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The "rural purge" of American television networks (in particular CBS) was a series of cancellations in the early 1970s of still-popular rural-themed shows with demographically skewed audiences, the majority of which occurred at the end of the 1970–71 television season. In addition to rural-themed shows such as Mayberry R.F.D., The Beverly Hillbillies, and Green Acres, the cancellations ended several highly rated variety shows that had been on CBS since the beginning of television broadcasting. CBS saw a dramatic change in direction with the shift, moving away from shows with rural themes and toward more appeal to urban and suburban audiences.

BackgroundEdit

Starting with The Real McCoys, a 1957 ABC program, U.S. television had undergone a "rural revolution", a shift towards situation comedies featuring "naïve but noble 'rubes' from deep in the American heartland".[1] CBS was the network most associated with the trend, with series such as The Andy Griffith Show, The Beverly Hillbillies, Green Acres, Mister Ed, Lassie, Petticoat Junction, and Hee Haw.[1] CBS aired so many of these rural-themed shows, many produced by Filmways, that it gained the nickname the "Country Broadcasting System".[2] Another nickname was the "Hillbilly Network", a play on the network's original self-proclaimed nickname of "The Tiffany Network".[citation needed]

By 1966, industry executives were lamenting the lack of diversity in American television offerings and the dominance of rural-oriented programming on the Big Three television networks of the era, noting that "ratings indicate that the American public prefer hillbillies, cowboys, and spies"[3] (spy shows being a lingering after-effect of the British Invasion[citation needed]).

CBS vice president Michael Dann personally hated the rural-oriented programming he was airing (as did most television executives), but he kept the shows on the air in acknowledgement of their strong overall ratings, which he considered the most important measure of a program's success. Dann's superior, CBS president James T. Aubrey, likewise believed rural sitcoms were a crucial part of the network's formula for success, noting that at the time, advertisers wanted the audience that watched rural sitcoms.[4] Robert Wood, a later president of CBS, pressured Dann to cancel the rural programs. Dann was forced out shortly after he responded, "Just because the people who buy refrigerators are between 26 and 35 and live in Scarsdale, you should not beam your programming only at them."[5]

InstigationEdit

As summarized for the Museum of Broadcast Communications:[1]

By the late 1960s, … many viewers, especially young ones, were rejecting [rural-themed] shows as irrelevant to modern times. Mayberry's total isolation from contemporary problems was part of its appeal, but more than a decade of media coverage of the civil rights movement had brought about a change in the popular image of the small Southern town. Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C., was set on a U.S. Marine base between 1964 and 1969, but neither Gomer nor any of his fellow marines ever mentioned the war in Vietnam. CBS executives, afraid of losing the lucrative youth demographic, purged their schedule of hit shows that were drawing huge but older-skewing audiences.

The 1970 cuts were preceded in 1967, for similar reasons of viewer demographics, when CBS ordered cancellation of its remaining panel game shows, What's My Line?, I've Got a Secret, and To Tell the Truth; the latter continued in daytime for another year. These programs were still extremely profitable (mainly because of their low budgets) but performed poorly in demographics.[6] The network attempted to incorporate more urban programming, including the innovative sitcom He & She in the 1967 season, but a clash with that show's lead-in (Green Acres) led to its cancellation. The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, likewise an innovative and far more successful program that appealed to a younger audience, also debuted in 1967.[7]

The wave of cancellations was instigated by CBS executive Robert Wood, who replaced longtime CBS programming head Michael Dann with Fred Silverman, following research highlighting the greater attraction to advertisers of the young adult urban viewer demographic.[8] Much of CBS's existing product either drew audiences that were too old and rural, or drew another undesirable demographic: young boys, who lacked disposable income of their own.[9]

Another factor in the changeover was the loss of one half-hour of prime programming time each night as a result of the Prime Time Access Rule, which took effect in 1971; as a result of the new rule, the networks (all of which had previously started prime time at 7:30 p.m. Eastern Time) had to trim the equivalent of seven half-hour programs from their weekly schedules and return control of these slots to the local stations.[citation needed]

