Sa is a consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, Sa is derived from the early "Ashoka" Brahmi letter ng after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad s.svg.

Sa
Sa
Example glyphs
MeiteiSa
Bengali-AssameseSa
TibetanSa
Tamil
Thai
Malayalam
Sinhala
Ashoka BrahmiSa
DevanagariSa
Cognates
Hebrewס
GreekΞ
CyrillicѮ
Properties
Phonemic representation/s/
IAST transliterations S
ISCII code pointD7 (215)

Āryabhaṭa numerationEdit

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of स are:[1]

  • [sə] = 90 (९०)
  • सि [sɪ] = 9,000 (९ ०००)
  • सु [sʊ] = 900,000 (९ ०० ०००)
  • सृ [sri] = 90,000,000 (९ ०० ०० ०००)
  • सॢ [slə] = 9×109 (९×१०)
  • से [se] = 9×1011 (९×१०११)
  • सै [sɛː] = 9×1013 (९×१०१३)
  • सो [soː] = 9×1015 (९×१०१५)
  • सौ [sɔː] = 9×1017 (९×१०१७)

Historic SaEdit

There are three different general early historic scripts - Brahmi and its variants, Kharoṣṭhī, and Tocharian, the so-called slanting Brahmi. Sa as found in standard Brahmi,   was a simple geometric shape, with variations toward more flowing forms by the Gupta  . The Tocharian Sa   had an alternate Fremdzeichen form,  . The third form of sa, in Kharoshthi ( ) was probably derived from Aramaic separately from the Brahmi letter.

Brahmi SaEdit

The Brahmi letter  , Sa, is probably derived from the altered Aramaic Samekh  , and is thus related to the modern Greek Xi.[2] Several identifiable styles of writing the Brahmi Sa can be found, most associated with a specific set of inscriptions from an artifact or diverse records from an historic period.[3] As the earliest and most geometric style of Brahmi, the letters found on the Edicts of Ashoka and other records from around that time are normally the reference form for Brahmi letters, with vowel marks not attested until later forms of Brahmi back-formed to match the geometric writing style.

Brahmi Sa historic forms
Ashoka
(3rd-1st c. BCE)
Girnar
(~150 BCE)
Kushana
(~150-250 CE)
Gujarat
(~250 CE)
Gupta
(~350 CE)
         

Tocharian SaEdit

The Tocharian letter   is derived from the Brahmi  , and has an alternate Fremdzeichen form   used in conjuncts and as an alternate representation of Sä.

Tocharian Sa with vowel marks
Sa Si Su Sr Sr̄ Se Sai So Sau Fremdzeichen
                         

Kharoṣṭhī SaEdit

The Kharoṣṭhī letter   is generally accepted as being derived from the altered Aramaic Samekh  , and is thus related to Xi, in addition to the Brahmi Sa.[2]

Devanagari SaEdit

Sa () is a consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , after having gone through the Gupta letter  . Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter , and the Modi letter 𑘭.

Devanagari-using LanguagesEdit

In all languages, स is pronounced as [sə] or [s] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Devanagari uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Devanagari स with vowel marks
Sa Si Su Sr Sr̄ Sl Sl̄ Se Sai So Sau S
सा सि सी सु सू सृ सॄ सॢ सॣ से सै सो सौ स्

Conjuncts with सEdit

 
Half form of Sa.

Devanagari exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts. In modern Devanagari texts, most conjuncts are formed by reducing the letter shape to fit tightly to the following letter, usually by dropping a character's vertical stem, sometimes referred to as a "half form". Some conjunct clusters are always represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters. Vertically stacked conjuncts are ubiquitous in older texts, while only a few are still used routinely in modern Devanagari texts. The use of ligatures and vertical conjuncts may vary across languages using the Devanagari script, with Marathi in particular preferring the use of half forms where texts in other languages would show ligatures and vertical stacks.[4]

Ligature conjuncts of सEdit

True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Devanagari are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. Those variants include Na and the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra. Nepali and Marathi texts use the "eyelash" Ra half form   for an initial "R" instead of repha.

