Robert Goff, Baron Goff of Chieveley

Robert Lionel Archibald Goff, Baron Goff of Chieveley, PC, QC, FBA (/ɡɔːf/) (12 November 1926 – 14 August 2016) was an English barrister and judge who was Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, the equivalent of today's President of the Supreme Court. Best known for establishing unjust enrichment as a branch of English law, he has been described by Andrew Burrows as "the greatest judge of modern times".[3] Goff was the original co-author of Goff & Jones, the leading English law textbook on restitution and unjust enrichment, first published in 1966. He practised as a commercial barrister from 1951 to 1975, following which he began his career as a judge. He was appointed to the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords in 1986.


The Lord Goff of Chieveley

Lord Goff in his room.jpg
7th Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary
In office
1 October 1996 – 30 September 1998
Preceded byThe Lord Keith of Kinkel
Succeeded byThe Lord Browne-Wilkinson
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary
In office
6 February 1986 – 30 September 1998
Preceded byEustace Roskill, Baron Roskill
Succeeded byThe Lord Hobhouse of Woodborough
Personal details
Born
Robert Lionel Archibald Goff

(1926-11-12)12 November 1926
Kinloch, Perthshire, Scotland
Died14 August 2016(2016-08-14) (aged 89)
Cambridge, England
NationalityBritish
Spouse(s)Sarah Goff (née Cousins)
ResidenceChieveley House[1]
Alma materNew College, Oxford (B.A.)
AwardsOrder of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (First Class)
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 7 Grosskreuz.svg
Military service
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Branch/serviceBritish Army
Years of service1944-1948[2]
UnitScots Guard
Battles/warsWorld War II

As one of the few early academics-turned-judges, Goff long advocated a complementary view of the role of the legal academic and judge. In this respect, Sir Stephen Tomlinson said that "no judge has done more than Robert to ensure that the views of legal academic commentators now regularly inform the decision-making in our higher courts".[4]

Towards the later part of his life, he also developed an interest in sharing perspectives with foreign lawyers and judges. For building bridges between judges in the United Kingdom and Germany, Goff was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (First Class).

Early life and educationEdit

 
A young Robert Goff with his sister Josephine Goff

Robert Goff was born in Perthshire, Scotland, on 12 November 1926, as the second child and only son of Lionel Trevor Goff (1877 – 1953) and Isobel Jane Higgon (née Denroche-Smith).[5] Lionel studied at Eton College and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and was commissioned in the Royal Artillery in 1897.[5] As a young officer, he fought in the Second Boer War, was wounded in the Siege of Ladysmith and mentioned in dispatches.[5] He also served in the First World War, was wounded in 1917 and again mentioned in dispatches.[5] He remained hospitalised for his wounds until 1921.[5] In 1923, he married Isabel Higgon, née Denroche-Smith, a widow of Archie Higgon, who had been killed in action in 1915.[5] Isobel's family home was near Alyth, North Perthshire, and her father had been a civil servant in Bengal.[5]

Robert was brought up at the Goff home in Monk Sherborne, Hampshire.[5] He had a closer relationship with his mother, because he did not share his father's interest in fishing, hunting, shooting and riding, and refused to shoot after his eighteenth birthday.[4][5] His father also did not share his passion for music.[5]

Goff attended a dame school in Basingstoke until he was eight.[5] Thereafter, he attended St Aubyns School, Rottingdean, and started at Eton College in September 1939, at the beginning of the Second World War.[5] While at Eton, he focused on classical languages and history, preferring these to science subjects.[5] There, Dr Harry Lee, an organist who had played at the coronation of King George VI, encouraged his love for the piano and taught him to play.[5] He left Eton in December 1944, with a place to study at New College, Oxford.[5]