The numerous cancellations prompted Pat Buttram ("Mr. Haney" on one of the canceled shows, Green Acres) to observe, "It was the year CBS canceled everything with a tree—including Lassie."[10][11]

The first rural-themed show canceled by Silverman was Petticoat Junction in 1970; the following fall, The Mary Tyler Moore Show premiered, and All in the Family premiered in January 1971 as a midseason replacement. Both shows provided the urban demographic, cutting-edge social relevance, and ratings that CBS sought.[citation needed] These early successes prompted Silverman and the network to cancel Green Acres, The Beverly Hillbillies, Mayberry R.F.D., Hee Haw, and The Jim Nabors Hour at the end of the 1970–71 season, as well as cut short The New Andy Griffith Show, a comeback vehicle for Andy Griffith, after only ten episodes. (The New Andy Griffith Show was a last-minute replacement for Headmaster, Griffith's unsuccessful effort to reach a more refined, urban audience; Headmaster was canceled after only 14 episodes.) Another series, The Glen Campbell Goodtime Hour, lasted until the end of the 1971–72 season.[citation needed]

ABC also was looking for younger audiences, and in May 1971 canceled shows that skewed toward rural viewers (such as The Johnny Cash Show, which had ranked 17th in the ratings) or older viewers (Make Room for Granddaddy and The Lawrence Welk Show). NBC targeted rural- and older-oriented programs in its cuts, eliminating long-running programs such as Wild Kingdom, The Andy Williams Show, and The Virginian, all of which ran nine seasons or more.[citation needed]

Popularity of cancelled showsEdit

Welk's program—a mainstay of television since the summer of 1955—immediately moved to first-run syndication, where it ran an additional 11 years before Welk's retirement in 1982. Reruns of the show began almost immediately.

Wild Kingdom, Lassie, and Hee Haw also continued in first-run syndication after their cancellations in 1971. Lassie ran until 1973, while Hee Haw had even greater success, lasting until 1991. Wild Kingdom primarily aired reruns, but continued to produce occasional new episodes in syndication through 1987. Both Andy Williams and Johnny Cash returned with short-lived revivals of their shows in 1976 and continued to produce annual specials into the 1980s.

Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. was the first of the rural-based shows to leave the air, not due to its theme but to Jim Nabors's desire to move to something else – "reach for another rung on the ladder, either up or down". He was given a new show, The Jim Nabors Hour, as a replacement for the next season.[12]

Mayberry R.F.D., a direct continuation of The Andy Griffith Show, finished number 4 for the year and was renewed for two more seasons.[13]

The first of the cancellations was The Red Skelton Show, which had finished the 1969–70 season as the number 7 show.[14] The show's move back to NBC and its altered format drew away its viewership; thus it fell out of the top 30 by the end of the 1970–71 season.

Petticoat Junction was already in decline, due in part to shifting tastes and to the death of star Bea Benaderet in 1968, by the time it was canceled in 1970.

The success of The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, and newer, more urban variety shows such as The Carol Burnett Show in 1967 and The Flip Wilson Show in 1970, allowed cancellations of most of the "undesired shows" at the end of 1971, despite their high ratings and popularity. Both Green Acres and The Beverly Hillbillies had dropped from the Nielsen top 30 by the 1970–71 season, yet both shows continued to win their respective time slots and had a loyal following, warranting renewal for another season. Other shows still pulling in even higher ratings when canceled included Mayberry R.F.D., which finished the season at number 15, Hee Haw at number 16, and The Jim Nabors Hour at number 29.[15]

Series such as ABC's The Brady Bunch and The Partridge Family were never truly ratings hits, but both appealed to a younger demographic and were renewed for three more seasons.

Replacement showsEdit

Silverman replaced much of the canceled programming in 1971 and 1972 with "relevant" fare. Following All in the Family were its many spinoffs including Maude and The Jeffersons. Following the success of The Mary Tyler Moore Show, the series' production company MTM Productions would develop the popular The Bob Newhart Show. M*A*S*H was added to the network in 1972, placing in the top 15 shows for 10 of its 11 seasons, and eventually aired the most watched single episode of any series in U.S. television history during its 1983 series finale.

