Roudnice nad Labem

Roudnice nad Labem (Czech pronunciation: [ˈroudɲɪtsɛ ˈnad labɛm]; German: Raudnitz an der Elbe) is a town in Litoměřice District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 13,000 inhabitants. It lies on the left bank of the Elbe river, 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Prague. The town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone.

Roudnice nad Labem
Roudnice Castle
Roudnice Castle
Flag of Roudnice nad Labem
Coat of arms of Roudnice nad Labem
Roudnice nad Labem is located in Czech Republic
Roudnice nad Labem
Roudnice nad Labem
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°25′25″N 14°15′14″E / 50.42361°N 14.25389°E / 50.42361; 14.25389Coordinates: 50°25′25″N 14°15′14″E / 50.42361°N 14.25389°E / 50.42361; 14.25389
Country Czech Republic
RegionÚstí nad Labem
DistrictLitoměřice
First mentioned1167
Government
 • MayorFrantišek Padělek
Area
 • Total16.67 km2 (6.44 sq mi)
Elevation
195 m (640 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01)[1]
 • Total12,770
 • Density770/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
413 01
Websitewww.roudnicenl.cz

A steel road bridge dating from the early 20th century spans the Elbe in Roudnice nad Labem. Its medieval predecessor was the third oldest stone bridge in Bohemia (after Prague and Písek) and the first bridge to connect both banks of the river. Roudnice nad Labem features a castle of late Romanesque origin, now reconstructed in Baroque style.

Administrative partsEdit

The village of Podlusky is an administrative part of Roudnice nad Labem

EtymologyEdit

The original names Rúdnik and Rúdnica probably comes from the iron water of a nearby spring (ruda = "ore").[2]

HistoryEdit

 
Bridge over the Elbe

Roudnice nad Labem is one of the oldest Czech towns. The first written mentions of Roudnice are from 1167 and 1176,[3] but archeological excavations in the area confirmes existence of a settlement in the prehistoric ages. The market settlement quickly became economically important thanks to its location on the so-called Lusatian road and in the 13th century, it receive a town statute.[2]

In the 12th century, a Romanesque castle was built, used as the summer residence of archbishops and bishops.[4]

In 1333, bishop Jan of Dražice ordered that a bridge be built over the Elbe. It was the first stone bridge over the Elbe and the third stone bridge in Bohemia.[5][6] At the end of the 14th century, the New Town of Roudnice nad Labem (encompassing today's Jan of Dražice Square and Husovo Square) was built and, along with the Old Town of Roudnice nad Labem, surrounded by walls.

In 1421, during the Hussite Wars, Roudnice nad Labem was conquered by Jan Žižka. During Hussite invasions, the local monastery was destroyed and never renewed. After the Hussite Wars, the town was sold several times, which does not benefit its development. In 1603, it was acquired by the Lobkowicz family and it remained so until 1945. During their rule, the town was rebuilt and expanded. During the Thirty Years' War, Roudnice nad Labem was burned down and demolished by the Swedish army.[2]

In the 19th century, Roudnice nad Labem became the industrial and economical centre of the Podřipský region, due to several new factories and the railway from Prague to Dresden.[2] Until 1918, Roudnice – Raudnitz was part of the Austrian monarchy (after the compromise of 1867), in the district of the same name, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia.[7] A post office was opened in September 1850, named Raudnitz.[8]

The first football match in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and in the Czech lands took place on the islet in the middle of the Elbe, located within the town limits, in 1887.[9] In 1910, the old stone bridge was rebuilt into a new steel road bridge.[5]

DemographyEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18695,373—    
18806,435+19.8%
18907,187+11.7%
19008,723+21.4%
191010,383+19.0%
YearPop.±%
192110,022−3.5%
193010,399+3.8%
19509,347−10.1%
196110,541+12.8%
197011,155+5.8%
YearPop.±%
198013,956+25.1%
199113,562−2.8%
200113,132−3.2%
201112,915−1.7%
202112,770−1.1%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic[10]

SightsEdit

 
Karlovo Square with the Watchtower it the background

The historic centre is made up of castle complex and of squares Karlovo, Husovo, Purkyňovo and Jana z Dražic with theirs surroundings. The town hall is located on the Karlovo Square. It is a pseudo-Renaissance building from 1869.[6]

The Watchtower is the only preserved remain of the Old Town's fortifications. It is a Gothic stone tower and it is open to the public as a lookout tower.[6]

The church complex is formed by the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary and Augustinian monastery. The monastery was built in 1333–1353. The church is a typical Czech Gothic building from the first half of the 14th century. The iron spring after which the town got its name is located there.[6]