  • Repha र্ (r) + स (sa) gives the ligature rsa: note

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + स (sa) gives the ligature rsa:

 

  • स্ (s) + rakar र (ra) gives the ligature sra:

 

Stacked conjuncts of सEdit

Vertically stacked ligatures are the most common conjunct forms found in Devanagari text. Although the constituent characters may need to be stretched and moved slightly in order to stack neatly, stacked conjuncts can be broken down into recognizable base letters, or a letter and an otherwise standard ligature.

  • छ্ (ch) + स (sa) gives the ligature chsa:

 

  • ढ্ (ḍʱ) + स (sa) gives the ligature ḍʱsa:

 

  • ड্ (ḍ) + स (sa) gives the ligature ḍsa:

 

  • द্ (d) + स (sa) gives the ligature dsa:

 

  • ङ্ (ŋ) + स (sa) gives the ligature ŋsa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + स্ (s) + व (va) gives the ligature rsva:

 

  • स্ (s) + ब (ba) gives the ligature sba:

 

  • स্ (s) + च (ca) gives the ligature sca:

 

  • स্ (s) + ज (ja) gives the ligature sja:

 

  • स্ (s) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature sjña:

 

  • स্ (s) + ल (la) gives the ligature sla:

 

  • स্ (s) + न (na) gives the ligature sna:

 

  • स্ (s) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature sña:

 

  • स্ (s) + व (va) gives the ligature sva:

 

  • ठ্ (ṭh) + स (sa) gives the ligature ṭhsa:

 

  • ट্ (ṭ) + स (sa) gives the ligature ṭsa:

 

Bengali SaEdit

The Bengali script স is derived from the Siddhaṃ  , and is marked by a similar horizontal head line, but less geometric shape, than its Devanagari counterpart, स. The inherent vowel of Bengali consonant letters is /ɔ/, so the bare letter স will sometimes be transliterated as "so" instead of "sa". Adding okar, the "o" vowel mark, gives a reading of /so/. Like all Indic consonants, স can be modified by marks to indicate another (or no) vowel than its inherent "a".

Bengali স with vowel marks
sa si su sr sr̄ se sai so sau s
সা সি সী সু সূ সৃ সৄ সে সৈ সো সৌ স্

স in Bengali-using languagesEdit

স is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

Conjuncts with সEdit

Bengali স exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts, with a tendency towards stacked ligatures.[5]

  • ক্ (k) + স (sa) gives the ligature ksa:

 

  • প্ (p) + স (sa) gives the ligature psa:

 

  • র্ (r) + স (sa) gives the ligature rsa, with the repha prefix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ক (ka) gives the ligature ska:

 

  • স্ (s) + খ (kha) gives the ligature skha:

 

  • স্ (s) + ক্ (k) + র (ra) gives the ligature skra, with the ra phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ল (la) gives the ligature sla:

 

  • স্ (s) + ম (ma) gives the ligature sma:

 

  • স্ (s) + ন (na) gives the ligature sna:

 

  • স্ (s) + প (pa) gives the ligature spa:

 

  • স্ (s) + ফ (pha) gives the ligature spha:

 

  • স্ (s) + প্ (p) + ল (la) gives the ligature spla:

 

  • স্ (s) + র (ra) gives the ligature sra, with the ra phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ত (ta) gives the ligature sta:

 

  • স্ (s) + থ (tha) gives the ligature stha:

 

  • স্ (s) + থ্ (th) + য (ya) gives the ligature sthya, with the ya phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ত্ (t) + র (ra) gives the ligature stra, with the ra phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ট (ṭa) gives the ligature sṭa:

 

  • স্ (s) + ট্ (ṭ) + র (ra) gives the ligature sṭra, with the ra phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ত্ (t) + ব (va) gives the ligature stva, with the va phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ত্ (t) + য (ya) gives the ligature stya, with the ya phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + ব (va) gives the ligature sva, with the va phala suffix:

 

  • স্ (s) + য (ya) gives the ligature sya, with the ya phala suffix:

 

  • ত্ (t) + স (sa) gives the ligature tsa:

 

Gujarati SaEdit

 
Gujarati Sa.

Sa () is the thirty-second consonant of the Gujarati abugida. It is derived from the Devanagari Sa   with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed, and ultimately the Brahmi letter  .