An unusual side effect of the rural purge was the reduction of the laugh track. Most of the rural-oriented programs were filmed in the single-camera setup without a studio audience, with the canned laughter added by laugh-track proprietor Charley Douglass. The newer shows that came to television in the early 1970s were multiple-camera setups with live studio audiences, a trend that would become the norm throughout the 1970s and 1980s, with Douglass's laugh track mostly limited to sweetening.

Under Silverman's watch, game shows returned to the network's daytime schedule during this period, as well (unlike NBC or ABC, CBS had not carried a daytime game show since To Tell the Truth ended its run in 1968, instead opting for reruns of 1960s prime-time sitcoms such as The Lucy Show and Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C., both of which had left the air by that point). The first of these shows was The Amateur's Guide to Love, which ran for three months in the Spring and Summer of 1972. Shortly afterward, on September 4, the network debuted three new game shows: The New Price Is Right, Gambit, and The Joker's Wild. Gambit ran until 1976 and returned in 1980 for an additional year as Las Vegas Gambit on NBC; Joker ended its CBS run in 1975, then later ran in syndication from 1977 to 1986; and Price is in its 47th season as of January 2019.

Despite the relatively large number of "old guard" variety shows canceled in the purge, Silverman actually continued to create new variety shows to replace the ones he had canceled; one of the first was The Sonny & Cher Show, which debuted in February 1971 and would last until Sonny and Cher divorced in 1974 (Silverman then retained Cher's services, signing her to her own show in 1976, after which she agreed to reunite professionally with Sonny for its last year on air, before it ended in 1977). Silverman would later commission Donny & Marie for ABC five years later. He would also, with little success, commission The Brady Bunch Hour for ABC in 1976 and Pink Lady and Jeff and The Susan Anton Show for NBC in 1980, all three of which were received extremely poorly.

Several conservative members of Congress,[who?] as well as President Richard Nixon and members of his administration, expressed displeasure at some of the replacement shows, many of which (especially the more socially conscious shows such as All in the Family) were not particularly "family-friendly". The backlash from the purge prompted CBS to commission a rural family drama, The Waltons, for its Fall 1972 schedule based on the TV film The Homecoming: A Christmas Story (1971).[16] The network scheduled it in what it thought would be a death slot against popular series The Flip Wilson Show and The Mod Squad, allegedly hoping the show would underperform and head to a quick cancellation.[17] Instead, the show proved to be an instant hit, prompting CBS to put its full support behind the show;[18] The Waltons went on to run for nine seasons, reaching as high as second in the Nielsens and finishing in the top 30 for seven of its nine years on air, and would become a perennial fixture in syndicated reruns for decades thereafter. The success of The Waltons started a trend for family dramas throughout the 1970s; such as Little House on the Prairie, Apple's Way, Family, and Eight Is Enough.

Other cancellationsEdit

Non-rural-themed shows canceled by CBS included sitcoms Family Affair and Hogan's Heroes in 1971, with the long-running My Three Sons ending in 1972. Variety shows that had been around since the late 1940s and early 1950s, such as The Jackie Gleason Show and The Ed Sullivan Show, were canceled in 1970 and 1971, respectively; likewise, The Original Amateur Hour (a stalwart of network television since its debut, and before that on radio since 1934) ended on its own accord in 1970 due to the show's aging demographics. The Red Skelton Show was canceled by CBS at the end of the 1969–70 season, and was picked up by NBC (the series' original network) for one more season. NBC would also revert Skelton's show to its original half-hour format in place of its more familiar hour-long format on CBS. By the end of 1972, Lucille Ball remained the only long-time star from television's golden era to still have her own show. Ball's show, Here's Lucy, still rated in the Nielsen top ten and would continue to pull in high ratings until its end in 1974. TV westerns were another genre targeted for cancellation; martial artist Bruce Lee, in attempting to pitch his series The Warrior to television networks, stated he was told "the Western idea is out."[19] Apart from Gunsmoke and Bonanza, two prime-time staples which in 1971 had been on the air for a combined 28 years (and would continue to air until 1975 and 1973, respectively), most of the shows in the genre were already off the air at the time of the purge. NBC canceled two of the remaining Westerns in 1971, The Virginian and The High Chaparral. Westerns had already been targeted by parents' groups opposing television violence and those concerned about the portrayal of Native Americans, though the main reason for their cancellation was that their viewership skewed older and rural. By 1969, no new Westerns were debuting.[20]