Roudnice CastleEdit

Roudnice Castle was built in the 12th century by Bishop Bretislav III to protected an important trade route from Prague to Upper Lusatia along the Elbe. The castle complex included several farm buildings, protected by a fortified wall; the castle itself had walls that were two meters thick, and watchtowers in each corner. In the mid-14th century, it was rebuilt in the Gothic style and became a popular summer residence for Prague bishops. It is said that Jan Hus was ordained as a priest there.[citation needed]

In 1421, the Catholic Church sold the castle to Jan Smiřický, who renovated it once again. King George of Poděbrady captured Roudnice from Smiřický in 1467. It passed into the ownership of William of Rosenberg, the Supreme Burgrave and one of the wealthiest men in Bohemia. After Rosenberg's death, his widow Polyxena Pernštejn married Zdenek Vojtěch of Lobkowicz, Chancellor of the Czech Kingdom and later 1st Prince Lobkowicz, bringing Roudnice into the Lobkowicz family possessions.

In 1652, their son Václav Eusebius embarked upon an ambitious project to transform the castle into an early baroque palace. From 1657 until the World War II the Lobkowicz Collection's library was stored in Roudnice Castle, leading to the library being named the Roudnice Lobkowicz Library.

Václav Eusebius of Lobkowicz hired two Italian architects, Francesco Caratti and Antonio della Porta, to completely renovate Roudnice Castle. Between 1652 and 1684, they demolished most of the original structure, creating a 200-room baroque residence that included a clock tower, a chapel decorated with elaborate frescoes, a theatre, and large formal gardens. For two and a half centuries Roudnice served as a repository for the Lobkowicz family's collections of artwork, religious objects, musical instruments, and books and manuscripts.[4]

The castle was confiscated by the Communist government in 1948; the Czechoslovak People's Army used the building for the Vít Nejedlý military music school, as well as for administrative offices. After 1989, the castle was restored to the Lobkowicz family, who continued to rent the castle to the school until it closed in 2008. In 2009 the castle underwent major renovations, and it was opened to the public in 2012.

The Castle Riding Hall was built in the 17th century by Antonio della Porta and today it houses Gallery of Modern Art.[6]

SportEdit

The town has a swimming pool, an ice hockey arena, and football and athletic stadiums. Roudnice airport is located near the southwestern edge of the town and hosts the Memorial Air Show every other year.

EducationEdit

Elementary schoolsEdit

  • Karel Jeřábek Primary school[11]
  • Primary school Jungmannova[12]
  • Primary school Školní[13]

High schools (Secondary schools)Edit

  • Podřipská private vocational school and training center[14]
  • Grammar school (Gymnasium)[15]
  • Vocational school and training centre
  • College and vocational school[16]
  • Commercial Academy and vocational school EKONOM[17]

CollegeEdit

  • College and vocational school[18]

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Roudnice nad Labem is twinned with:[19][20]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 2021-04-30.
  2. ^ a b c d "Historie města Roudnice nad Labem" (in Czech). Město Roudnice nad Labem. Retrieved 2021-07-23.
  3. ^ "Vyhodnocení vlivů Zm. č. 9 ÚP Roudnice n.L. na životní prostředí" (PDF) (in Czech). Město Roudnice nad Labem. December 2018. p. 22. Retrieved 2021-07-23.
  4. ^ a b "Historie zámku Roudnice". House of Lobkowicz. Retrieved 2021-07-23.
  5. ^ a b "Železný most přes Labe v Roudnici nad Labem" (in Czech). Turistika.cz. Retrieved 2021-07-23.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Památky" (in Czech). Město Roudnice nad Labem. Retrieved 2021-07-23.
  7. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
  8. ^ Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin Mueller, 1961.
  9. ^ "PC Sokol Lipník - VIII. - Vědomice".
  10. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Litoměřice" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 13–14.
  11. ^ "Základní škola Karla Jeřábka v Roudnici nad Labem". Zskjerabka-rce.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  12. ^ "Úvodní stránka - 2. ZŠ Jungmannova (Roudnice nad Labem)". 2zsroudnice.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  13. ^ David Mikoláš. "Základní škola a mateřská škola Roudnice nad Labem, Školní 1803". Zsskolni-rce.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  14. ^ Richard Červený. "Podřipská škola | Hlavní strana". Podripskaskola.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  15. ^ "Základní informace - Gymnázium Roudnice nad Labem". Gym-rce.cz. 2013-04-14. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  16. ^ Voš A Soš. "VOŠ a SOŠ Roudnice nad Labem - Domů". Vosasos.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  17. ^ WDT s.r.o. (31 March 2013). "Vyšší odborná škola, Obchodní akademie a Střední odborná škola, EKONOM, o.p.s". Skolaekonom.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  18. ^ Voš A Soš. "VOŠ a SOŠ Roudnice nad Labem - Domů". Vosasos.cz. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  19. ^ "Unsere Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Dessau-Roßlau. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  20. ^ "Stránky o přátelství" (in Czech). Roudnice-Ruelle. Retrieved 2019-08-26.

External linksEdit