Ra (Indic)

Ra is a consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, Ra is derived from the early "Ashoka" Brahmi letter ng after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad r.svg. Most Indic scripts have differing forms of Ra when used in combination with other consonants, including subjoined and repha forms. Some of these are encoded in computer text as separate characters, while others are generated dynamically using conjunct shaping with a virama.

Ra
Devanagari Ashoka Brahmi Tibetan Bengali Tamil
Ra / Ra
0930 / 0931
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
Ra / ྲ
0F62 / 0FB2
Ra
09B0
Ra
0BB0
Gurmukhi Thai Baybayin Malayalam Sinhala

0A30

0E23
-
--

0D30

0DBB
Ancient scripts
Ashoka
Brahmi
Kushana
Brahmi
Gupta
Brahmi
Tocharian
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
𑀭
1102D
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
Ra / Ra
--
Kharoṣṭhī Siddhaṃ Sharada Grantha
𐨪
10A2A
Siddhaṃ 'Ra'
115A8
𑆫
111AB
𑌰
11330
Bangla and Tibetan scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Gupta Brahmi Tibetan Bengali
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
Ra / ྲ
0F62 / 0FB2
Ra
09B0
'Phags-pa Oriya Limbu Lepcha Marchen
 /
A858 / A871

0B30
 /
1916 / 192A
 /
1C1B / 1C25
𑲊
11C8A
Siddhaṃ Pracalit Tirhuta Zanabazar Square
Siddhaṃ 'Ra'
115A8
𑐬
1142C
𑒩
114A9
𑨫
11A2B
Note: Korean Hangul is an alphabet, not an Indic abugida, but
appears to ultimately have some derivation from 'Phags-pa.
Sharada-based scripts
Sharada Ashoka Brahmi Gupta Brahmi Takri Dogra
𑆫
111AB
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
𑚤
116A4
𑠤
11824
Gurmukhi Khudawadi Mahajani Khojki Multani

0A30
𑋙
112D9
𑅭
1116D
𑈦
11226
𑊢
112A2
Nagaris and other Gupta-based scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Gupta Brahmi Devanagari
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
Ra / Ra
0930 / 0931
Gujarati Kaithi Syloti Nagari Modi

0AB0
𑂩
110A9

A81E
𑘨
11628
Nandinagari Gunjala Gondi Soyombo Bhaiksuki
𑧈
119C8
𑩼
11A7C
𑶈
11D88
𑰨
11C28
Kawi scripts
Grantha Baybayin Tagbanwa Hanunó'o Buhid
𑌰
11330
-
--
-
--

172D

174D
Balinese Javanese Batak Lontara Rejang
 /
1B2D / 1B03
 /
A9AB / A9AC

1BD2

1A11

A93D
Ashoka Brahmi Sundanese Makasar Chakma
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
 /
1B9B / 1BA2
𑻭
11EED
𑻭
11EED
Tai and Khmer scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Grantha Khmer Lao
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
𑌰
11330

179A

0EA3
Thai Tai Tham Tai Viet Tai Le New Tai Lü

0E23
 /
1A41 / 1A42
 /
AAA6 / AAA7
-
--
-
--
Other Grantha-based scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Grantha Ahom Dives Akuru
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
𑌰
11330
𑜍
1170D
𑤧
11927
Malayalam Saurashtra Cham Burmese Kayah Li

0D30

A8AC

AA23
 /
101B / 103C

A91A
Other Brahmic scripts
Ashoka Brahmi Masaram Gondi Meetei Mayek
Brahmi 'R'
1102D
𑴦
11D26

ABD4
Tamil Kannada Sinhala Telugu
Ra
0BB0

0DBB

0C30

0CB0
Canadian Syllabics
Devanagari Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics
Ra
0930

1542

1546

1548
 /
154b / 1550
Other Canadian Syllabic codepoints: U+1542..U+1550, U+1622..U+1627, U+18ce..U+18d3, U+18b0..U+18b3, U+18dc..U+18dd
Phonemic representation: /ɾ/
IAST transliteration: r R
ISCII code point: CF (207)

Āryabhaṭa numerationEdit

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of र are:[1]

  • [ɾə] = 40 (४०)
  • रि [ɾɪ] = 4,000 (४ ०००)
  • रु [ɾʊ] = 400,000 (४ ०० ०००)
  • रृ [ɾri] = 40,000,000 (४ ०० ०० ०००)
  • रॢ [ɾlə] = 4×109 (४×१०)
  • रे [ɾe] = 4×1011 (४×१०११)
  • रै [ɾɛː] = 4×1013 (४×१०१३)
  • रो [ɾoː] = 4×1015 (४×१०१५)
  • रौ [ɾɔː] = 4×1017 (४×१०१७)

Historic RaEdit

There are three different general early historic scripts - Brahmi and its variants, Kharoṣṭhī, and Tocharian, the so-called slanting Brahmi. Ra as found in standard Brahmi,   was a simple geometric shape, with variations toward more flowing forms by the Gupta  . The Tocharian Ra   had an alterante Fremdzeichen form,  . The third form of ra, in Kharoshthi ( ) was probably derived from Aramaic separately from the Brahmi letter.