The 1971 plan of CBS included cancellation of Gunsmoke at the end of the 1970–71 season, while Mayberry R.F.D. and Family Affair would be renewed for the 1971–72 season; Fred Silverman and Robert Wood both favored cancelling Gunsmoke over Mayberry R.F.D. and Family Affair.

This was revised due to Gunsmoke's Top-10 Ratings, ranking #5 in the Nielsen Ratings for the 1970–71 season, rising to #4 in the 1971–72 season. Another factor was that Gunsmoke was the favorite TV program of Barbara Paley, wife of CBS Chief Executive William Paley.

ABC seriously considered picking up Family Affair for the 1971-72 ABC Prime-Time schedule, but eventually passed on this decision as the network had two similar shows with similar audiences (The Brady Bunch and The Partridge Family), and concluded that Family Affair had run its course.

Shows canceledEdit

The following shows were canceled at the end of their respective seasons. Some shows did not necessarily have a rural theme, but were perceived to appeal primarily to rural and/or older audiences.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Haggins, Jerry. "The Andy Griffith Show – U.S. Situation Comedy". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
  2. ^ "Country Broadcasting System : NTCA's The New Edge". www.ntca.org. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
  3. ^ William E. Sarmento (July 24, 1966). "Fourth TV Network Looming on Horizon". Lowell Sun. p. 20.
  4. ^ Oulahan, Richard; and William Lambert. "The Tyrant's Fall That Rocked the TV World: Until He Was Suddenly Brought Low, Jim Aubrey Ruled the Air". Life Magazine. September 10, 1965. 90+.
  5. ^ "Michael Dann, TV Programmer, Dies at 94; Scheduled Horowitz and Hillbillies". The New York Times. 31 May 2016.
  6. ^ "Mature Programs Dying As TV Woos Young Folks". The Oregonian.
  7. ^ Freeman, Marc (2017-11-25). "'The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour' at 50: The Rise and Fall of a Groundbreaking Variety Show". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
  8. ^ Metz, W. (2007). Bewitched. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-3580-2. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  9. ^ Rice, Lynette (June 8, 2007). "Bob Barker on saying goodbye to The Price Is Right". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
  10. ^ Clark, Jim (March 26, 1999). "Ken Berry Enjoys Taking Astaire Way to Mayberry and Beyond!". Official Website of Ken Berry. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  11. ^ Harkins, Anthony (2005). Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-19-518950-7. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
  12. ^ Smith, Cecil (January 31, 1969). "Jim Nabors finished with Gomer". The Blade. Toledo, OH.
  13. ^ "TV Ratings: 1968–69". ClassicTVHits.com.
  14. ^ "TV Ratings: 1969–70". ClassicTVHits.com.
  15. ^ "TV Ratings: 1970–71". ClassicTVHits.com.
  16. ^ Crump, William D. (2013). The Christmas encyclopedia (Third edition. ed.). p. 434. ISBN 9780786468270.
  17. ^ King, Susan (2012-09-28). "40th anniversary celebration of 'The Waltons'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-04-30.
  18. ^ IV, J. Garland Pollard. "Earl Hamner and the CBS Brand | BrandlandUSA". Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  19. ^ From The Pierre Berton Show on YouTube December 9, 1971 (comments at 7:10 of part 2)
  20. ^ "TV Cowboys Bite Dust in Nets' Fall Line-Up". Chicago Tribune. March 13, 1969.