2008 Romanian legislative election
Legislative elections were held in Romania on 30 November 2008. The Democratic Liberal Party (PDL) won most seats in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, although the alliance headed by the Social Democratic Party (PSD) won a fractionally higher vote share. The two parties subsequently formed a governing coalition with Emil Boc of the PDL as Prime Minister.
All 137 seats in the Senate
All 334 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
President Traian Băsescu had wanted to introduce a single-winner two-round electoral system before this election, but a 2007 referendum on the proposal failed due to insufficient turnout. A new electoral system was introduced as a compromise, with the previous party-list proportional representation system changed to a mixed member proportional representation system using sub-county constituencies (colegii electorale). A candidate was declared the winner in any electoral college where they obtained more than 50% of the vote. Seats where no candidate won an outright majority are then allocated using the D'Hondt method. If necessary, the number of seats for each chamber is raised, by giving supplementary seats. An electoral threshold of 5% was applied for each chamber; or winning at least six colleges for the Chamber of Deputies and three colleges for the Senate by more than 50%. There was an additional adjustment for the Chamber of Deputies around the national minorities candidates.
The main contenders in the election were the centre-left alliance made up of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the Conservative Party (PC); the liberal-conservative Democratic Liberal Party (PD-L); and the liberal National Liberal Party (PNL).
Other significant contenders were the ethnic Hungarian party Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR) and the right-wing nationalist Greater Romania Party (PRM), both of whom were represented in the previous Parliament.
The first exit-polls, published by INSOMAR after the polls were closed, predicted the results for the Chamber of Deputies as:
PSD+PC - 36.2% PD-L - 30.3% PNL - 20.4% UDMR - 6.7%
And for the Senate:
PSD+PC - 35.9% PD-L - 31.1% PNL - 19.9% UDMR - 6.7%
According to the official final results, the centre-left Alliance PSD+PC won 33.1% in the Chamber of Deputies, just ahead of the Democratic Liberal Party on 32.4%, with the National Liberal Party on 18.6% and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania on 6.2%. The alliance led by Social Democratic Party won 34.2% in the Senate, just ahead of the Democratic Liberal Party on 33.6%, with the National Liberal Party on 18.7% and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania on 6.4%. Compared to the 2004 election, the Social Democratic Party-led alliance fell back a few percent in the national vote share. The Democratic Liberal Party and National Liberal Party had competed in the last election together as the Justice and Truth Alliance, but had split in April 2007. The Democratic Liberal Party made significant gains in 2008 to become the largest party in both houses, while the National Liberal Party made smaller gains. Support for the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania was largely unchanged. The Greater Romania Party obtained 13% of the national vote for the Chamber in 2004, but failed to make the 5% threshold for representation this year. Another nationalist party, the New Generation Party, again failed to cross the 5% threshold for representation.
|Party||Chamber of Deputies||Senate|
|Alliance PSD+PC (PSD, PC)||2,279,449||33.1||114||–10||2,352,968||34.16||49||–6|
|Democratic Liberal Party||2,228,860||32.4||115||+48||2,312,358||33.57||51||+22|
|National Liberal Party||1,279,063||18.6||65||+5||1,291,029||18.74||28||+4|
|Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania||425,008||6.2||22||±0||440,449||6.39||9||–1|
|Greater Romania Party||217,595||3.2||0||–21||245,930||3.57||0||–13|
|New Generation Party||156,901||2.3||0||0||174,519||2.53||0||0|
|Roma Party "Pro Europe"||44,037||0.6||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania||23,190||0.3||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania||22,393||0.3||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Green Ecologist Party||18,279||0.27||0||–||48,119||0.7||0||–|
|Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania||15,373||0.2||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bulgarian Union of Banat–Romania||14,039||0.2||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Union of Armenians of Romania||13,829||0.2||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars of Romania||11,868||0.2||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Association of Macedonians of Romania||11,814||0.2||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Union of Serbs of Romania||10,878||0.2||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Association of Italians of Romania||9,567||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Democratic Turkish Union of Romania||9,481||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Union of Ukrainians of Romania||9,338||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Community of the Lippovan Russians||9,203||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Union of Croatians of Romania||9,047||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hellenic Union of Romania||8,875||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|League of Albanians of Romania||8,792||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Popular and Social Protection Party||8,388||0.1||0||–||10,805||0.16||0||–|
|Union of Poles in Romania||7,670||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Cultural Union of Ruthenians of Romania||4,514||0.1||1||–||–||–||–||–|
|Romanian Socialist Party||585||0.0||0||–||445||0.02||0||–|
|National Democratic Christian Party||316||0.0||0||–||1,365||0.02||0||–|
|Party of the European Romania||87||0.0||0||–||–||–||–||–|
|Source: Nohlen & Stöver Central Election Office|
It was expected that a grand coalition of the Social Democrats and the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL) would be formed. Initially the Prime Minister-designate was Theodor Stolojan, the PDL's official candidate. He was designated Prime Minister by the President Traian Băsescu on 11 December 2008, the official decree being issued and printed in the Monitorul Oficial the next day.
On 15 December 2008, four days after his nomination, and one day after the coalition protocol was signed, Stolojan announced that he had resigned from the position of Prime Minister-designate, without giving any reason. The same day, Băsescu signed a decree that nominated the Mayor of Cluj-Napoca and PDL president Emil Boc.
Boc's coalition government with the Social Democrats was approved by parliament in a 324–115 vote and was sworn in on 22 December 2008. Mircea Geoana of the Social Democrats became the new head of the Senate, with Roberta Alma Anastase of the PDL as the new President of the Chamber of Deputies.