Brahmi RaEdit

The Brahmi letter  , Ra, is probably derived from the Aramaic Resh  , and is thus related to the modern Latin R and Greek Rho.[2] Several identifiable styles of writing the Brahmi Ra can be found, most associated with a specific set of inscriptions from an artifact or diverse records from an historic period.[3] As the earliest and most geometric style of Brahmi, the letters found on the Edicts of Ashoka and other records from around that time are normally the reference form for Brahmi letters, with vowel marks not attested until later forms of Brahmi back-formed to match the geometric writing style.

Brahmi Ra historic forms
Ashoka
(3rd-1st c. BCE)
Girnar
(~150 BCE)
Kushana
(~150-250 CE)
Gujarat
(~250 CE)
Gupta
(~350 CE)
         

Tocharian RaEdit

The Tocharian letter   is derived from the Brahmi  , and has an alternate Fremdzeichen form   used in conjuncts and as an alternate representation of Rä. The use of repha forms in modern Indic scripts is similar to the Fremdzeichen Ra in Tocharian.

Tocharian Ra with vowel marks
Ra Ri Ru Rr Rr̄ Re Rai Ro Rau Fremdzeichen
                         

Kharoṣṭhī RaEdit

The Kharoṣṭhī letter   is generally accepted as being derived from the Aramaic Resh  , and is thus related to R and Rho, in addition to the Brahmi Ra.[2]

Devanagari RaEdit

Ra () is a consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , after having gone through the Gupta letter  . Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter , and the Modi letter 𑘨.

Devanagari-using languagesEdit

In all languages, र is pronounced as [ɾə] or [ɾ] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Devanagari uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Devanagari र with vowel marks
Ra Ri Ru Rr Rr̄ Rl Rl̄ Re Rai Ro Rau R
रा रि री रु रू रृ रॄ रॢ रॣ रे रै रो रौ र्

Several languages use the dotted form Rra   for the [r] sound instead of र. ऱ combines with vowel marks identically to र.

Conjuncts with रEdit

 
Devanagari Repha
 
Devanagari Rakar
 
Eyelash Ra

Devanagari exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts. In modern Devanagari texts, most conjuncts are formed by reducing the letter shape to fit tightly to the following letter, usually by dropping a character's vertical stem, sometimes referred to as a "half form". Some conjunct clusters are always represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters. Vertically stacked conjuncts are ubiquitous in older texts, while only a few are still used routinely in modern Devanagari texts. The use of ligatures and vertical conjuncts may vary across languages using the Devanagari, with Marathi in particular preferring the use of half forms where texts in other languages would show ligatures and vertical stacks.[4]

When in conjuncts with other letters, र takes on several different forms, the most important of which are Repha and Rakar.

Repha is used to indicate that a conjunct begins with "R". It is crescent shape attached atop the headline of the rest of the conjunct at the right, immediately above the vertical stem, if present. The other members of the conjunct ignore Repha for shaping, combining with the other members of the conjunct to form ligatures or stacked conjuncts normally.

Rakar is used to indicate a consonant conjunct ending in "Ra". It is an upward-pointing wedge shape that is found either centered below the rest of the conjunct, or tilted to the right and integrated with the bottom of the stemline. Like with Repha, the rest of the conjunct ignores Rakar for shaping, except for minor alteration of the bottom of any stemline.

The third conjunct form of Ra is the so-called Eyelash Ra. It resembles a half-form in retaining the head line, with a shape below that connects to the following letter, but this remaining eyelash shape does not resemble either र or ऱ. The eyelash Ra is used in Nepali and Marathi texts instead of Repha for an initial "R" sound in a conjunct. Even though those languages both use the dotted Ra ऱ, eyelash Ra is the default form of Ra + Virama in Unicode for backwards compatibility, and the Repha form is mapped individually as a ligature with each other Devanagari consonant.