Gujarati-using LanguagesEdit

The Gujarati script is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. In both languages, સ is pronounced as [sə] or [s] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Gujarati uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Sa Si Su Sr Sl Sr̄ Sl̄ Se Sai So Sau S
 
Gujarati Sa syllables, with vowel marks in red.

Conjuncts with સEdit

 
Half form of Sa.

Gujarati સ exhibits conjunct ligatures, much like its parent Devanagari Script. Most Gujarati conjuncts can only be formed by reducing the letter shape to fit tightly to the following letter, usually by dropping a character's vertical stem, sometimes referred to as a "half form". A few conjunct clusters can be represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters, and vertically stacked conjuncts can also be found in Gujarati, although much less commonly than in Devanagari. True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Gujarati are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. Those variants include Na and the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra.

  • ર્ (r) + સ (sa) gives the ligature RSa:

 

  • સ્ (s) + ર (ra) gives the ligature SRa:

 

Javanese SaEdit

Telugu SaEdit

Telugu independent and subjoined Sa.

Sa () is a consonant of the Telugu abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  . It is closely related to the Kannada letter . Most Telugu consonants contain a v-shaped headstroke that is related to the horizontal headline found in other Indic scripts, although headstrokes do not connect adjacent letters in Telugu. The headstroke is normally lost when adding vowel matras. Telugu conjuncts are created by reducing trailing letters to a subjoined form that appears below the initial consonant of the conjunct. Many subjoined forms are created by dropping their headline, with many extending the end of the stroke of the main letter body to form an extended tail reaching up to the right of the preceding consonant. This subjoining of trailing letters to create conjuncts is in contrast to the leading half forms of Devanagari and Bengali letters. Ligature conjuncts are not a feature in Telugu, with the only non-standard construction being an alternate subjoined form of Ṣa (borrowed from Kannada) in the KṢa conjunct.

Malayalam SaEdit

 
Malayalam letter Sa

Sa () is a consonant of the Malayalam abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , via the Grantha letter   Sa. Like in other Indic scripts, Malayalam consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

 
Malayalam Sa matras: Sa, Sā, Si, Sī, Su, Sū, Sr̥, Sr̥̄, Sl̥, Sl̥̄, Se, Sē, Sai, So, Sō, Sau, and S.

Conjuncts of സEdit

As is common in Indic scripts, Malayalam joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. There are several ways in which conjuncts are formed in Malayalam texts: using a post-base form of a trailing consonant placed under the initial consonant of a conjunct, a combined ligature of two or more consonants joined together, a conjoining form that appears as a combining mark on the rest of the conjunct, the use of an explicit candrakkala mark to suppress the inherent "a" vowel, or a special consonant form called a "chillu" letter, representing a bare consonant without the inherent "a" vowel. Texts written with the modern reformed Malayalam orthography, put̪iya lipi, may favor more regular conjunct forms than older texts in paḻaya lipi, due to changes undertaken in the 1970s by the Government of Kerala.

  • സ് (s) + ത (ta) gives the ligature sta:

 

  • സ് (s) + ഥ (tha) gives the ligature stha:

 

  • സ് (s) + ന (na) gives the ligature sna:

 

  • സ് (s) + പ (pa) gives the ligature spa:

 

  • സ് (s) + മ (ma) gives the ligature sma:

 

  • ക് (k) + സ (sa) gives the ligature ksa:

 

  • ത് (t) + സ (sa) gives the ligature tsa:

 

  • പ് (p) + സ (sa) gives the ligature psa:

 

  • സ് (s) + സ (sa) gives the ligature ssa:

 

Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics SeEdit

, , and are the base characters "Se", "Si", "So" and "Sa" in the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The bare consonant (S) is a small version of the A-series letter ᓴ, although the letter ᐢ, derived from Pitman shorthand was the original bare consonant symbol for S. The character ᓭ is derived from a handwritten form of the Devanagari letter स, without the headline or vertical stem, and the forms for different vowels are derived by mirroring.[6][7] Unlike most writing systems without legacy computer encodings, complex Canadian syllabic letters are represented in Unicode with pre-composed characters, rather than with base characters and diacritical marks.

