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Renewable energy in India

Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). Newer renewable electricity sources are targeted to grow massively by 2022, including a more than doubling of India's large wind power capacity and an almost 15 fold increase in solar power from April 2016 levels. Such ambitious targets would place India amongst the world leaders in renewable energy use and place India at the centre of its International Solar Alliance project promoting the growth and development of solar power internationally to over 120 countries.

India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources, in early 1980s. India's overall installed capacity has reached 329.4 GW, with renewables accounting for 57.472 GW as of 14 June 2017. 61% of the renewable power came from wind, while solar contributed nearly 19%.[1][2] Large hydro installed capacity was 44.41 GW[3] as of 28 February 2017 and is administered separately by the Ministry of Power and not included in MNRE targets.

From 2015 onwards the MNRE began laying down actionable plans for the renewable energy sector under its ambit to make a quantum jump, building on strong foundations already established in the country.[4] MNRE renewable electrictricity targets have been upscaled to grow from just under 43 GW in April 2016 to 175 GW by the year 2022, including 100 GW from solar power, 60 GW from wind power, 10 GW from bio power and 5 GW from small hydro power.[4] The Ministry of Power has announced that no new coal-based capacity addition is required for the 10 years to 2027 beyond the 50 GW under different stages of construction and likely to come online between 2017 and 2022[5] The ambitious targets would see India quickly becoming one of the leading green energy producers in the world and surpassing numerous developed countries. The government intends to achieve 40% cumulative electric power capacity from non fossil fuel sources by 2030.[4]

Contents

Renewable energy overview and targetsEdit

Installed grid interactive renewable power capacity in India as of 28 February 2016 (excluding large hydro)[1][6]
Wind power in IndiaSolar power in IndiaBiofuel in IndiaSmall Hydro PowerWaste-to-Power 
  •   Wind Power: 29,151.29 MW (56.8%)
  •   Solar Power: 9,566.66 MW (18.6%)
  •   Biomass Power: 8,182 MW (15.9%)
  •   Small Hydro Power: 4,346.85 MW (8.5%)
  •   Waste-to-Power: 114.08 MW (0.2%)

Grid connected renewable electricityEdit

Installed grid interactive renewable power capacity (excluding large hydropower) in India as of 31 March 2017 (RES MNRE)[1][4][6]
Source Total Installed Capacity (MW) 2022 target (MW)
Wind power 32279.77 60,000.00
Solar power 12288.83 100,000.00
Biomass power
(Biomass & Gasification and Bagasse Cogeneration)
8182.00 *10,000.00
Waste-to-Power 114.08
Small hydropower 4379.85 5,000.00
Total 57244.23 175,000.00

* The target is given for "bio-power" which includes biomass power and waste to power generation.

The figures above refer to newer and fast developing renewable energy sources and are managed by the Ministry for New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). In addition as of 31 December 2016 India had 50,017.97 MW of installed large hydro capacity, which comes under the ambit of Ministry of Power.[3]

Installed grid power capacity from all sources in India as of 28 February 2017[3]
Coal: 189,047.88 MW (59.9%)Renewable, except large Hydroelectric: 50,018 MW (15.9%)Large Hydro: 44,413.43 MW (14.1%)Gas: 25,329.38 MW (8.0%)Nuclear: 5,780 MW (1.8%)Diesel: 837.63 MW (0.3%) 
  •   Coal: 189,047.88 MW (59.9%)
  •   Renewable, except large Hydroelectric: 50,018 MW (15.9%)
  •   Large Hydro: 44,413.43 MW (14.1%)
  •   Gas: 25,329.38 MW (8.0%)
  •   Nuclear: 5,780 MW (1.8%)
  •   Diesel: 837.63 MW (0.3%)