Devanagari RephaEdit

  • Repha र্ (r) + ब (ba) gives the ligature rba: note

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + भ (bha) gives the ligature rbha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + च (ca) gives the ligature rca:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + छ (cha) gives the ligature rcha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + द (da) gives the ligature rda:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ड (ḍa) gives the ligature rḍa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ढ (ḍʱa) gives the ligature rḍʱa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + द্ (d) + ध (dʱa) gives the ligature rddʱa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ध (dʱa) gives the ligature rdʱa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + द্ (d) + व (va) gives the ligature rdva:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ग (ga) gives the ligature rga:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + घ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ह (ha) gives the ligature rha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ज (ja) gives the ligature rja:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + झ (jha) gives the ligature rjha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rjña:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + क (ka) gives the ligature rka:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ख (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + क্ (k) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rkṣa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ल (la) gives the ligature rla:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ळ (ḷa) gives the ligature rḷa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + म (ma) gives the ligature rma:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + न (na) gives the ligature rna:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ङ (ŋa) gives the ligature rŋa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ङ্ (ŋ) + ग (ga) gives the ligature rŋga:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ण (ṇa) gives the ligature rṇa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rña:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + प (pa) gives the ligature rpa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + फ (pha) gives the ligature rpha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + र (ra) gives the ligature rra:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + स (sa) gives the ligature rsa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + श (ʃa) gives the ligature rʃa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rṣa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + स্ (s) + व (va) gives the ligature rsva:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + त (ta) gives the ligature rta:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + थ (tha) gives the ligature rtha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ट (ṭa) gives the ligature rṭa:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + त্ (t) + त (ta) gives the ligature rtta:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + ठ (ṭha) gives the ligature rṭha:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + व (va) gives the ligature rva:

 

  • Repha र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature rya:

 

Devanagari RakarEdit

  • भ্ (bh) + र (ra) gives the ligature bhra:

 

  • ब্ (b) + र (ra) gives the ligature bra:

 

  • छ্ (ch) + र (ra) gives the ligature chra:

 

  • च্ (c) + र (ra) gives the ligature cra:

 

  • द্ (d) + ब্ (b) + र (ra) gives the ligature dbra:

 

  • ढ্ (ḍʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ḍʱra:

 

  • ड্ (ḍ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ḍra:

 

  • द্ (d) + द্ (d) + र (ra) gives the ligature ddra:

 

  • द্ (d) + ग্ (g) + र (ra) gives the ligature dgra:

 

  • ध্ (dʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature dʱra:

 

  • द্ (d) + र (ra) gives the ligature dra:

 

  • घ্ (ɡʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

 

  • ग্ (g) + र (ra) gives the ligature gra:

 

  • ग্ (g) + र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature grya:

 

  • ह্ (h) + र (ra) gives the ligature hra:

 

  • झ্ (jh) + र (ra) gives the ligature jhra:

 

  • ज্ (j) + र (ra) gives the ligature jra:

 

  • क্ (k) + र (ra) gives the ligature kra:

 

  • क্ (k) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature ktra:

 

  • ळ্ (ḷ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ḷra:

 

  • ल্ (l) + र (ra) gives the ligature lra:

 

  • म্ (m) + र (ra) gives the ligature mra:

 

  • ङ্ (ŋ) + क্ (k) + र (ra) gives the ligature ŋkra:

 

  • ङ্ (ŋ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ŋra:

 

  • ण্ (ṇ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṇra:

 

  • न্ (n) + र (ra) gives the ligature nra:

 

  • ञ্ (ñ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ñra:

 

  • फ্ (ph) + र (ra) gives the ligature phra:

 

  • प্ (p) + र (ra) gives the ligature pra:

 

  • प্ (p) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature ptra:

 

  • श্ (ʃ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ʃra:

 

  • स্ (s) + र (ra) gives the ligature sra:

 

  • ष্ (ṣ) + क্ (k) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṣkra:

 

  • ष্ (ṣ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṣra:

 

  • थ্ (th) + र (ra) gives the ligature thra:

 

  • त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature tra:

 

  • त্ (t) + र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature trya:

 

  • ठ্ (ṭh) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṭhra:

 

  • ट্ (ṭ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṭra:

 

  • त্ (t) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature ttra:

 

  • व্ (v) + र (ra) gives the ligature vra:

 

  • य্ (y) + र (ra) gives the ligature yra:

 

Several conjuncts have both Repha and Rakar forms:

  • र্ (r) + ध্ (dʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature rdʱra:

 

  • र্ (r) + ष্ (ṣ) + ट্ (ṭ) + र (ra) gives the ligature rṣṭra:

 

  • र্ (r) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature rtra:

 

  • र্ (r) + त্ (t) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature rttra:

 