Variant E-series I-series O-series A-series Other
S + vowel -
Se Si So Sa -
Small -
- Ojibway S Sw S Algonquian S
S with long vowels - -
- Cree -
S + W-vowels
Swe Cree Swe Swi Cree Swi Swo Cree Swo Swa Cree Swa Naskapi Sw
S + long W-vowels - -
- Swī Cree Swī Swō Cree Swō Swā Naskapi Swā Cree Swā -
S with ring diacritics - -
- Sāi Soy Say -
Naskapi compound letters
Spwa Stwa Scwa Skwa Skw

Odia SaEdit

Odia independent and subjoined letter Sa.

Sa () is a consonant of the Odia abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , via the Siddhaṃ letter   Sa. Like in other Indic scripts, Odia consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

Odia Sa with vowel matras
Sa Si Su Sr̥ Sr̥̄ Sl̥ Sl̥̄ Se Sai So Sau S
ସା ସି ସୀ ସୁ ସୂ ସୃ ସୄ ସୢ ସୣ ସେ ସୈ ସୋ ସୌ ସ୍

Conjuncts of ସEdit

As is common in Indic scripts, Odia joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. The most common conjunct formation is achieved by using a small subjoined form of trailing consonants. Most consonants' subjoined forms are identical to the full form, just reduced in size, although a few drop the curved headline or have a subjoined form not directly related to the full form of the consonant. The second type of conjunct formation is through pure ligatures, where the constituent consonants are written together in a single graphic form. This ligature may be recognizable as being a combination of two characters or it can have a conjunct ligature unrelated to its constituent characters.

  • ତ୍ (t) + ସ (sa) gives the ligature tsa:

 

Comparison of SaEdit

The various Indic scripts are generally related to each other through adaptation and borrowing, and as such the glyphs for cognate letters, including Sa, are related as well.

Comparison of Sa in different scripts
Aramaic
 
Kharoṣṭhī
𐨯
Ashoka Brahmi
 
Kushana Brahmi[a]
 
Tocharian[b]
  /  
Gupta Brahmi
 
Pallava
 
Kadamba
-
Bhaiksuki
𑰭
Siddhaṃ
 
Grantha
𑌸
Cham
Sinhala
Pyu /
Old Mon[c]
-
Tibetan
 
Newa
𑐳
Ahom
𑜏
Malayalam
Telugu
Burmese
Lepcha
Ranjana
 
Saurashtra
Dives Akuru
𑤬
Kannada
Kayah Li
Limbu
Soyombo[d]
𑪁
Khmer
Tamil
Chakma
𑄥
Tai Tham
Meitei Mayek
Gaudi
-
Thai
Lao
Tai Le
Marchen
𑲍
Tirhuta
𑒮
New Tai Lue
Tai Viet
ꪎ / ꪏ
Aksara Kawi
 
'Phags-pa
Odia
Sharada
𑆱
Rejang
Batak
Buginese
Zanabazar Square
𑨰
Bengali-Assamese
 
Takri
𑚨
Javanese
Balinese
Makasar
𑻰
Hangul[e]
-
Northern Nagari
-
Dogri
𑠩
Laṇḍā
-
Sundanese
Baybayin
Modi
𑘭
Gujarati
Khojki
𑈩
Khudabadi
𑋝
Mahajani
𑅰
Tagbanwa
Devanagari
 
Nandinagari
𑧍
Kaithi
𑂮
Gurmukhi
Multani
𑊥
Buhid
Canadian Syllabics[f]
Soyombo[g]
𑪁
Sylheti Nagari
Gunjala Gondi
𑶉
Masaram Gondi[h]
𑴫
Hanuno'o
Notes
  1. ^ The middle "Kushana" form of Brahmi is a later style that emerged as Brahmi scripts were beginning to proliferate. Gupta Brahmi was definitely a stylistic descendant from Kushana, but other Brahmi-derived scripts may have descended from earlier forms.
  2. ^ Tocharian is probably derived from the middle period "Kushana" form of Brahmi, although artifacts from that time are not plentiful enough to establish a definite succession.
  3. ^ Pyu and Old Mon are probably the precursors of the Burmese script, and may be derived from either the Pallava or Kadamba script
  4. ^ May also be derived from Devangari (see bottom left of table)
  5. ^ The Origin of Hangul from 'Phags-pa is one of limited influence, inspiring at most a few basic letter shapes. Hangul does not function as an Indic abugida.
  6. ^ Although the basic letter forms of the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics were derived from handwritten Devanagari letters, this abugida indicates vowel sounds by rotations of the letter form, rather than the use of vowel diacritics as is standard in Indic abugidas.
  7. ^ May also be derived from Ranjana (see above)
  8. ^ Masaram Gondi acts as an Indic abugida, but its letterforms were not derived from any single precursor script.


