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Religious abuse is abuse administered under the guise of religion, including harassment or humiliation, which may result in psychological trauma. Religious abuse may also include misuse of religion for selfish, secular, or ideological ends such as the abuse of a clerical position.
One specific meaning of the term religious abuse refers to psychological manipulation and harm inflicted on a person by using the teachings of their religion. This is perpetrated by members of the same or similar faith, and includes the use of a position of authority within the religion. It is most often directed at children and emotionally vulnerable adults, and motivations behind such abuse vary, but can be either well-intentioned or malicious.
Even well-intentioned religious abuse can have long-term psychological consequences, such as the victim developing phobias or long-term depression. They may have a sense of shame that persists even after they leave the religion. A person can also be manipulated into avoiding a beneficial action (such as a medical treatment) or to engage in a harmful behavior.
In his book Religious Abuse, pastor Keith Wright describes an example of such abuse. When he was a child, his Christian Scientist mother became very ill and eventually was convinced to seek medical treatment at an inpatient facility. Members of her church went to the treatment center to convince her to trust prayer rather than treatment, and to leave. She died shortly thereafter. While the church members may not have had any malicious intent, their use of their religion's teachings to manipulate Wright's mother ultimately resulted in her death.
A more recent study among 200 university students has shown that 12.5% of students reported being victimized by at least one form of Religious/Ritual Abuse (RA). The study which was published in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, showed that religious/ritual abuse may result in mental health issues such as dissociative disorders
Religiously-based psychological abuse of children can involve using teachings to subjugate children through fear, or indoctrinating the child in the beliefs of their particular religion whilst suppressing other perspectives. Psychologist Jill Mytton describes this as crushing the child's chance to form a personal morality and belief system; it makes them utterly reliant on their religion and/or parents, and they never learn to reflect critically on information they receive. Similarly, the use of fear and a judgmental environment (such as the concept of Hell) to control the child can be traumatic.
Physical abuse in a religious context often takes the form of beatings, illegal confinement, neglect, near drowning or even murder in the belief that the child is possessed by evil spirits, practicing sorcery or witchcraft, or has committed some kind of sin that warrants punishment. Such extreme cases are, though, rare.
In 2012, the United Kingdom's Department for Children, Schools and Families instituted a new action plan to investigate the issue of faith-based abuse after several high-profile murders, such as that Kristy Bamu. Over a term of 10 years, Scotland Yard conducted 83 investigations into allegations of abuse with faith-based elements and feared there were even more that were unreported.
Archaeology has uncovered physical evidence of child sacrifice at several locations. Some of the best attested examples are the diverse rites which were part of the religious practices in Mesoamerica and the Inca Empire. Psychologists Alice Miller and Robert Godwin, psychohistorian Lloyd deMause and other advocates of children's rights have written about pre-Columbian sacrifice within the framework of child abuse.
Plutarch (c.46–120 AD) mentions the Carthaginian's ritual burning of small children, as do Tertullian, Orosius, Diodorus Siculus and Philo. Livy and Polybius do not. The Hebrew Bible also mentions what appears to be child sacrifice practised at a place called the Tophet (roasting place) by the Canaanites, and by some Israelites.
Sacrificial victims were often infants. "The slaughtering of newborn babies may be considered a common event in many cultures" including the Eskimo, the Polynesians, the Ancient Egyptians, the Chinese, the Scandinavians, and various indigenous peoples of Africa, the Americas and Australia.
Artificial deformation of the skull predates written history and dates back as far as 45,000 BCE, as evidenced by two Neanderthal skulls found in Shanidar Cave. It was usually started just after birth and continued until the desired shape was achieved. It may have played a key role in Egyptian and Mayan societies.
In China some boys were castrated, with both the penis and scrotum cut. Other ritual actions have been described by anthropologists. Géza Róheim wrote about initiation rituals performed by Australian natives in which adolescent initiates were forced to drink blood. Ritual rape of young virgins have been part of shamanistic practices.