In terms of meeting its ambitious 2022 targets, as of 31 March 2017, wind power was more than halfway towards its goal, whilst solar power was below 13% of its highly ambitious target, although expansion is expected to be dramatic in the near future. Bio energy was at just above 80% mark whilst small hydro power was already 85% of the way to meet its target. Overall India was at 33% towards meeting its 2022 renewable installed power capacity target of 175 GW. The total breakdown of installed grid connected capacity from all sources including large hydro was as follows:

Grid connected installed capacity from all sources as of 28 February 2017[3]
Source Installed Capacity (MW) Share
Coal 189,047.88 59.93%
RES MNRE 50,018.00 15.86%
Large Hydro 44,413.43 14.08%
Gas 25,329.38 8.03%
Diesel 837.63 0.27%
Nuclear 5,780.00 1.83%
Total 315,426.32 100.00%

The first figure at the top of the table refers to the fast growing renewable energy sources under the responsibility of the Ministry for New and Renewable Energy and slightly exceeded the installed capacity of large hydro installations. This figure is targeted to reach 175 GW by 2022. Coal power currently represents the largest share of installed capacity at just under 186 GW. Total installed capacity as of 30 April 2016, for grid connected power in India stood at a little under 303 GW.[7]

Off-grid renewable energyEdit

Off-grid power as of 31 July 2016 (MNRE) Capacities in MW(EQ)[1]
Source Total Installed Capacity (MW)
Biomass(non-bagasse) Cogeneration 651.91
SPV Systems 438.95
Biomass Gasifiers 186.88
Waste to Energy 164.45
Water mills / micro hydel 18.81
Aero-Generators / Hybrid systems 2.98
Total 1463.98

In addition to grid connected renewable electricity and Off-grid renewable energy sources, India has 4.95 million of family biogas plants as of 28 February 2017.[1]

Wind powerEdit

 
The largest wind farm of India in Muppandal, Tamil Nadu.

The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, domestic policy support for wind power has led India to become the country with the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.[8]

As of 28 February 2017 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 29151.29 MW,[1] mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (7,269.50 MW), Maharashtra (4,100.40 MW), Gujarat (3,454.30 MW), Rajasthan (2,784.90 MW), Karnataka (2,318.20 MW), Andhra Pradesh (746.20 MW) and Madhya Pradesh (423.40 MW)[9] Wind power accounts for 14% of India's total installed power capacity.[10] India has set an ambitious target to generate 60,000 MW of electricity from wind power by 2022.[11]

Some of India's largest wind farms are:

Largest wind farms in India[12]
Wind farm Producer State Current capacity
(MW)
Notes
Muppandal wind farm Muppandal Wind Tamil Nadu 1,500 [13]
Jaisalmer Wind Park Suzlon Energy Rajasthan 1,275 [14]
Brahmanvel windfarm Parakh Agro Industries Maharashtra 528 [15]
Dhalgaon windfarm Gadre Marine Exports Maharashtra 278 [16]
Chakala windfarm Suzlon Energy Maharashtra 217 [17]
Vankusawade Wind Park Suzlon Energy Maharashtra 189 [18]
Vaspet Windfarm ReNew Power Maharashtra 144 [19]

Solar powerEdit

India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. Much of the country does not have an electrical grid, so one of the first applications of solar power has been for water pumping, to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water pumps, each consuming about 3.5 kilowatts, and off-grid lighting. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi) area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 gigawatts. Solar power in India has been growing at a rate of 113% yoy[20] and now dropped to around 4.34 (6.8¢ US) per kWh, which is around 18% lower than the average price for electricity generated by coal-fired plants.[21][22]

The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations Environment Programme has won the prestigious Energy Globe World award for Sustainability for helping to establish a consumer financing program for solar home power systems. Over the span of three years more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financed through 2,000 bank branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricity grid does not yet extend.[23][24]

Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-year partnership between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre, and two of India's largest banks, the Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank.[24]