At the start of the 2008–2012 parliamentary term, only parties that had won seats in the 2008 elections were eligible to contest parliamentary by-elections. However, this changed in 2011, after which all parties were allowed to propose candidates. The change came after repeated contests to the Constitutional Court of Romania of former 2009 presidential candidate Remus Cernea.
Following the nomination of Bogdan Olteanu to the Council of Administration of the National Bank of Romania as Deputy Governor, the first by-election of the parliamentary term took place in Bucharest constituency 1 will be held the first by-election of this legislature. The election was held on 17 January 2010 and was a contest between Radu Stroe of the National Liberal Party (PNL) and Honorius Prigoană, representing the PDL. The Social Democrats decided not to propose a candidate and to support the PNL candidate. Stroe was subsequently elected.
Daniela Popa resigned from the Chamber of Deputies to take office as President of the Insurance Supervising Committee, also stepping down as president of the Conservative Party. The PNL decided not to have its own candidate, but to support the PSD+PC candidate, based on the gentlemen's agreement for the Bucharest by-election. The PSD nominated Conservative Party member and former Romanian Lottery director Liliana Mincă, with the PDL putting forward former TV show host Teo Trandafir, who went on to win.
Following the death of Ioan Timiş, Deputy for Hunedoara County constituency 3, a by-election took place on 28 November 2010. All parties nominated candidates, with former Minister of Labour, Mariana Câmpeanu of the PNL winning.
In January 2011, the representative of the Macedonians in Romania, Liana Dumitrescu, died. As she was a representative of a national minority, her seat had no college. As a result, her seat was left empty.
In April 2011 Victor Surdu died, vacating his seat in the Chamber of Deputies, Neamț County constituency 6. The by-election was held on 21 August 2011 and won by the PDL candidate, Adrian Rădulescu, Secretary of State in the Ministry of Agriculture.
In May 2011, Cătălin Cherecheș was elected Mayor of Baia Mare, automatically vacating her seat in the Chamber of Deputies, Maramureş County constituency 2. The by-election on 21 August saw Florin Tătaru of the Social Liberal Union elected.
|Date||College - Constituency||Candidates||Parties and alliances||Votes||%|
|17 January 2010||CD 1-42||Radu Stroe||National Liberal Party (Partidul Naţional Liberal)||7,625||70.17%|
|Honorius Prigoană||Democratic Liberal Party (Partidul Democrat-Liberal)||3,242||29.83%|
|Total valid votes (40,583 expected voters) (turnout 27.12% - 11,006)||10,867||100.00%|
|Source: Biroul Electoral Municipal[dead link]|
|25 April 2010||CD 19-42||Teo Trandafir||Democratic Liberal Party (Partidul Democrat-Liberal)||53.59%|
|Liliana Mincă||PSD+PC Electoral Alliance (Alianţa Electorală PSD+PC)||46.41%|
|Total valid votes (103,204 expected voters) (turnout 14.84%)||15,093||100.00%|
|Source: Autoritatea Electorală Permanentă[dead link]|
|28 November 2010||CD 3-22||Mariana Câmpeanu||National Liberal Party (Partidul Naţional Liberal)||8,738||34.86%|
|Daniel Răducanu||Democratic Liberal Party (Partidul Democrat-Liberal)||7,339||29.28%|
|Ţoloaș Liliana||PSD+PC Electoral Alliance (Alianţa Electorală PSD+PC)||5,218||20.81%|
|Bela Fülöp||Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România)||438||1.75%|
|Mircea Părăian||New Generation Party – Christian Democratic (Partidul Noua Generaţie - Creştin Democrat)||197||0.78%|
|Iosif Danci||Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party (Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc Creştin Democrat)||187||0.75%|
|Total valid votes (53,222 expected voters) (turnout 48.41% - 25,763)||25,069||100.00%|
|Source: Autoritatea Electorală Permanentă[dead link]|
|21 August 2011||CD 6-29||Adrian Rădulescu||Democratic Liberal Party (Partidul Democrat-Liberal)||17,186||54.95%|
|Liviu Harbuz||Social-Liberal Union (Uniunea Social Liberală)||14,089||45.05%|
|Total valid votes (57,996 expected voters) (turnout 53.93% - 32,184)||31,275||100.00%|
|Source: Autoritatea Electorala Permanenta[dead link]|
|CD 2-26||Florin Tătaru||Social-Liberal Union (Uniunea Social Liberală)||9,433||42.67%|
|Mariana Pop||Democratic Liberal Party (Partidul Democrat-Liberal)||7,845||35.48%|
|Mircea Dolha||Ecologist Party of Romania (Partidul Ecologist Român)||4,338||19.62%|
|Felician Horzsa||Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare)||493||2.23%|
|Total valid votes (79,241 expected voters) (turnout 27,90% - 22,478)||22,109||100.00%|
|Source: Biroul Electoral Judeţean[dead link]|
- (in Romanian) Antena 3 coverage of the subject
- (in Romanian) Antena 3 - Stolojan accepted unanimously
- "Romania to hold elections on November 30th". SETimes.com. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- (in Romanian) Simulation of the algorithm using an imaginary county Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
- Agentia Nationala de Presa AGERPRES Archived 2008-12-10 at the Wayback Machine[unreliable source?]
- Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, pp1606-1613 ISBN 9783832956097
- "Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung für Rumänien" (in Romanian). Adz.ro. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- "Antena 3" (in Romanian). Antena3.ro. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- "Emil Boc nominated new Romanian PM". euronews. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- "Boc Government OK'd by Parliament, with 324 votes in favor and 115 against". Financiarul. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- Radu Marinas and Luiza Ilie (2008-12-22). "Romania centre-left gov't sworn in to tackle crisis". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
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- Jurnalul Naţional