Enns (river)

The Enns (German pronunciation: [ɛns] (listen), ence) is a southern tributary of the river Danube, joining northward at Enns, Austria. The Enns spans 253 kilometres (157 mi), in a flat-J-shape.[2] It flows from its source near the village Flachau, generally eastward through Radstadt, Schladming, and Liezen, then turns north near Hieflau, to flow past Weyer and Ternberg through Steyr, and further north to the Danube at Enns (see map in References).[2]

Enns
Ennstal.jpg
The Ennstal between Stainach and Liezen
Enns (rivière).png
EtymologyLatin Anisus, Anasus
Location
CountryAustria
Physical characteristics
Source 
 • locationRadstädter Tauern (mountains)
Mouth 
 • location
Danube at Mauthausen
 • coordinates
48°14′13″N 14°31′08″E / 48.2369°N 14.5190°E / 48.2369; 14.5190Coordinates: 48°14′13″N 14°31′08″E / 48.2369°N 14.5190°E / 48.2369; 14.5190
Length253.4 km (157.5 mi) [1]
Basin size6,084 km2 (2,349 sq mi)
Discharge 
 • locationmouth
 • average200 m3/s (7,100 cu ft/s)
Basin features
ProgressionDanubeBlack Sea

NameEdit

It was known in Latin as Anisus or Anasus,[3][4] of uncertain origin; Anreiter et al. tried to link it to an Indo-European *on- and the hydronymic suffix *-is-.[5] Later sources call it Ensa or Enisa.[6] Others have linked it to Upper Danubian Vasconic *an, "water."[7] Another possible link is Greek ᾰ̓νῠστός (anystos, "useful").[8] The West Slavic languages have different names for the river: in Czech it is called the Enže;[9] in Slovak, the Enža; and in Polish, the Aniza.

GeographyEdit

The Enns has its source in the Radstädter Tauern mountains in the Austrian state of Salzburg. In a valley which developed during the ice age, it flows at the border between the Northern Limestone Alps and the Central Eastern Alps on an eastern trajectory through Styria, where it passes the Dachstein group at its southern side. Between Admont and Hieflau, it takes a turn to the North and passes through the Gesäuse, a gorge of a length of 15 km (9.3 mi), where it penetrates the limestone of the Ennstaler Alpen. Flowing to the north from there on, it reaches the state of Upper Austria at the mouth of the Laussabach [de]. North of Steyr, it forms the border between Upper Austria and Lower Austria (formerly also known as Austria above the Enns and Austria below the Enns). Finally, it meets the Danube at Mauthausen and the city of Enns. It is the longest river solely in Austria.

The Enns is a typical wild water river and draws its water from an area of 6,084 km2 (2,349 sq mi),[10] which makes it the fifth-largest in Austria. Its average discharge at the mouth is 200 m3/s (7,100 cu ft/s).[11]

The Anisian Age in the Triassic Period of geological time is named from Anisus, the Latin name of the river Enns.

HistoryEdit

In the middle of the 19th century, canals began to be built along the 70 km (43 mi) between Weißenbach and the Gesäuse, in order to make use of the water for agriculture and forestry.

In total, ten power plants with a total generative power of 345 megawatts have been built by the Ennskraftwerke AG.

Towns along the riverEdit

in SalzburgEdit

in StyriaEdit

in Upper AustriaEdit

Hydroelectric power stationsEdit

Currently, there are 15 hydroelectric power stations on the Enns.[12] The power stations are listed beginning at the headwaters:

Dam Nameplate capacity (MW) Annual generation (Mio. kwh)
Gstatterboden 2 6.8
Hieflau 63 388
Landl 25 135.5
Krippau 30 173.5
Altenmarkt 26 165.9
Schönau 30 122.8
Weyer 37 159.6
Großraming 72 270.7
Losenstein 39 170
Ternberg 40 169.7
Rosenau 34 145.5
Garsten-St. Ulrich 38 162.5
Staning 43 203.2
Mühlrading 25 111.8
St. Pantaleon 52 261.6

TributariesEdit

The most important inflows are the Palten, the Salza and the Steyr. Other tributaries are the Northern Taurach and the Erzbach.

TransportEdit

A major transit route connecting Germany and Slovenia through Austria runs through the Enns valley. The so-called Eisenstraße ("iron road") runs along the river between Hieflau and Enns, along which iron ore has been transported from the Styrian Erzberg ("ore mountain") to the steel mill in Linz.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Digitaler Atlas der Steiermark (Styria)
  2. ^ a b "Karte-Enns" (river map in German), RadTouren.at (Austria), May 2009, webpage: RT-map at the Wayback Machine (archive index) (236kb).
  3. ^ Barclay, James (September 14, 1815). "Barclay's English Dictionary. With which is incorporated a complete modern gazetteer, a beautiful atlas of maps and also a pronouncing dictionary". Alexander Cumming – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Bryce, James (September 14, 1862). "The family gazetteer and atlas of the world. The atlas by W. & A.K. Johnston" – via Google Books.
  5. ^ P. Anreiter, M. Haslinger and U. Roider, “The names of the eastern Alpine region mentioned in Ptolemy”, in Ptolemy: Towards a linguistic atlas of the earliest Celtic place-names in Europe, ed. D.N. Parsons and P. Sims-Williams, Aberystwyth, 2000, p. 129, note 53.
  6. ^ "Anzeige von How Old Are the River Names of Europe? A Glottochronological Approach | Linguistik Online". bop.unibe.ch.
  7. ^ "Basque – Iberian – Paleoeuropean » 2018 » February".
  8. ^ "The problematic of substrates – A case study of Iberia – Ancient DNA Era".
  9. ^ Solution, Horydoly cz, Next Generation. "Enže (Enns) pro vodní turisty". www.horydoly.cz.
  10. ^ "Flächenverzeichnis der Flussgebiete: Ennsgebiet" (PDF). Beiträge zur Hydrografie Österreichs Heft 61. October 2011. p. 68.
  11. ^ "Danube River Basin District, Part A - Roof Report" (PDF). ICPDR. April 2004. p. 12.
  12. ^ "Die Enns" (in German). Verbund. Retrieved 2016-09-14.