Character encodings of SaEdit

Most Indic scripts are encoded in the Unicode Standard, and as such the letter Sa in those scripts can be represented in plain text with unique codepoint. Sa from several modern-use scripts can also be found in legacy encodings, such as ISCII.

Character information
Preview    
Unicode name DEVANAGARI LETTER SA BENGALI LETTER SA TAMIL LETTER SA TELUGU LETTER SA ORIYA LETTER SA KANNADA LETTER SA MALAYALAM LETTER SA GUJARATI LETTER SA GURMUKHI LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 2360 U+0938 2488 U+09B8 3000 U+0BB8 3128 U+0C38 2872 U+0B38 3256 U+0CB8 3384 U+0D38 2744 U+0AB8 2616 U+0A38
UTF-8 224 164 184 E0 A4 B8 224 166 184 E0 A6 B8 224 174 184 E0 AE B8 224 176 184 E0 B0 B8 224 172 184 E0 AC B8 224 178 184 E0 B2 B8 224 180 184 E0 B4 B8 224 170 184 E0 AA B8 224 168 184 E0 A8 B8
Numeric character reference स स স স ஸ ஸ స స ସ ସ ಸ ಸ സ സ સ સ ਸ ਸ
ISCII 215 D7 215 D7 215 D7 215 D7 215 D7 215 D7 215 D7 215 D7 215 D7


Character information
Preview
Ashoka 
Kushana 
Gupta 
𐨯   𑌸
Unicode name BRAHMI LETTER SA KHAROSHTHI LETTER SA SIDDHAM LETTER SA GRANTHA LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 69682 U+11032 68143 U+10A2F 71085 U+115AD 70456 U+11338
UTF-8 240 145 128 178 F0 91 80 B2 240 144 168 175 F0 90 A8 AF 240 145 150 173 F0 91 96 AD 240 145 140 184 F0 91 8C B8
UTF-16 55300 56370 D804 DC32 55298 56879 D802 DE2F 55301 56749 D805 DDAD 55300 57144 D804 DF38
Numeric character reference 𑀲 𑀲 𐨯 𐨯 𑖭 𑖭 𑌸 𑌸


Character information
Preview   𑨰 𑐳 𑰭 𑆱
Unicode name TIBETAN LETTER SA TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER SA PHAGS-PA LETTER SA ZANABAZAR SQUARE LETTER SA NEWA LETTER SA BHAIKSUKI LETTER SA SHARADA LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 3942 U+0F66 4022 U+0FB6 43099 U+A85B 72240 U+11A30 70707 U+11433 72749 U+11C2D 70065 U+111B1
UTF-8 224 189 166 E0 BD A6 224 190 182 E0 BE B6 234 161 155 EA A1 9B 240 145 168 176 F0 91 A8 B0 240 145 144 179 F0 91 90 B3 240 145 176 173 F0 91 B0 AD 240 145 134 177 F0 91 86 B1
UTF-16 3942 0F66 4022 0FB6 43099 A85B 55302 56880 D806 DE30 55301 56371 D805 DC33 55303 56365 D807 DC2D 55300 56753 D804 DDB1
Numeric character reference ས ས ྶ ྶ ꡛ ꡛ 𑨰 𑨰 𑐳 𑐳 𑰭 𑰭 𑆱 𑆱


Character information
Preview
Unicode name MYANMAR LETTER SA MYANMAR LETTER GREAT SA TAI THAM LETTER HIGH SA TAI THAM CONSONANT SIGN SA TAI THAM LETTER GREAT SA NEW TAI LUE LETTER HIGH SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 4126 U+101E 4159 U+103F 6728 U+1A48 6750 U+1A5E 6740 U+1A54 6537 U+1989
UTF-8 225 128 158 E1 80 9E 225 128 191 E1 80 BF 225 169 136 E1 A9 88 225 169 158 E1 A9 9E 225 169 148 E1 A9 94 225 166 137 E1 A6 89
Numeric character reference သ သ ဿ ဿ ᩈ ᩈ ᩞ ᩞ ᩔ ᩔ ᦉ ᦉ


