main river — the Salzach – which rises in the Central Eastern Alps in the south to the Alpine foothills in the north. It is located in the north-west of Austria, close to the border with the German state of Bavaria; to the northeast lies the province of Upper Austria; to the east the province of Styria; to the south the provinces of Carinthia and Tyrol. With 561,714 inhabitants, it is one of the country's smaller provinces in terms of population.

Running through the south are the main ranges of the Alpine divide (incl. the Hohe Tauern mountains) with numerous three-thousanders. The Dachstein massif and the Berchtesgaden Alps ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps border Salzburg Province to the east and north.

Regions Edit

The province is traditionally subdivided in five major regions (Gaue), congruent with its political districts (Bezirke, see administrative divisions).

Regions of Salzburg

Major cities and towns Edit

Salzburg municipalities with town privileges:

Wals-Siezenheim, a common municipality with about 12,000 inhabitants, is known as 'Austria's largest village'.

History Edit

Salt has played an important role in the region's development; Salzburg means "salt castle".

Salzburg as an independent state Edit

Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent prince-bishopric and State of the Holy Roman Empire until German Mediatisation in 1803.

Electorate of Salzburg Edit

The territory was secularized and, as the Electorate of Salzburg, given as compensation to Ferdinand III, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, the brother of Emperor Francis II.

The end of independence Edit

Following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz in 1805, Salzburg was annexed by Austria as compensation for the loss of Tyrol to the Kingdom of Bavaria, and Ferdinand was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.

Bavarian Salzburg Edit

After Austria's defeat in 1809, the province was handed over to Bavaria in 1810.

The country divided between Bavaria and Austria Edit

In 1816, following the defeat of Napoleon and the provision of adequate compensation to Bavaria at the Congress of Vienna, it was returned to Austria with the exception of the north-western Rupertiwinkel which remained Bavarian. The Salzburger Land was administered as the department of Salzach from Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. In 1849 the Duchy of Salzburg was established as a crown land of the Austrian Empire and, after 1866, Austria-Hungary.

World War I Edit

Salzburg participated in World War I, as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. 49,000 Salzburgers were called to arms, of whom 6,000 were killed.[6]

Post-World War I Austrian republics Edit

In 1918 after World War I, the Duchy of Salzburg was dissolved and replaced with the State of Salzburg, as a component part initially of German Austria and subsequently of the First Republic of Austria, the separate state which was mandated by the Allied powers.

Salzburg in Germany Edit

As a result of Germany's annexation of Austria in 1938, Austria, including the Salzburg province, was incorporated into Nazi Germany.

American control Edit

After the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the Allies occupied the territory of Austria, being recognized as an independent territory under their rule. Salzburg Province was occupied by the United States.

Salzburg as an Austrian province Edit

In 1955, Austria was again declared an independent state and Salzburg was once again one of the reconstituted provinces of the Second Republic of Austria.

Demographics Edit

The historical population is given in the following chart:

Politics Edit

Salzburg adopted its current provincial constitution in 1999. The provincial government (Landesregierung) is headed by a governor (Landeshauptmann), who is elected by a majority in the provincial parliament Landtag. Provincial elections are held every five years.

After World War II, most provincial governments were led by the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). ÖVP politician Josef Klaus (1910-2001), later chancellor of Austria, served as governor of Salzburg from 1949 till 1961. In 2004 Gabi Burgstaller became the first Social Democratic (and first female) governor of Salzburg.

Chiemseehof, seat of Salzburg's provincial parliament

The last results, in April 2023 (Compared to 2018) were:

Party Votes in % Change Seats Change
  Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) 30.37%   7.4% 12   3
  Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) 25.75%   6.9% 10   3
  Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) 17.87%   2.1% 7   1
  Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ) 11.66%  11.3% 4   4
  The Greens – The Green Alternative (GRÜNE) 8.20%   1.1% 3 -
  NEOS – The New Austria and Liberal Forum (NEOS) 4.20%  3.1% 0   3
  We are Salzburg (WIRS) 1.19%  1.2% 0 New
  MFG Austria - People, Freedom, Fundamental Rights (MFG) 0.77%   0.8% 0 New

The current governor of Salzburg, Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP), entered into coalition discussions with the FPÖ, after his proposition of a ÖVP-FPÖ-SPÖ coalition was rejected by the Social Democrats. Haslauer said "I regret that we could not implement the Alliance for Salzburg". If this coalition goes ahead, Salzburg Province will join Lower Austria and Upper Austria as the third black-blue coalition provincial government. The ÖVP will have four seats in the government, while the FPÖ will have three.[7] The current president (speaker) of the Salzburg provincial parliament is Brigitta Pallauf.