Military serviceEdit

 
Lord Goff as a soldier, circa 1944

In December 1944, Goff was called up and commissioned into the Scots Guards.[5] He trained for battle in the Far East, having been told that he would be deployed there in September 1945.[5] However, following the Surrender of Japan in August 1945, these plans were cancelled.[5] Instead, Goff spent some time on guard duty at Windsor Castle, and then volunteered to serve in the force being sent to Italy to counter the threat posed by Marshal Tito, where he remained until July 1948.[5] During this period, he spent his leave travelling and exploring northern Italy, skiing, and pursuing his musical and cultural interests, while introducing the men under his command to them.[5] On occasions, he would combine the task of setting up communications posts with visits with his men to see Italian art, including Michelangelo's David and Piero della Francesca's Polyptych of Perugia.[5]

University educationEdit

In 1948, Goff took up his place at Oxford for a two-year "shortened" Final Honour Schools course for ex-servicemen.[5] Having been given a choice between reading Jurisprudence, Greats or History, he chose Jurisprudence, with the aim of practicing as a barrister after graduating.[5] At New College, his Tutor included Jack Butterworth (later Jack Butterworth, Baron Butterworth) and Wilfrid Bourne.[5] He graduated with a First Class Degree in 1950, having also served as Steward of the Junior Common Room.[5]

CareerEdit

 
A young Robert Goff

Academic careerEdit

Although Goff had intended to go straight to the Bar after graduation, these plans changed shortly after his examination results were released. Keith Murray (later Keith Murray, Baron Murray of Newhaven), the Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, telephoned him to invite him to a meeting.[6] At this meeting, Murray indicated that a fellowship and tutorship in law had become vacant following Harold Hanbury's appointment as Vinerian Professor of English Law, and that he wished to offer it to Goff.[6] In astonishment, Goff asked for half an hour to consider the proposal.[7] Apparently in equal astonishment that Goff needed to think about the offer, Murray granted the time, following which Goff accepted the offer, on condition that he could first sit the Bar exams and be called to the Bar.[4][7] Murray agreed to this and Goff was called by Inner Temple in 1951.[6] In October 1951,[6] he began teaching at Lincoln College, and remained there until the end of the 1954–55 academic year.[6] Alongside his teaching, he served on various committees and briefly as Dean in 1952–53 when the incumbent was on leave.[6] His students included Swinton Thomas (later Sir Swinton Thomas, a judge of the Court of Appeal).[8]

Aware that he had done a shortened two-year course in law, in which he only studied six subjects in limited depth, Goff did "some pretty hectic and thorough preparation for tutorials".[6] He taught a range of subjects, including Criminal Law and Roman Law.[6] His schedule was hectic, teaching nearly 50 students in a single year, some of whom required multiple tutorials a week. To share the workload, the College permitted him to recruit a weekender.[6] This role was fulfilled by Pat Neill (later Patrick Neill, Baron Neill of Bladen), who was then a Prize Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford.[6] He also gave joint classes with Professor Tony Honoré, where it is suggested that he met A. W. B. Simpson, his successor at Lincoln College.[6] When he left full-time academia for the Bar, Sir Walter Oakeshott (then Rector of Lincoln College) said that "there was widespread hope of his being content to go on as an academic lawyer, and by his departure law studies at Oxford, as well as the College, will suffer greatly".[6]

Goff & Jones on the Law of Unjust EnrichmentEdit

In 1952, Goff was appointed to a Common University Fund lectureship in law, to take effect in 1953.[9] In this capacity, he was required to give a series of lectures on any area of interest to him.[8] When exploring texts for inspiration, he chanced upon "quasi-contracts", a concept traceable to Roman law, but which was at that point unrecognised in English law.[8] Together with Ronnie Maudsley, then the law Tutor at Brasenose College, Oxford, he set up a series of seminars[8] in Restitution, also described as "Unjustifiable Enrichment" and "Quasi Contract".[9] The lectures were not on the syllabus and not many students attended.[9] However, they did attract academic attendees, some of whom, like Peter North, went on to be distinguished academic lawyers.[9]