Devanagari Eyelash RaEdit

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ब (ba) gives the ligature rba:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + भ (bha) gives the ligature rbha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + च (ca) gives the ligature rca:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + छ (cha) gives the ligature rcha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + द (da) gives the ligature rda:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ड (ḍa) gives the ligature rḍa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ढ (ḍʱa) gives the ligature rḍʱa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ध (dʱa) gives the ligature rdʱa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ग (ga) gives the ligature rga:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + घ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ह (ha) gives the ligature rha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ज (ja) gives the ligature rja:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + झ (jha) gives the ligature rjha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rjña:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + क (ka) gives the ligature rka:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ख (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + क্ (k) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rkṣa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ल (la) gives the ligature rla:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ळ (ḷa) gives the ligature rḷa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + म (ma) gives the ligature rma:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + न (na) gives the ligature rna:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ङ (ŋa) gives the ligature rŋa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ण (ṇa) gives the ligature rṇa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rña:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + प (pa) gives the ligature rpa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + फ (pha) gives the ligature rpha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + स (sa) gives the ligature rsa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + श (ʃa) gives the ligature rʃa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rṣa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + त (ta) gives the ligature rta:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + थ (tha) gives the ligature rtha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ट (ṭa) gives the ligature rṭa:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + ठ (ṭha) gives the ligature rṭha:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + व (va) gives the ligature rva:

 

  • Eyelash र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature rya:

 

Bengali RaEdit

The Bengali script র is derived from the Siddhaṃ  , and is marked by a similar horizontal head line, but less geometric shape, than its Devanagari counterpart, र. The inherent vowel of Bengali consonant letters is /ɔ/, so the bare letter র will sometimes be transliterated as "ro" instead of "ra". Adding okar, the "o" vowel mark, gives a reading of /ro/.

Like all Indic consonants, র can be modified by marks to indicate another (or no) vowel than its inherent "a".

Bengali র with vowel marks
ra ri ru rr rr̄ re rai ro rau r
রা রি রী রু রূ রৃ রৄ রে রৈ রো রৌ র্

র in Bengali-using languagesEdit

র is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

Conjuncts with রEdit

Bengali র exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts. Much like other Indic scripts, Bengali র also rarely appears in conjuncts in full form, and has special unrelated graphic forms for both initial and trailing র in conjuncts called Repha and Ra phala.[5]

Bengali Ra-phalaEdit

 
Bengali Ra-phala

The letter র has a special form when used as the last letter of a conjunct called "Ra phala" (or "Ro pholo"). This reduced form of র is appended to the bottom of a letter or conjunct. Both Ya and Va have a similar "phala" trailing form. Ra-phala and Ya-phala can be found together in many conjuncts.

  • ভ্ (bh) + র (ra) gives the ligature bhra:

 

  • ব্ (b) + র (ra) gives the ligature bra:

 

  • চ্ (c) + ছ্ (ch) + র (ra) gives the ligature cchra:

 

  • দ্ (d) + ভ্ (bh) + র (ra) gives the ligature dbhra:

 

  • ঢ্ (ḍʱ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ḍʱra:

 

  • ড্ (ḍ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ḍra:

 

  • ধ্ (dʱ) + র (ra) gives the ligature dʱra:

 

  • দ্ (d) + র (ra) gives the ligature dra:

 

  • দ্ (d) + র্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature drya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

 

  • গ্ (g) + ধ্ (dʱ) + র (ra) gives the ligature gdʱra:

 

  • ঘ্ (ɡʱ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

 

  • গ্ (g) + র (ra) gives the ligature gra:

 

  • গ্ (g) + র্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature grya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

 

  • জ্ (j) + র (ra) gives the ligature jra:

 

  • খ্ (kh) + র (ra) gives the ligature khra:

 

  • ক্ (k) + র (ra) gives the ligature kra:

 

  • ক্ (k) + ত্ (t) + র (ra) gives the ligature ktra:

 

  • ক্ (k) + ট্ (ṭ) + র (ra) gives the ligature kṭra:

 

  • ম্ (m) + ভ্ (bh) + র (ra) gives the ligature mbhra:

 

  • ম্ (m) + প্ (p) + র (ra) gives the ligature mpra:

 

  • ম্ (m) + র (ra) gives the ligature mra:

 

  • ম্ (m) + ব্ (v) + র (ra) gives the ligature mvra:

 

  • ন্ (n) + ড্ (ḍ) + র (ra) gives the ligature nḍra:

 

  • ন্ (n) + ধ্ (dʱ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ndʱra:

 

  • ন্ (n) + দ্ (d) + র (ra) gives the ligature ndra:

 