Government Edit

Government ministers and their portfolios from the 2018 provincial election until the 2023 provincial election. Because coalition negotiations are underway, the ministry has not been announced, meaning this section is yet to change.

Governor Wilfried Haslauer (ÖVP) Edit

  • Economy
  • Tourism
  • Employment market
  • Municipality administration
  • Education
  • Internal affairs
  • Fire departments
  • Public safety
  • Governor's office
  • European affairs.[8]

1st Deputy Astrid Rössler (Greens) Edit

  • Conservation
  • Environmentalism
  • Water protection
  • Trade
  • Regional development
  • Building law.

2nd Deputy Christian Stöckl (ÖVP) Edit

  • Finance
  • Provincial properties and interests
  • Public health and hospitals.

Members of the provincial government Edit

  • Hans Mayr (TS): Transport, infrastructure, housing
  • Martina Berthold (Greens): Childcare, adult education, universities, research, science, youth, family affairs, intergenerational relationships, desegregation, migration, sports, women's affairs, equal opportunities
  • Josef Schwaiger (ÖVP): Agriculture, forestry, water management, energy, personnel management
  • Heinrich Schellhorn (Greens): Social policy, care nursing, culture, folk culture, museums.

Administrative divisions Edit

Districts Edit

Salzburg Province comprises six districts, known as Bezirke or vernacularly Gaue:

Salzburg city is its own administrative district.

Municipalities Edit

The province is divided into 119 municipalities, including Salzburg City. 11 of them have city status (Städte), 24 are market towns (Marktgemeinden) and the other 84 are simple municipalities (Gemeinden). Below is a list of all the municipalities divided by district:

Economy Edit

The province's gross domestic product (GDP) was 29 billion € in 2018, accounting for 7.5% of the Austria's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 46,500 € or 154% of the EU27 average in the same year. Salzburg is the province with the highest GDP per capita in Austria before Vienna.[9]

Architecture Edit

The Salzburg Cathedral was the first Baroque building in the German-speaking artistic world. Two other important buildings initiated by the Salzburg archbishops were Hohenwerfen Castle and Hohensalzburg Fortress. The first Archbishop of Salzburg was Arno of Salzburg (785–821), in whose honor the world-famous hiking circuit — the Arnoweg — is named.

The predominant stylistic elements of Salzburg's architecture have their origins in the Baroque and the Rococo periods.

Salzburg City's historic centre was named by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Language Edit

Austrian German is the local written language, and it can be heard especially in the cities. Austro-Bavarian is also spoken, especially in the rural areas and the common language of Salzburgerland.

Visitors' attractions Edit

Sports Edit

Stadion Wals-Siezenheim

Ski resorts Edit

Ski run in Gastein Valley resort

Altenmarkt im Pongau, Flachau, Wagrain, St. Johann, Zell am See (Saalbach-Hinterglemm), Obertauern, Bad Gastein, Rauris, Lofer, Hochkönig, Krispl

Assorted statistics Edit

  • Tourist Regions: 21
  • Resort Towns: 115
  • Guest Beds: 192,000
  • Lakes: 185
  • Biggest lake: Wolfgangsee
  • Longest river: Salzach
  • Highest mountain: Großvenediger — elevation 3,666 metres (12,028 ft)
  • Hiking paths: 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi)
  • Hill farms: 1,800 — 550 of them serving refreshments
  • National parks: 1
  • Marked cycle paths: 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi)
  • Mountainbike trails (including cross-border routes): 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi)
  • Golf courses: 13
  • Ski slopes: 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi)
  • Cross-country ski trails: 2,220 kilometres (1,380 mi)
  • Night slopes: 14
  • Winter hiking paths: 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi)

Notes Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab".
  2. ^ "Salzburg". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08.
  3. ^ "Salzburg". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Salzburg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Salzburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  6. ^ "In 1816 Salzburg was incorporated into Austria". Archived from the original on 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  7. ^ red, salzburg ORF at/Agenturen (2023-05-02). "Regierungsbildung: ÖVP verhandelt mit FPÖ". (in German). Retrieved 2023-05-18.
  8. ^[dead link]
  9. ^ "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.

External links Edit

47°46′01″N 13°21′51″E / 47.76706°N 13.364131°E / 47.76706; 13.364131