Announced in November 2009, the Government of India proposed to launch its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change with plans to generate 1,000 MW of power by 2013 and up to 20,000 MW grid-based solar power, 2,000 MW of off-grid solar power and cover 20×10^6 m2 (220×10^6 sq ft) with collectors by the end of the final phase of the mission in 2020.[25] The Mission aims to achieve grid parity (electricity delivered at the same cost and quality as that delivered on the grid) by 2020. Achieving this target would establish India as a global leader in solar power generation.[26]

India is also the home to the world's first and only 100% solar powered airport, located at Cochin, Kerala[27]

Waste to energyEdit

Every year, about 55 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 38 billion litres of sewage are generated in the urban areas of India. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Waste generation in India is expected to increase rapidly in the future. As more people migrate to urban areas and as incomes increase, consumption levels are likely to rise, as are rates of waste generation. It is estimated that the amount of waste generated in India will increase at a per capita rate of approximately 1-1.33% annually. This has significant impacts on the amount of land that is and will be needed for disposal, economic costs of collecting and transporting waste, and the environmental consequences of increased MSW generation levels.[28]

India has had a long involvement with anaerobic digestion and biogas technologies. Waste water treatment plants in the country have been established which produce renewable energy from sewage gas. However, there is still significant untapped potential.[29] Also wastes from the distillery sector are on some sites converted into biogas to run in a gas engine to generate onsite power.

Prominent companies in the waste to energy sector include:[30]

  • A2Z Group of companies
  • Hanjer Biotech Energies
  • Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd
  • Hitachi Zosen India Pvt Limited
  • Clarke Energy

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Physical Progress (Achievements)" (web). report. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  2. ^ http://www.renewindians.com/2013/02/indian-renewable-installed-capacity-has-reached-27.7GW.html
  3. ^ a b c d "Executive Summary Power Sector February 2017" (pdf). report. Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Annual Report 2015-2016.". 
  5. ^ "Non-fossil fuels will form over half of India's energy capacity in 10 years, says govt". Hindustan Times. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Physical Progress (Achievements)". report. Ministry of New & Renewable Energy. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  7. ^ "Executive Summary Power Sector September 2016" (pdf). report. Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  8. ^ "Global statistics". Global Wind Energy Council. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  9. ^ "Energy Statistics 2015" (PDF). Central Statistics Office, Govt. of India. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  10. ^ "Executive summary of Power Sector as on 31-03-2016" (PDF). Central Electricity authority, GoI. July 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  11. ^ "Physical Progress (Achievements)" (PDF). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  12. ^ "Wind farm list". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  13. ^ "Muppandal windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Jaisalmer windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  15. ^ "Brahmanvel windfarm (India)". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  16. ^ "Dhalgaon windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "Chakala windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  18. ^ "Vankusawade Wind Park windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Vaspet windfarm". Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Kenning, Tom (19 October 2016). "India surpasses 1GW rooftop solar with grid parity for most C&I consumers". report. PVTECH. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  21. ^ Dockrill, Peter (20 April 2017). "India surpasses 1GW rooftop solar with grid parity for most C&I consumers". report. scienceAlert. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  22. ^ McGrath, Matt (1 June 2017). "Five effects of a US pull-out from Paris climate deal". BBC. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  23. ^ Consumer financing program for solar home systems in southern India
  24. ^ a b UNEP wins Energy Globe award
  25. ^ Sethi, Nitin (18 November 2009). "India targets 1,000mw solar power in 2013". Times of India. 
  26. ^ http://cdkn.org/resource/cdkn-inside-story-transforming-india-into-a-solar-power/?loclang=en_gb Transforming India into a solar power. Downloaded 31 July 2013
  27. ^ Crew, Bec (20 August 2015). "India Establishes World's First 100 Percent Solar-Powered Airport". report. scienceAlert. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  28. ^ Emmanual, William. "Energy Alternatives India". Energy Alternatives India. EAI. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  29. ^ Electricity from sewage in India, www.clarke-energy.com, retrieved 15 August 2014
  30. ^ Emmanual, William. "Energy ALternatives India". Energy ALternatives India. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 

External linksEdit

  Media related to Renewable energy in India at Wikimedia Commons