In some tribes rituals of Papua New Guinea, an elder "picks out a sharp stick of cane and sticks it deep inside a boy's nostrils until he bleeds profusely into the stream of a pool, an act greeted by loud war cries." Afterwards, when boys are initiated into puberty and manhood, they are expected to perform fellatio on the elders. "Not all initiates will participate in this ceremonial homosexual activity but, about five days later, several will have to perform fellatio several times."
To this day, witch hunts, trials and accusations are still a real danger in some parts of the world. Trials result in violence against men, women and children, including murder. In The Gambia, about 1,000 people accused of being witches were locked in government detention centers in March 2009, being beaten, forced to drink an unknown hallucinogenic potion, and confess to witchcraft, according to Amnesty International. In Tanzania thousands of elderly Tanzanian women have been strangled, knifed to death and burned alive over the last two decades after being denounced as witches. Ritualistic abuse may also involve children accused of, and punished for, being purported witches in some Central African areas. A child may be blamed for the illness of a relative, for example. Other examples include Ghana, where witches were banished to refugee camps, and the beating and isolation of child witches in Angola.
This psychohistorical model claims that practices of tribal societies sometimes included incest and the sacrifice, mutilation, rape and torture of children, and that such activities were culturally acceptable.
Spiritual abuse includes:
- Psychological abuse and emotional abuse
- Physical abuse including physical injury (e.g., tatbir) and deprivation of sustenance.
- Sexual abuse
- Any act by deeds or words that shame or diminish the dignity of a person.
- Intimidation and the requirement to submit to a spiritual authority without any right to dissent.
- Unreasonable control of a person's basic right to exercise freewill in spiritual or natural matters.
- False accusations and repeated criticism by labeling a person as, for example, disobedient, rebellious, lacking faith, demonized, apostate, an enemy of the church or of a deity.
- Isolationism, separation, disenfranchisement or estrangement from family and friends outside the group due to cult-religious or spiritual or indigenous beliefs.
- Esotericism, hidden agendas and requirements revealed to members only as they successfully advance through various stages of a faith.
- Enforced practice of spiritualism, mysticism, or other ideologies peculiar to members of that religion.
- Financial exploitation or enslavement of adherents.
The term spiritual abuse was purportedly coined in the late twentieth century to refer to alleged abuse of authority by church leaders, albeit some scholars and historians would dispute that claim, citing prior literary appearances of the term in literature on religion and psychology. Lambert defines spiritual abuse as "a type of psychological predomination that could be rightly termed—religious enslavement." He further identifies "religious enslavement" as being a product of what is termed in the Bible "witchcraft," or "sorcery."
- Authority and Power: abuse arises when leaders of a group arrogate to themselves power and authority that lacks the dynamics of open accountability and the capacity to question or challenge decisions made by leaders. The shift entails moving from general respect for an office bearer to one where members loyally submit without any right to dissent.
- Manipulation and Control: abusive groups are characterized by social dynamics where fear, guilt or threats are routinely used to produce unquestioning obedience, group conformity or stringent tests of loyalty. The leader-disciple relationship may become one in which the leader's decisions control and usurp the disciple's right or capacity to make choices.
- Elitism and Persecution: abusive groups depict themselves as unique and have a strong organizational tendency to be separate from other bodies and institutions. The social dynamism of the group involves being independent or separate, with diminishing possibilities for internal correction or reflection, whilst outside criticism.
- Life-style and Experience: abusive groups foster rigidity in behavior and belief that requires conformity to the group's ideals.
- Dissent and Discipline: abusive groups tend to suppress any kind of internal challenge to decisions made by leaders.
Agnes and John Lawless argue in The Drift into Deception that there are eight characteristics of spiritual abuse, and some of these clearly overlap with Enroth's criteria. They list the eight marks of spiritual abuse as comprising:
- Charisma and pride
- Anger and intimidation
- Greed and fraud
- Enslaving authoritarian structure
- Demanding loyalty and honor
- New revelation
- Apotheosis or de facto deification of the leadership.
- Absolute authority of the leadership.
- Pervasive abuse and misuse of authority in personal dealings with members to coerce submission.
- Paranoia, inordinate egotism or narcissism, and insecurity by the leaders.