  • ঙ্ (ŋ) + ঘ্ (ɡʱ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ŋɡʱra:

 

  • ঙ্ (ŋ) + ক্ (k) + র (ra) gives the ligature ŋkra:

 

  • ণ্ (ṇ) + ড্ (ḍ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ṇḍra:

 

  • ন্ (n) + থ্ (th) + র (ra) gives the ligature nthra:

 

  • ন্ (n) + ত্ (t) + র (ra) gives the ligature ntra:

 

  • ন্ (n) + ত্ (t) + র্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature ntrya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

 

  • ন্ (n) + ট্ (ṭ) + র (ra) gives the ligature nṭra:

 

  • ফ্ (ph) + র (ra) gives the ligature phra:

 

  • প্ (p) + র (ra) gives the ligature pra:

 

  • প্ (p) + র্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature prya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

 

  • শ্ (ʃ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ʃra:

 

  • স্ (s) + ক্ (k) + র (ra) gives the ligature skra:

 

  • স্ (s) + র (ra) gives the ligature sra:

 

  • ষ্ (ṣ) + ক্ (k) + র (ra) gives the ligature ṣkra:

 

  • ষ্ (ṣ) + প্ (p) + র (ra) gives the ligature ṣpra:

 

  • ষ্ (ṣ) + ট্ (ṭ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ṣṭra:

 

  • স্ (s) + ত্ (t) + র (ra) gives the ligature stra:

 

  • স্ (s) + ট্ (ṭ) + র (ra) gives the ligature sṭra:

 

  • থ্ (th) + র (ra) gives the ligature thra:

 

  • ত্ (t) + র (ra) gives the ligature tra:

 

  • ত্ (t) + র্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature trya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

 

  • ট্ (ṭ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ṭra:

 

Bengali RephaEdit

 
Bengali Repha

Unlike other letters, র also has a special form when used as the initial letter of a conjunct called "Repha". This reduced form of র on top of the following letter or conjunct. Repha can be found in combination with Ra-phala, Ya-phala and Va-phala in many conjuncts.

  • র্ (r) + ভ (bha) gives the ligature rbha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ব্ (b) + য (ya) gives the ligature rbya, with the ya phala suffix:

 

  • র্ (r) + চ (ca) gives the ligature rca:

 

  • র্ (r) + ছ (cha) gives the ligature rcha:

 

  • র্ (r) + চ্ (c) + য (ya) gives the ligature rcya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + দ (da) gives the ligature rda:

 

  • র্ (r) + ড (ḍa) gives the ligature rḍa:

 

  • র্ (r) + ঢ্ (ḍʱ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rḍʱya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ধ (dʱa) gives the ligature rdʱa:

 

  • র্ (r) + ধ্ (dʱ) + ব (va) gives the ligature rdʱva, with the va phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + দ্ (d) + র (ra) gives the ligature rdra:

 

  • র্ (r) + দ্ (d) + ব (va) gives the ligature rdva, with the va phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + গ (ga) gives the ligature rga:

 

  • র্ (r) + ঘ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

 

  • র্ (r) + (ɡʱ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rɡʱya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + গ্ (ga) + য (ya) gives the ligature rɡya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + হ (ha) gives the ligature rha:

 

  • র্ (r) + হ্ (h) + য (ya) gives the ligature rhya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + জ (ja) gives the ligature rja:

 

  • র্ (r) + ঝ (jha) gives the ligature rjha:

 

  • র্ (r) + জ্ (j) + য (ya) gives the ligature rjya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ক (ka) gives the ligature rka:

 

  • র্ (r) + খ (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

 

  • র্ (r) + খ্ (kh) + য (ya) gives the ligature rkhya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ক্ (k) + য (ya) gives the ligature rkya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ল (la) gives the ligature rla:

 

  • র্ (r) + ম (ma) gives the ligature rma:

 

  • র্ (r) + ম্ (m) + য (ya) gives the ligature rmya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ন (na) gives the ligature rna:

 

  • র্ (r) + ণ (ṇa) gives the ligature rṇa:

 

  • র্ (r) + ণ্ (ṇ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rṇya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + প (pa) gives the ligature rpa:

 

  • র্ (r) + ফ (pha) gives the ligature rpha:

 

  • র্ (r) + স (sa) gives the ligature rsa:

 

  • র্ (r) + শ (ʃa) gives the ligature rʃa:

 

  • র্ (r) + শ্ (ʃ) + ব (va) gives the ligature rʃva, with the va phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + শ্ (ʃ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rʃya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ষ (ṣa) gives the ligature rṣa:

 

  • র্ (r) + ষ্ (ṣ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rṣya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ত (ta) gives the ligature rta:

 

  • র্ (r) + থ (tha) gives the ligature rtha:

 

  • র্ (r) + থ্ (th) + য (ya) gives the ligature rthya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + ত্ (t) + র (ra) gives the ligature rtra:

 

  • র্ (r) + ট (ṭa) gives the ligature rṭa:

 

  • র্ (r) + ত্ (t) + য (ya) gives the ligature rtya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

 

  • র্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature rya, with repha, not ya phala:

 

Gujarati RaEdit

 
Gujarati Ra.