Character information
Preview
Unicode name KHMER LETTER SA LAO LETTER SO SUNG THAI CHARACTER SO SUA TAI VIET LETTER LOW SO TAI VIET LETTER HIGH SO
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 6047 U+179F 3754 U+0EAA 3626 U+0E2A 43662 U+AA8E 43663 U+AA8F
UTF-8 225 158 159 E1 9E 9F 224 186 170 E0 BA AA 224 184 170 E0 B8 AA 234 170 142 EA AA 8E 234 170 143 EA AA 8F
Numeric character reference ស ស ສ ສ ส ส ꪎ ꪎ ꪏ ꪏ


Character information
Preview 𑄥 𑜏 𑤬
Unicode name SINHALA LETTER DANTAJA SAYANNA KAYAH LI LETTER SA CHAKMA LETTER SAA TAI LE LETTER SA AHOM LETTER SA DIVES AKURU LETTER SA SAURASHTRA LETTER SA CHAM LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 3523 U+0DC3 43278 U+A90E 69925 U+11125 6484 U+1954 71439 U+1170F 71980 U+1192C 43185 U+A8B1 43559 U+AA27
UTF-8 224 183 131 E0 B7 83 234 164 142 EA A4 8E 240 145 132 165 F0 91 84 A5 225 165 148 E1 A5 94 240 145 156 143 F0 91 9C 8F 240 145 164 172 F0 91 A4 AC 234 162 177 EA A2 B1 234 168 167 EA A8 A7
UTF-16 3523 0DC3 43278 A90E 55300 56613 D804 DD25 6484 1954 55301 57103 D805 DF0F 55302 56620 D806 DD2C 43185 A8B1 43559 AA27
Numeric character reference ස ස ꤎ ꤎ 𑄥 𑄥 ᥔ ᥔ 𑜏 𑜏 𑤬 𑤬 ꢱ ꢱ ꨧ ꨧ


Character information
Preview 𑘭 𑧍 𑪁 𑶉 𑂮
Unicode name MODI LETTER SA NANDINAGARI LETTER SA SOYOMBO LETTER SA SYLOTI NAGRI LETTER SO GUNJALA GONDI LETTER SA KAITHI LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 71213 U+1162D 72141 U+119CD 72321 U+11A81 43041 U+A821 73097 U+11D89 69806 U+110AE
UTF-8 240 145 152 173 F0 91 98 AD 240 145 167 141 F0 91 A7 8D 240 145 170 129 F0 91 AA 81 234 160 161 EA A0 A1 240 145 182 137 F0 91 B6 89 240 145 130 174 F0 91 82 AE
UTF-16 55301 56877 D805 DE2D 55302 56781 D806 DDCD 55302 56961 D806 DE81 43041 A821 55303 56713 D807 DD89 55300 56494 D804 DCAE
Numeric character reference 𑘭 𑘭 𑧍 𑧍 𑪁 𑪁 ꠡ ꠡ 𑶉 𑶉 𑂮 𑂮


Character information
Preview 𑒮 𑲍
Unicode name TIRHUTA LETTER SA LEPCHA LETTER SA LIMBU LETTER SA MEETEI MAYEK LETTER SAM MARCHEN LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 70830 U+114AE 7200 U+1C20 6427 U+191B 43969 U+ABC1 72845 U+11C8D
UTF-8 240 145 146 174 F0 91 92 AE 225 176 160 E1 B0 A0 225 164 155 E1 A4 9B 234 175 129 EA AF 81 240 145 178 141 F0 91 B2 8D
UTF-16 55301 56494 D805 DCAE 7200 1C20 6427 191B 43969 ABC1 55303 56461 D807 DC8D
Numeric character reference 𑒮 𑒮 ᰠ ᰠ ᤛ ᤛ ꯁ ꯁ 𑲍 𑲍