- Abuse and inordinate incidence of "church discipline" particularly in matters not expressly considered to be church discipline issues.
- Inordinate attention to maintaining the public image of the ministry and lambasting of all "critics".
- Constant indoctrination with a "group" or "family" mentality that impels members to exalt the corporate "life" and goals of the church-group over their personal goals, callings, objectives or relationships.
- Members are psychologically traumatized, terrorized and indoctrinated with numerous fears aimed at creating an over-dependence or codependence on their leaders and the corporate group.
- Members may be required to obtain the approval (or witness) of their leader(s) for decisions regarding personal matters.
- Frequent preaching from the pulpit discouraging leaving the religion or disobeying the leaderships' dictates.
- Members departing without the blessing of the leadership do so under a cloud of suspicion, shame, or slander.
- Departing members often suffer from psychological problems and display the symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Research and examplesEdit
Flavil Yeakley's team of researchers conducted field-tests with members of the Boston Church of Christ using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. In The Discipling Dilemma Yeakley reports that the members tested "showed a high level of change in psychological type scores", with a "clear pattern of convergence in a single type". The same tests were conducted on five mainline denominations and with six groups that are popularly labeled as cults or manipulative sects. Yeakley's test results showed that the pattern in the Boston Church "was not found among other churches of Christ or among members of five mainline denominations, but that it was found in studies of six manipulative sects." The research did not show that the Boston Church was "attracting people with a psychological need for high levels of control", but Yeakley concluded that "they are producing conformity in psychological type" which he deemed to be "unnatural, unhealthy and dangerous."
This was not a longitudinal study and relied on asking participants to answer the survey three times; once as they imagined they might answer five years prior, once as their present selves and once as they imagined they might answer after five years of influence in the sect. The author insists that despite this, "any significant changes in the pattern of these perceptions would indicate some kind of group pressure. A high degree of change and a convergence in a single type would be convincing proof that the Boston Church of Christ has some kind of group dynamic operating that tends to produce conformity to the group norm." However it could instead indicate a desire on the part of the respondents to change in the direction indicated. To determine actual changes in MBTI results would require a longitudinal study, since the methodology here was inherently suggestive of its conclusion. This is also amply borne out in its instructions: "The instructions stated clearly that no one was telling them that their answers ought to change. The instructions said that the purpose of the study was simply to find out if there were any changes and, if so, what those changes might indicate."
- Keith Wright, Religious Abuse, Wood Lake Publishing Inc., 2001
- "What Religious Abuse Is About".
- Wright, Keith T. (2001). Religious Abuse: A Pastor Explores the Many Ways Religion Can Hurt As Well As Heal. Kelowna, B.C: Northstone Publishing. ISBN 1-896836-47-X.
- Nobakht, Habib Niyaraq; Dale (Karl Yngvar). "The importance of religious/ritual abuse as a traumatic predictor of dissociation". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 33(23): https://doi.org/10.1080/19349637.2018.1439796. Check date values in:
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- Horowitz, D.L. (2000) The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA
- Wellman, James; Tokuno, Kyoko (2004). "Is Religious Violence Inevitable?". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 43 (3): 291. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2004.00234.x.
- Milner, Larry S. (2000). Hardness of Heart / Hardness of Life: The Stain of Human Infanticide. University Press of America.
- Reinhard, Johan; Maria Stenzel (November 1999). "A 6,700 metros niños incas sacrificados quedaron congelados en el tiempo". National Geographic: 36–55.
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- de Sahagún, Bernardino (1950–1982). Florentine Codex: History of the Things of New Spain, 12 books and 2 introductory volumes. Utah: University of Utah Press, translated and edited by Arthur J.O. Anderson and Charles Dibble.
- deMause, Lloyd (2002). The Emotional Life of Nations. NY, London: Karnak.
- Godwin, Robert W. (2004). One cosmos under God. Minnesota: Paragon House.
- Miller, Alice (1991). Breaking down the walls of silence. NY: Dutton/Penguin Books. p. 91.