 
Goff & Jones on the Law of Unjust Enrichment, now in its ninth edition

On the basis of these lectures, Goff and Maudsley jointly began work on the book that would later become Goff and Jones on the Law of Restitution (today published as Goff and Jones on the Law of Unjust Enrichment).[9][10] Goff had continued drafting the textbook after leaving academia for the Commercial Bar.[9] At the time, work for junior barristers was limited, and so he spent considerable time working on the book at the Inner Temple library.[9] During this period, Maudsley spent long stretches of time in the United States, and did not respond to Goff's communications.[7] In 1959, Goff was reading a Law Quarterly Review and came across an article written by Maudsley, which he believed to be based heavily on the material they had prepared in their joint lectures.[7] Goff wrote to Maudsley once again, but upon not receiving a reply, concluded that Maudsley "was signing off and didn't feel able to tell me".[7] As a junior barrister with a growing practice, Goff realised that if his book was to be completed, he would need a collaborator.[9] A. W. B. Simpson introduced him to Gareth Jones (then fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge, and later Downing Professor of the Laws of England), with whom he would eventually publish the book.[11] Goff would later describe Jones as "the ideal co-author" and "beyond doubt, one of the finest teachers in the common law world".[11]

The book publication took much longer than either Goff or Jones anticipated.[9] The manuscript was submitted in late 1964.[9] The page proofs, which arrived in 1965, had so many mistakes and required so many alterations that the publishers, Sweet & Maxwell, made the authors pay for a second set of proofs.[9] As a result, Goff and Jones made practically no money from the first edition of the book, and Goff complained that Sweet & Maxwell "appeared to understand nothing about writing pioneering books".[9] The book was finally published in 1966.[9][12]

Upon its release, the book was quickly recognised as a significant work, and was largely favourably reviewed. Lord Denning reflected positively on it, calling it "a creative work" and comparing it to Sir Frederick Pollock's treatise on torts and the seminal textbook Anson's Law of Contract.[13] Edmund Davies, then a judge of the High Court of Justice, described it as "admirable". The book's propositions, however, caused some confusion in academic circles. Not knowing where it fit, a university library classified it as Criminal Law, and a library of one of the Inns of Court refused to take the book in at all.[9] The book's propositions were also not unanimously welcomed. For example, they were resisted by Lord Diplock, who as late as in 1977 continued to declare judicially that "there is no general doctrine of unjust enrichment recognised in English law".[14]

Goff submitted the textbook to the University of Oxford for the consideration of a higher degree, and he was awarded a Doctor of Civil Law in 1971.[9] He would later also receive honorary degrees from the universities of London, Bristol, Reading, Buckingham and City, University of London.[9] In 1975, Goff was appointed to the High Court.[9] Goff and Jones jointly wrote two further editions of the textbook, which were published in 1978 and 1986, respectively.[9] In the latter year, Goff was appointed to the House of Lords.[9] He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1987, and would go on to hold Honorary Fellowships at three Oxford University colleges: New, Lincoln, and Wolfson.[6]

Career at the BarEdit

Goff left academia to join the Commercial Bar in 1955, at a time when the prevailing belief was that there was a sharp difference between the academic lawyer and the practicing lawyer.[9] He joined the chambers of Ashton Roskill QC, then known as 5, King's Bench Walk (but which later amalgamated with 6, King's Bench Walk to form what is today known as 7, King's Bench Walk, or 7KBW).[9] He described his time as a junior barrister as "lean", because at that time, there was very little small work for junior barristers at the commercial Bar.[9] The bulk of cases went to senior barristers, who tended to have almost permanent junior barristers assisting them.[9] Goff was led by Roskill twice when his usual junior had pneumonia, but was hardly led by anyone else.[9] He took this as an opportunity to teach at Inner Temple and (on weekends) at Lincoln College, and to continue writing his book on the law of restitution.[9]