Ra () is twenty-seventh consonant of the Gujarati abugida. It is derived from the Devanagari Ra   with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed, and ultimately the Brahmi letter  . When combined with certain vowels, the Gujarati Ra may assume unique forms, such as રુ and રૂ.

Gujarati-using LanguagesEdit

The Gujarati script is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. In both languages, ર is pronounced as [rə] or [r] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Gujarati uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Ra Ri Ru Rr Rl Rr̄ Rl̄ Re Rai Ro Rau R
 
Gujarati Ra syllables, with vowel marks in red.

Conjuncts with રEdit

 
Gujarati Repha
 
Gujarati Rakar

Gujarati ર exhibits conjunct ligatures, much like its parent Devanagari Script. While most Gujarati conjuncts can only be formed by reducing the letter shape to create a "half form" that fits tightly to following letter, Ra does not have a half form. A few conjunct clusters can be represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters, and vertically stacked conjuncts can also be found in Gujarati, although much less commonly than in Devanagari.

True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Gujarati are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. The most common conjunct variants are the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra. A leading consonant or conjunct will use its full form, rather than half form, when being modified by a trailing Rakar.

Repha Rakar
* ર્ (r) + ક (ka) gives the ligature RKa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ખ (kha) gives the ligature RKha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ગ (ga) gives the ligature RGa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ઘ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature RGha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ઙ (ŋa) gives the ligature RṄa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ચ (ca) gives the ligature RCa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + છ (cha) gives the ligature RCha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + જ (ja) gives the ligature RJa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ઝ (jha) gives the ligature RJha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ઞ (ɲa) gives the ligature RÑa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ટ (ʈa) gives the ligature RṬa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ઠ (ʈha) gives the ligature RṬha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ડ (ɖa) gives the ligature RḌa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ઢ (ɖʱa) gives the ligature RḌha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ણ (ɳa) gives the ligature RṆa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ત (ta) gives the ligature RTa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + થ (tha) gives the ligature RTha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + દ (da) gives the ligature RDa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ધ (dʱa) gives the ligature RDha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ન (na) gives the ligature RNa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + પ (pa) gives the ligature RPa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ફ (pha) gives the ligature RPha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + બ (ba) gives the ligature RBa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ભ (bha) gives the ligature RBha:

 

  • ર્ (r) + મ (ma) gives the ligature RMa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ય (ya) gives the ligature RYa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + લ (la) gives the ligature RLa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ળ (ɭ̆a) gives the ligature Ra:

 

  • ર્ (r) + વ (va) gives the ligature RVa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + શ (ʃa) gives the ligature RŚa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ષ (ʂa) gives the ligature RṢa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + સ (sa) gives the ligature RSa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + હ (ha) gives the ligature RHa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ક (ka) ષ (ʂa) gives the ligature RKṢa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + જ (ja) ઞ (ɲa) gives the ligature RJÑa:

 

  • ર્ (r) + ર (ra) gives the ligature RRa:

 

* ક્ (k) + ર (ra) gives the ligature KRa:

 

  • ખ્ (kh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature KhRa:

 

  • ગ્ (g) + ર (ra) gives the ligature GRa:

 

  • ઘ્ (ɡʱ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature GhRa:

 

  • ઙ્ (ŋ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṄRa:

 

  • ચ્ (c) + ર (ra) gives the ligature CRa:

 

  • છ્ (ch) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ChRa:

 

  • જ્ (j) + ર (ra) gives the ligature JRa:

 

  • ઝ્ (jh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature JhRa:

 

  • ઞ્ (ɲ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ÑRa:

 

  • ટ્ (ʈ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṬRa:

 

  • ડ્ (ɖ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ḌRa:

 

  • ઠ્ (ʈh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṬhRa:

 

  • ઢ્ (ɖʱ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ḌhRa:

 

  • ણ્ (ɳ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṆRa:

 

  • ત્ (t) + ર (ra) gives the ligature TRa:

 

  • થ્ (th) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ThRa:

 

  • દ્ (d) + ર (ra) gives the ligature DRa:

 

  • ધ્ (dʱ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature DhRa:

 

  • ન્ (n) + ર (ra) gives the ligature NRa:

 

  • પ્ (p) + ર (ra) gives the ligature PRa:

 

  • ફ્ (ph) + ર (ra) gives the ligature PhRa:

 

  • બ્ (b) + ર (ra) gives the ligature BRa:

 

  • ભ્ (bh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature BhRa:

 

  • મ્ (m) + ર (ra) gives the ligature MRa:

 

  • ય્ (y) + ર (ra) gives the ligature YRa:

 

  • લ્ (l) + ર (ra) gives the ligature LRa:

 

  • ળ્ (ɭ̆) + ર (ra) gives the ligature Ra:

 

  • વ્ (v) + ર (ra) gives the ligature VRa:

 

  • શ્ (ʃ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ŚRa:

 

  • ષ્ (ʂ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṢRa:

 

  • સ્ (s) + ર (ra) gives the ligature SRa:

 

  • હ્ (h) + ર (ra) gives the ligature HRa:

 

  • ક્ (k) + ષ (ʂa) ર (ra) gives the ligature KṢRa:

 

  • જ્ (j) + ઞ (ɲa) ર (ra) gives the ligature JÑRa:

 

Javanese RaEdit

Telugu RaEdit

Telugu independent and subjoined Ra.

Ra () is a consonant of the Telugu abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  . It is closely related to the Kannada letter . Most Telugu consonants contain a v-shaped headstroke that is related to the horizontal headline found in other Indic scripts, although headstrokes do not connect adjacent letters in Telugu. The headstroke is normally lost when adding vowel matras.

Telugu conjuncts are created by reducing trailing letters to a subjoined form that appears below the initial consonant of the conjunct. Like the Rakar forms in other Indic scripts, the subjoined Ra in Telugu is not immediately related to the full form of Ra. Unlike other the Repha in other Indic scripts, there is no special prefix form of Ra in Telugu. Ligature conjuncts are not a feature in Telugu, with the only non-standard construction being an alternate subjoined form of Ṣa (borrowed from Kannada) in the KṢa conjunct.

Telugu RraEdit

Telugu independent and subjoined Rra.

In addition, Telugu also contains a second /r/ consonant, Rra (). It is closely related to the Kannada letter . Since it lacks the v-shaped headstroke common to most Telugu letters, ఱ remains unaltered by most vowel matras, and its subjoined form is simply a smaller version of the normal letter shape.

Malayalam RaEdit

 
Malayalam letter Ra

Ra () is a consonant of the Malayalam abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , via the Grantha letter   Ra. Like in other Indic scripts, Malayalam consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

 
Malayalam Ra matras: Ra, Rā, Ri, Rī, Ru, Rū, Rr̥, Rr̥̄, Rl̥, Rl̥̄, Re, Rē, Rai, Ro, Rō, Rau, and R.

Conjuncts of രEdit

Malayalam Chillu R and conjoining Ra

As is common in Indic scripts, Malayalam joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. There are several ways in which conjuncts are formed in Malayalam texts: using a post-base form of a trailing consonant placed under the initial consonant of a conjunct, a combined ligature of two or more consonants joined together, a conjoining form that appears as a combining mark on the rest of the conjunct, the use of an explicit candrakkala mark to suppress the inherent "a" vowel, or a special consonant form called a "chillu" letter, representing a bare consonant without the inherent "a" vowel. Like in most Indic scripts, Malayalam Ra has special forms, including a chillu letter and a conjoining form for a trailing ra, which appears before the other elements of a conjunct but is pronounced after. Texts written with the modern reformed Malayalam orthography, put̪iya lipi, may favor more regular conjunct forms than older texts in paḻaya lipi, due to changes undertaken in the 1970s by the Government of Kerala.

  • ക് (k) + ര (ra) gives the ligature kra:

 

  • ഖ് (kh) + ര (ra) gives the ligature khra:

 

  • ഗ് (g) + ര (ra) gives the ligature gra:

 

  • ഘ് (ɡʱ) + ര (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

 

Malayalam ṞaEdit

 
Malayalam letter Ṟa

Ṟa () is a consonant of the Malayalam abugida. It is related to the Malayalam Ra consonant and has a similar pronunciation.

 
Malayalam Ṟa matras: Ṟa, Ṟā, Ṟi, Ṟī, Ṟu, Ṟū, Ṟr̥, Ṟr̥̄, Ṟl̥, Ṟl̥̄, Ṟe, Ṟē, Ṟai, Ṟo, Ṟō, Ṟau, and Ṟ.

