Animal fat

Animal fats and oils are lipids derived from animals: oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid. Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides. Although many animal parts and secretions may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from rendered tissue fats from livestock animals like pigs, chickens and cows. Dairy products yield animal fat and oil products such as butter.

Lard
Reuzel.jpg
Wet-rendered lard, from pork fatback.
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturated38–43%:
Palmitic acid: 25–28%
Stearic acid: 12–14%
Myristic acid: 1%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated56–62%
Monounsaturated47–50%:
Oleic acid: 44–47%
Palmitoleic acid: 3%
PolyunsaturatedLinoleic acid: 6–10%[1]
Properties
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz)3,770 kJ (900 kcal)
Melting pointbackfat: 30–40 °C (86–104 °F)
leaf fat: 43–48 °C (109–118 °F)
mixed fat: 36–45 °C (97–113 °F)
Smoke point121–218 °C (250–424 °F)
Specific gravity at 20 °C (68 °F)0.917–0.938
Iodine value45–75
Acid value3.4
Saponification value190–205
Unsaponifiable0.8%

Certain fats, such as goose fat, have a higher smoke point than other animal fats, but are still lower than many vegetable oils such as olive or avocado. [2]

Animal fats are commonly consumed as part of a western diet in their semi-solid form as either milk, butter, lard, schmaltz, and dripping or more commonly as filler in factory produced meat, pet food and fast-food products.[3]

Culinary usesEdit

Many animal fats and oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food. The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:

  • Shortening – to give pastry a crumbly texture.
  • Texture – oils can serve to make other ingredients stick together less.
  • Flavor – some may be chosen specifically for the flavor they impart.
  • Flavor base – oils can also "carry" flavors of other ingredients, since many flavors are present in chemicals that are soluble in oil.

Secondly, oils can be heated, and used to cook foods. Oils suitable for this purpose must have a high flash point.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ National Research Council. (1976). Fat Content and Composition of Animal Products.; p. 203. Washington, DC: Printing and Publishing Office, National Academy of Science. ISBN 0-309-02440-4
  2. ^ The Goose Fat Information Service, Goosefat.co.uk/, 2012-03-19, retrieved 2012-03-19
  3. ^ Meat Products with High Levels of Extenders and Fillers, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States, retrieved 2012-03-16