Goff believed the publication of Goff and Jones on the Law of Restitution in 1966 to be one of the reasons he was appointed Queen's Counsel.[9] He took silk in 1967, a year after it was published.[15] After this, his practice grew significantly.[9] He appeared in significant and technically difficult commercial cases such as Maredelanto Compania Naviera SA v Bergbau-Handel GmbH,[16] and The Brimnes.[17] His choice of junior was Brian Davenport, a close friend whom he described as "exceptionally gifted", but who was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in his early thirties.[15] Over the course of his practice, he led many juniors, some of whom went on to hold high judicial office, such as Andrew Longmore, Mark Saville, Nick Phillips, and John Hobhouse.[9]

Since 2018, 7KBW has commemorated Lord Goff's contributions through the annual The Lords Goff and Hobhouse Memorial Lectures.[18]

Judicial careerEdit

In 1974, Goff was appointed Recorder of the Crown Court.[9] In October 1975, after eight years as Queen's Counsel, Goff was appointed to the High Court, and received the customary knighthood.[9] He spent seven years at the High Court, two of which he spent as the Judge-in-Charge of the Commercial Court.[9] In 1982, he was made a Lord Justice of Appeal and sworn in as a Privy Councillor.[9] On 6 February 1986, Goff was made a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and a life peer as Baron Goff of Chieveley.[9] On 1 October 1996, The Lord Keith of Kinkel retired as Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and Lord Goff succeeded him.[9] He retired in 1998, but continued to sit on cases occasionally until his 75th birthday.[9] He was succeeded as Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary by Lord Browne-Wilkinson, and his vacant seat on the House of Lords bench was taken over by his former junior Lord Hobhouse.[19][20] Over those 12 years, he participated in over 300 cases at the House of Lords and 160 cases at the Privy Council.[9]

As an academic-turned-judge, Goff believed that the two professions were different, yet complementary.[21] Upon his appointment to the House of Lords, he was appalled to find poor library and research facilities available, and wrote a paper to the House of Lords authorities, arguing for the provision of a better equipped library for the Law Lords' use.[9][4] In his Maccabean Lecture to the British Academy in 1983, he described the judge and jurist as on a shared "search for principle", saying that it was the fusion of their work that led to the development of the common law.[21] Three years after the lecture, he said that "it is difficult to overestimate the influence of the jurist in England today".[22] In Spiliada Maritime Corp v Cansulex Ltd in 1986, Goff used elevated language, describing jurists as “pilgrims with [judges] on the endless road to unattainable perfection”.[23] In 1987, Goff wrote an article titled Judge, Jurist and Legislature, in which he detailed his views on the roles of these players in the legal system.[24] In 1999, he said that he did not know how far he had succeeded in promoting proper recognition of the contribution of the academic world to the development of English law, but that, if he had, "that alone will give me great satisfaction."[9] Goff's views also influenced others to think about the role of judges and jurists, inspiring Lord Rodger's first article in 1994,[22][25] and lectures given by Lord Neuberger and Jack Beatson.[26][27]

Goff was a strong believer in the common law,[15] a belief which came with a suspicion of codes and legislation,[28] and a preference for the common law's trademark incremental development of the law by judges.[28][9] Nevertheless, he supported the work of the Law Commission enthusiastically.[4] This was despite the disapproval of some of his colleagues,[9] according to whom Goff had broken the apparent rule that no judicial reference was to be made to the work of the Law Commission.[4] In line with his beliefs in the complementarity of the academic lawyer and judge, he worked to dispel the hostility towards them in the House of Lords.[9] Among the Law Commissioners he supported were his former junior barrister Brian Davenport QC, Jack Beatson and Andrew Burrows.[9] Since then, several Law Commissioners have been appointed to the Supreme Court, marking a significant change in judicial attitudes towards the Law Commission.[9]

As Law Lord, he furthered the cause of restitution that he had developed academically. In Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale Ltd, he gave judicial recognition to the proposition that unjust enrichment is an independent branch of private law.[29] Graham Virgo, who has disagreed with the reasoning in Lipkin Gorman,[29] nevertheless described it as "probably the most important dictum in the modern law of restitution".[29] His judgment in Kleinwort Benson Ltd v Lincoln CC was described by Lord Hoffmann as "one of the most distinguished of his luminous contributions to this branch of the law"[9] and by Lord Browne-Wilkinson, who dissented, as containing "yet another major contribution to the law of restitution".[9]