Conjuncts of റEdit

As is common in Indic scripts, Malayalam joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. There are several ways in which conjuncts are formed in Malayalam texts: using a post-base form of a trailing consonant placed under the initial consonant of a conjunct, a combined ligature of two or more consonants joined together, a conjoining form that appears as a combining mark on the rest of the conjunct, the use of an explicit candrakkala mark to suppress the inherent "a" vowel, or a special consonant form called a "chillu" letter, representing a bare consonant without the inherent "a" vowel. Texts written with the modern reformed Malayalam orthography, put̪iya lipi, may favor more regular conjunct forms than older texts in paḻaya lipi, due to changes undertaken in the 1970s by the Government of Kerala.

  • ന് (n) + റ (ṟa) gives the ligature nṟa:

 

  • റ് (ṟ) + റ (ṟa) gives the ligature ṟṟa:

 


Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics ReEdit

, , and are the base characters "Re", "Ri", "Ro" and "Ra" in the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The bare consonant (R) is a small version of the A-series letter ᕋ, although the Western Cree letter ᕑ, derived from Pitman shorthand was the original bare consonant symbol for R. The character ᕂ is derived from a handwritten form of the Devanagari letter र, without the headline or vertical stem, and the forms for different vowels are derived by mirroring and rotation.[6][7]

Unlike most writing systems without legacy computer encodings, complex Canadian syllabic letters are represented in Unicode with pre-composed characters, rather than with base characters and diacritical marks.

Variant E-series I-series O-series A-series Other
R + vowel
Re Cree Re Ri Ro Ra Ray
Small - - - -
- - - R -
R with long vowels -
- Rāi
R + W-vowels -
Cree Rwe Rwi Rwo Rwa Rway
R + long W-vowels -
Rwē Rwī Rwō Rwā Cree Rwā -
Related characters - - -
Medial R Cree R

Odia RaEdit

 
Odia independent letter Ra

Ra () is a consonant of the Odia abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter  , via the Siddhaṃ letter   Ra. Like in other Indic scripts, Odia consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

Odia Ra with vowel matras
Ra Ri Ru Rr̥ Rr̥̄ Rl̥ Rl̥̄ Re Rai Ro Rau R
ରା ରି ରୀ ରୁ ରୂ ରୃ ରୄ ରୢ ରୣ ରେ ରୈ ରୋ ରୌ ର୍

Conjuncts of ରEdit

Odia Repha and Ra Phala

s is common in Indic scripts, Odia joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. The most common conjunct formation is achieved by using a small subjoined form of trailing consonants. Most consonants' subjoined forms are identical to the full form, just reduced in size, although a few drop the curved headline or have a subjoined form not directly related to the full form of the consonant. The subjoined form of Ra is one of these mismatched forms, and is referred to as "Ra Phala". In addition, an initial Ra is indicated with a special form called "Repha". The Repha and Ra-Phala forms are the only way conjuncts with Ra are made.

Odia RephaEdit

  • ର୍ (r) + କ (ka) gives the ligature rka:

 

  • ର୍ (r) + ଖ (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

 

  • ର୍ (r) + ଗ (ga) gives the ligature rga:

 

  • ର୍ (r) + ଘ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

 

  • ର୍ (r) + ଙ (ŋa) gives the ligature rŋa:

 

  • ର୍ (r) + ର (ra) gives the ligature rra:

 

Odia Ra PhalaEdit

  • କ୍ (k) + ର (ra) gives the ligature kra:

 

  • ଖ୍ (kh) + ର (ra) gives the ligature khra:

 

  • ଗ୍ (g) + ର (ra) gives the ligature gra:

 

  • ଘ୍ (ɡʱ) + ର (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

 

  • ଙ୍ (ŋ) + ର (ra) gives the ligature ŋra:

 

  • ଲ୍ (l) + ର (ra) gives the ligature lra:

 


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  2. ^ a b Bühler, Georg. "On the Origin of the Indian Brahmi Alphabet". archive.org. Karl J. Trübner. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  3. ^ Evolutionary chart, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Vol 7, 1838 [1]
  4. ^ Pall, Peeter. "Microsoft Word - kblhi2" (PDF). Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  5. ^ "The Bengali Alphabet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-28.
  6. ^ Andrew Dalby (2004:139) Dictionary of Languages
  7. ^ Some General Aspects of the Syllabics Orthography, Chris Harvey 2003
^note Conjuncts are identified by IAST transliteration, except aspirated consonants are indicated with a superscript "h" to distinguish from an unaspirated cononant + Ha, and the use of the IPA "ŋ" and "ʃ" instead of the less dinstinctive "ṅ" and "ś".