- Brown, Shelby (1991). Late Carthaginian Child Sacrifice and Sacrificial Monuments in their Mediterranean Context. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.
- Davies, Nigel (1981). Human Sacrifice in History and Today. NY: William Morrow & Co. p. 192.
- Grotstein, James S. (2000). Who is the dreamer who dreams the dream?. NJ: The Analytic Press, Relational Perspectives Book Series Volume 19 edition. pp. 247, 242.
- Trinkaus, Erik (April 1982). "Artificial Cranial Deformation in the Shanidar 1 and 5 Neandertals". Current Anthropology. 23 (2): 198–199. doi:10.1086/202808. JSTOR 2742361.
- Rousselle, Aline (1983). Porneia: On Desire and the Body in Antiquity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 54.
- Tompkins, Peter (1963). The Eunuch and the Virgin: A Study of Curious Customs. NY: Bramhall House. p. 12.
- Róheim, Géza (1950). Psychoanalysis and Anthropology. NY: International Universities Press. p. 76.
- Nevill, Drury (1989). The Elements of Shamanism. Longmead: Element. p. 20.
- Herdt, Gilbert (2005). The Sambia: Ritual, Sexuality, and Change in Papua New Guinea (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology). Longmead: Wadsworth Publishing; 2 edition. p. 85.
- Todd Lewan, Satanic Cult Killings Spread Fear in Southern Brazil, The Associated Press, 26 October 1992
- Hamilton, Matt (2013-07-18). "Man given 25 years in mother's 'satanic' killing". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
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- Kelly, Kim (2017-07-05). "Are witches the ultimate feminists?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
- "The Gambia: Hundreds accused of "witchcraft" and poisoned in government campaign". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
- Rice, Xan (2009-03-19). "Gambian state kidnaps 1,000 villagers in mass purge of 'witchcraft'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
- "Despite murderous attacks, Tanzania's 'witches' fight for land". Reuters. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
- "Vejan en África a 'niños brujos'" (Press release). Reforma. 19 November 2007.
- "Ghana to send 'witches' banished to refugee camps back home". 17 October 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- ""Witchcraft" an excuse for child abuse". 12 December 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Salopek, Paul. "Children in Angola tortured as witches". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
- "Angola witchcraft's child victims". 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
- deMause, Lloyd (January 1982). Foundations of Psychohistory. Creative Roots Publishing. pp. 132–146. ISBN 0-940508-01-X.
- Rascovsky, A. (1995). Filicide: The Murder, Humiliation, Mutilation, Denigration and Abandonment of Children by Parents. NJ: Aronson. p. 107.
- Dr. Steven Lambert, Charismatic Captivation, Authoritarian Abuse & Psychological Enslavement in Neo-Pentecostal Churches (Real Truth Publications, 1996); adapted article available online: "Signs of Spiritual Abuse" 
- Lambert, Charismatic Captivation; adapted article available online: "Signs of Spiritual Abuse" 
- Lambert, Charismatic Captivation; adapted article available online: "Signs of Spiritual Abuse" 
- Jeff VanVonderen: "Spiritual abuse occurs when someone in a position of spiritual authority, the purpose of which is to 'come underneath' and serve, build, equip and make a deity's or a god's people MORE free, misuses that authority placing themselves over a god's people to control, coerce or manipulate them for seemingly godly purposes which are really their own."
- Lambert, Charismatic Captivation; p. 253.
- 2 Chronicles 33:6; Galatians 5:20; Revelation 18:23; et al.
- Charismatic Captivation, by Steven Lambert
- "The Signs of Spiritual Abuse". 15 November 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Yeakley, Flavil (1988). The Discipling Dilemma (2nd ed.). Nashville: Gospel Advocate Company. p. 39. ISBN 0-89225-311-8.
- Yeakley p44, p46-47
- Yeakley p.30-31.
- Massi, Jeri, The Lambs Workbook: Recovering from Church Abuse, Clergy Abuse, Spiritual Abuse, and the Legalism of Christian Fundamentalism (2008)
- O'Brien, Rosaleen Church Abuse, Drugs and E.C.T. (2009)