 
Lord Goff at the House of Lords

Over the course of his judicial career, he presided over a number of other cases, including:

Public service and engagementEdit

Fostering links with foreign jurisdictionsEdit

 
Lord Goff receiving a garland from Laxmi Mall Singhvi

Goff gave many public lectures around the world, partly motivated by his belief that the common law was a uniquely adaptable system which deserved better understanding in civil law jurisdictions.[15] He led judicial exchanges with Germany, France and Italy, in recognition for which he was awarded the Grand Cross (First Class) of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.[9] At the invitation of the Indian jurist and diplomat Laxmi Mall Singhvi, he also conducted two three-week lecture tours in India in 1984 and 1986 (the year he was appointed to the House of Lords).[9] These lectures were delivered in four cities.[4] He also delivered the inaugural G S Pathak Memorial Lecture in New Delhi,[30][31] where he remarked that the difference between Germany and England was that in Germany, "the Professor is God, but in England, the Judge is God".[31] In addition, he participated in various smaller functions, and travelled around India, visiting Jaisalmer Fort, among others.[32] In 1990, Goff delivered the first of the annual Lord Goff lectures at the City University of Hong Kong.[33] He also delivered lectures in Jerusalem, Chicago and Stockholm.[9]

Work with the Inns of CourtEdit

When Goff left academia for the Bar, he brought with him a strong interest in the welfare of students and young barristers.[9] At the time, Inner Temple (his Inn of Court) provided almost no educational support.[9] Shortly after moving to the Bar, he and a fellow barrister arranged for lectures to be delivered to Bar students at Inner Temple.[9] Lecturers included Rupert Cross, C. H. S. Fifoot, Peter Carter, R. F. V. Heuston, and Marjorie Reeves (who had been his wife Sarah Cousins's tutor at Oxford).[9]

 
Dr Christine Challis, I. G. Patel, Lord Goff (Chairman of the University of London Court), Peter Howell (Principal University of London), and Professor R.A. Pinker (Pro Director)

In 1987, when the Inner Temple was going through a time of economic difficulty, Goff was asked by the Treasurer to chair an appeal to boost its Scholarship Fund.[4] This fund evolved into the Pegasus Trust, which supports the exchange of young lawyers in many common law countries, and which was one of Goff's key contributions as a member of Inner Temple.[4] To fund it, Goff assembled a committee of Benchers, including Lord Mackay of Clashfern (Lord Chancellor) and James Callaghan (a former Prime Minister), who was able to secure the support of the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust.[4] He also entertained John King, then Chairman of British Airways, to lunch, a meeting which resulted in British Airways providing free flights for Pegasus Scholars.[4] According to Stephen Tomlinson, the Pegasus Trust was a "valuable and lasting legacy", which represented Goff's belief in the importance of linking different jurisdictions, as well as his interest in the welfare of young barristers.[4] It subsequently evolved into a collaborative effort between the four Inns of Court, supporting his belief that the Inns should work closer together.[4]

In establishing it, Goff said that:

"The common law is one of the greatest forces for good in the world. For many, the common law means the rule of law and the absolute independence of the judiciary. It is of paramount importance for the future of the common law that bridges should be built between the legal professions in the many countries of the world which live under this system. The Pegasus scholarship scheme makes it possible for gifted young lawyers – the future leaders of their professions – to learn about the practical working of the common law system in countries other than their own, and to form enduring links with lawyers in those counties."[34]

 
Goff with President Jacques Chirac of France

AppointmentsEdit

Goff's other appointments included:

Personal lifeEdit

 
Robert Goff at his wedding in 1953

Robert Goff first met his wife Sarah Cousins in autumn 1952, at a birthday party in Hampshire.[6] She had just graduated from St Anne's College, Oxford, having read History, and was starting a BLitt.[6] They were married in July 1953, and lived in Oxford until 1955, when Goff went to the Bar.[6] As a young academic couple, they became good friends with various academics, including Jack Butterworth, Maurice Platnauer, and Tom Boase.[6] They shared a love for opera, which Goff encouraged in their children.[6] They had four children: Katherine (1959), Juliet (1961), William (1964, d.1967) and Thomas (1966).[6] At seven months, William Goff contracted viral meningitis, and died of complications arising from it in 1967.[6] The family lived in London until 1975, and then moved to Chieveley House in Berkshire.[6]

Goff was an accomplished pianist; he began his days with a Mozart sonata and spent considerable time transposing and arranging pieces of music for the family collection of instruments.[4] His love of music remained with him into the later years of his life, when his health was failing.[38] He described music as what "fed his soul and relaxed him".[38] He was also particularly fond of the countryside and gardening.[4]

Goff was described as giving off a first impression of remoteness,[4] reticence[4] and formidable formality,[6] as a result of his distinction as a lawyer or having inherited a military bearing from his father.[6] However, he was also warm, kind and passionate about his students.[6]

Later years and deathEdit

In 2004, Goff's health began to decline.[6] In 2006, he and his wife moved from Chieveley House to Cambridge to live near their daughter Juliet, where he remained until his death in 2016.[6]