Character information
Preview 𑚨 𑠩 𑈩 𑋝 𑅰 𑊥
Unicode name TAKRI LETTER SA DOGRA LETTER SA KHOJKI LETTER SA KHUDAWADI LETTER SA MAHAJANI LETTER SA MULTANI LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 71336 U+116A8 71721 U+11829 70185 U+11229 70365 U+112DD 70000 U+11170 70309 U+112A5
UTF-8 240 145 154 168 F0 91 9A A8 240 145 160 169 F0 91 A0 A9 240 145 136 169 F0 91 88 A9 240 145 139 157 F0 91 8B 9D 240 145 133 176 F0 91 85 B0 240 145 138 165 F0 91 8A A5
UTF-16 55301 57000 D805 DEA8 55302 56361 D806 DC29 55300 56873 D804 DE29 55300 57053 D804 DEDD 55300 56688 D804 DD70 55300 56997 D804 DEA5
Numeric character reference 𑚨 𑚨 𑠩 𑠩 𑈩 𑈩 𑋝 𑋝 𑅰 𑅰 𑊥 𑊥


Character information
Preview 𑻰
Unicode name BALINESE LETTER SA BATAK LETTER SA BUGINESE LETTER SA JAVANESE LETTER SA MAKASAR LETTER SA REJANG LETTER SA SUNDANESE LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 6962 U+1B32 7128 U+1BD8 6676 U+1A14 43441 U+A9B1 73456 U+11EF0 43324 U+A93C 7070 U+1B9E
UTF-8 225 172 178 E1 AC B2 225 175 152 E1 AF 98 225 168 148 E1 A8 94 234 166 177 EA A6 B1 240 145 187 176 F0 91 BB B0 234 164 188 EA A4 BC 225 174 158 E1 AE 9E
UTF-16 6962 1B32 7128 1BD8 6676 1A14 43441 A9B1 55303 57072 D807 DEF0 43324 A93C 7070 1B9E
Numeric character reference ᬲ ᬲ ᯘ ᯘ ᨔ ᨔ ꦱ ꦱ 𑻰 𑻰 ꤼ ꤼ ᮞ ᮞ


Character information
Preview 𑴫
Unicode name TAGALOG LETTER SA TAGBANWA LETTER SA BUHID LETTER SA HANUNOO LETTER SA MASARAM GONDI LETTER SA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 5904 U+1710 6000 U+1770 5968 U+1750 5936 U+1730 73003 U+11D2B
UTF-8 225 156 144 E1 9C 90 225 157 176 E1 9D B0 225 157 144 E1 9D 90 225 156 176 E1 9C B0 240 145 180 171 F0 91 B4 AB
UTF-16 5904 1710 6000 1770 5968 1750 5936 1730 55303 56619 D807 DD2B
Numeric character reference ᜐ ᜐ ᝰ ᝰ ᝐ ᝐ ᜰ ᜰ 𑴫 𑴫
Character information
Preview
Unicode name CANADIAN SYLLABICS SE CANADIAN SYLLABICS SI CANADIAN SYLLABICS SO CANADIAN SYLLABICS SA CANADIAN SYLLABICS S
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 5357 U+14ED 5359 U+14EF 5361 U+14F1 5364 U+14F4 5381 U+1505
UTF-8 225 147 173 E1 93 AD 225 147 175 E1 93 AF 225 147 177 E1 93 B1 225 147 180 E1 93 B4 225 148 133 E1 94 85
Numeric character reference ᓭ ᓭ ᓯ ᓯ ᓱ ᓱ ᓴ ᓴ ᔅ ᔅ
  • The full range of SE Canadian syllabic characters can be found at the codepoint ranges 14ED-1505, 1507, 1509-150F, 18BE-18BF, 18DA.


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  2. ^ a b Bühler, Georg (1898). "On the Origin of the Indian Brahmi Alphabet". archive.org. Karl J. Trübner. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  3. ^ Evolutionary chart, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Vol 7, 1838 [1]
  4. ^ Pall, Peeter. "Microsoft Word - kblhi2" (PDF). Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  5. ^ "The Bengali Alphabet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-28.
  6. ^ Andrew Dalby (2004:139) Dictionary of Languages
  7. ^ Some General Aspects of the Syllabics Orthography, Chris Harvey 2003
^note Conjuncts are identified by IAST transliteration, except aspirated consonants are indicated with a superscript "h" to distinguish from an unaspirated cononant + Ha, and the use of the IPA "ŋ" and "ʃ" instead of the less dinstinctive "ṅ" and "ś".