ArmsEdit

Coat of arms of Robert Goff, Baron Goff of Chieveley
 
Crest
A squirrel sejant proper.
Escutcheon
Azure a chevron between in chief two fleur-de-lis and in base a lion rampant Or
Motto
Fier Sans Tache[39]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Churchill, Penny (22 October 2018). "A glorious Berkshire house with gardens by Arne Maynard, within easy reach of London and Oxford". Country Life. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  2. ^ Morton, James (30 August 2016). "Lord Goff of Chieveley obituary: Forward-looking law lord keen to reconcile practical justice with principle". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2018. He served in the Scots Guards for four years from 1944 before completing his education at New College, Oxford
  3. ^ Burrows, Andrew. "Obituary: Lord Goff of Chieveley". Newsletter: Society of Legal Scholars.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Tomlinson, Stephen (2018). The Inner Temple Yearbook 2017 – 2018. United Kingdom: The Honourable Society of The Inner Temple. pp. 34–36.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Beatson, Sir Jack (23 October 2019). "Robert Goff" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the British Academy, XVIII. The British Academy. 18: 241–273.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Beatson, Sir Jack (23 October 2019). "Robert Goff" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the British Academy, XVIII. The British Academy. 18: 241–273.
  7. ^ a b c d e Goff, Robert (2002). "Address to Law Students at the University of Oxford".
  8. ^ a b c d Tomlinson, Stephen (2018). The Inner Temple Yearbook 2017 – 2018. United Kingdom: The Honourable Society of The Inner Temple. pp. 34–36.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Beatson, Sir Jack (23 October 2019). "Robert Goff" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the British Academy, XVIII. The British Academy. 18: 241–273.
  10. ^ Goff of Chieveley, Robert Goff, Baron, 1926-2016. The law of unjust enrichment. Jones, Gareth H., Mitchell, Charles (Charles Christopher James),, Mitchell, Paul, 1972-, Watterson, Stephen, 1975- (Ninth ed.). London. ISBN 978-0-414-05523-0. OCLC 944462849.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ a b Restitution : past, present, and future : essays in honour of Gareth Jones. Jones, Gareth H., Cornish, W. R. (William Rodolph), 1937-. Oxford: Hart Pub. 1998. ISBN 1-901362-42-6. OCLC 40798537.CS1 maint: others (link)
  12. ^ "Wildy & Sons Ltd — The World's Legal Bookshop Search Results for isbn: '9780414055230'". www.wildy.com. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  13. ^ Denning, Tom (1966). "Goff and Jones's The Law of Restitution". Law Quarterly Review. 83: 277.
  14. ^ Orakpo v Manson Investments Ltd [1977] 3 All ER 1, "My Lords, there is no general doctrine of unjust enrichment recognised in English law. What it does is to provide specific remedies in particular cases of what might be classified as unjust enrichment in a legal system that is based upon the civil law. There are some circumstances in which the remedy takes the form of 'subrogation', but this expression embraces more than a single concept in English law."
  15. ^ a b c d Goff, Robert (2002). "Address to Law Students at the University of Oxford".
  16. ^ "The Mihalis Angelos". British and Irish Legal Information Institute. 1970. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  17. ^ "The Brimnes". British and Irish Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  18. ^ "New Date – The 2019 Lords Goff and Hobhouse Memorial Lecture". 7KBW. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  19. ^ Obituaries, Telegraph (27 July 2018). "Lord Browne-Wilkinson, Law Lord – obituary". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  20. ^ Lloyd, Anthony (27 March 2004). "Obituary: Lord Hobhouse of Woodborough". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  21. ^ a b Goff, Robert (1983). "The Search for Principle" (PDF). The British Academy. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  22. ^ a b Beatson, Jack (12 November 2012). "Legal Academics: Forgotten Players or Interlopers?" (PDF). Judiciary of England & Wales. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Spiliada Maritime Corp v Cansulex Ltd [1986] UKHL 10 (19 November 1986)". www.bailii.org. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  24. ^ Goff, Robert (1987). "Judge, Jurist and Legislature". Denning Law Journal. 2 (1): 79–95.
  25. ^ Rodger, Alan (1993). "Savigny in the Strand". Irish Jurist (1966 –). 28/30: 1–20. ISSN 0021-1273. JSTOR 44026381.
  26. ^ Neuberger, David (9 July 2012). "Judges and Professors: Ships Passing in the Night?" (PDF). UK Judiciary. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  27. ^ Beatson, Jack (12 November 2012). "Legal Academics: Forgotten Players or Interlopers?" (PDF). Judiciary of England and Wales. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  28. ^ a b Goff, Robert. "Judge, Jurist and Legislature". Denning Law Journal. 1987: 79–95. ... we can see how dated a codification will become over a period of only one century, and how dead a hand it can lay upon the law unless the courts are permitted, and adopt, a very free hand in its interpretation and development.
  29. ^ a b c d Virgo, Graham (2015). The Principles of the Law of Restitution. United States of America: Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-19-872638-8.
  30. ^ Singhvi, Laxmi Mall (2012). Parliamentary Democracy in India. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 9788184301267.
  31. ^ a b Nariman, Fali S. (2010). Before memory fades : an autobiography. [Place of publication not identified]: Hay House Publishing. ISBN 978-93-81398-00-5. OCLC 946010973.
  32. ^ Photograph of Lord Goff and Lady Goff at Jaisalmer Fort with LM Singhvi and Kamla Singhvi.
  33. ^ "School of Law - City University of Hong Kong". www.cityu.edu.hk. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  34. ^ "Pegasus Trust". The Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  35. ^ a b Jennings, Christine (3 July 2019). Robbie : the life of Sir Robert Jennings. Kibworth Beauchamp. ISBN 978-1-83859-972-0. OCLC 1108731448.
  36. ^ Miller, Francis (1998). Conflicting Judgments: Has The Merry-Go-Round Started All Over Again?. England and Wales: Ruthtrek. pp. 2–3. ISBN 1-902749-00-6.
  37. ^ "Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal – Board of Patrons". Archived from the original on 6 February 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
  38. ^ a b Cousins, Sarah (2016). "Obituary of Lord Goff of Chieveley".
  39. ^ Skey, William (1846). The Heraldic Calendar: A List of the Nobility and Gentry Whose Arms are Registered, and Pedigrees Recorded in the Herald's Office in Ireland. University of Oxford. p. 26.
Legal offices
Preceded by
The Lord Keith of Kinkel
Senior Law Lord
1996–1998
Succeeded by
The Lord Browne-Wilkinson