Psychological abuse, often called emotional abuse, is a form of abuse, characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. It is often associated with situations of power imbalance in abusive relationships, and may include bullying, gaslighting, and abuse in the workplace. It also may be perpetrated by persons conducting torture, other violence, acute or prolonged human rights abuse, particularly without legal redress such as detention without trial, false accusations, false convictions and extreme defamation such as where perpetrated by state and media.
|Other names||Psychological violence, emotional abuse, mental abuse|
As of 1996[update], there was no consensus regarding the definition of emotional abuse. In fact, clinicians and researchers have offered sometimes divergent definitions of emotional abuse. "Emotional abuse is any kind of abuse that is emotional rather than physical in nature. It can include anything from verbal abuse and constant criticism to more subtle tactics such as intimidation, manipulation, and refusal to ever be pleased. Emotional abuse can take many forms. Three general patterns of abusive behavior include aggressing, denying, and minimizing"; "Withholding is another form of denying. Withholding includes refusing to listen, refusing to communicate, and emotionally withdrawing as punishment." Even though there is no established definition for emotional abuse, emotional abuse can possess a definition beyond verbal and psychological abuse.
Blaming, shaming, and name calling are a few verbally abusive behaviors which can affect a victim emotionally. The victim's self-worth and emotional well being are altered and even diminished by the verbal abuse, resulting in an emotionally-abused victim.
The victim may experience severe psychological effects. This would involve the tactics of brainwashing, which can fall under psychological abuse as well, but emotional abuse consists of the manipulation of the victim's emotions. The victim may feel their emotions are being affected by the abuser to such an extent that the victim may no longer recognize their own feelings regarding the issues the abuser is trying to control. The result is the victim's self-concept and independence are systematically taken away.
The U.S. Department of Justice defines emotionally abusive traits as including causing fear by: intimidation, threatening physical harm to self, partner, children, or partner's family or friends, destruction of pets and property, forcing isolation from family, friends, or school or work. More subtle emotionally abusive behaviors include insults, putdowns, arbitrary and unpredictable behavior, and gaslighting (e.g. the denial that previous abusive incidents occurred). Modern technology has led to new forms of abuse, by text messaging and online cyber-bullying.
In 1996, Health Canada argued that emotional abuse is "based on power and control", and defines emotional abuse as including rejecting, degrading, terrorizing, isolating, corrupting/exploiting and "denying emotional responsiveness" as characteristic of emotional abuse.
Several studies have argued that an isolated incident of verbal aggression, dominant conduct or jealous behaviors does not constitute the term "psychological abuse." Rather, it is defined by a pattern of such behaviors, unlike physical and sexual maltreatment where only one incident is necessary to label it as abuse. Tomison and Tucci write, "emotional abuse is characterised by a climate or pattern of behavior(s) occurring over time [...] Thus, 'sustained' and 'repetitive' are the crucial components of any definition of emotional abuse." Andrew Vachss, an author, attorney and former sex crimes investigator, defines emotional abuse as "the systematic diminishment of another. It may be intentional or subconscious (or both), but it is always a course of conduct, not a single event."
Domestic abuse—defined as chronic mistreatment in marriage, families, dating and other intimate relationships—can include emotionally abusive behavior. Although psychological abuse does not always lead to physical abuse, physical abuse in domestic relationships is nearly always preceded and accompanied by psychological abuse. Murphy and O'Leary reported that psychological aggression is the most reliable predictor of later physical aggression.
A 2012 review by Capaldi et al., which evaluated risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV), noted that psychological abuse has been shown to be both associated with and common in IPV. High levels of verbal aggression and relationship conflict, "practically akin to psychological aggression", strongly predicted IPV; male jealousy in particular was associated with female injuries from IPV.
A 2005 study by Hamel reports that, "men and women physically and emotionally abuse each other at equal rates." Basile found that psychological aggression was effectively bidirectional in cases where heterosexual and homosexual couples went to court for domestic disturbances. A 2007 study of Spanish college students aged 18–27 found that psychological aggression (as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale) is so pervasive in dating relationships that it can be regarded as a normalized element of dating, and that women are substantially more likely to exhibit psychological aggression. Similar findings have been reported in other studies. Strauss et al. found that female intimate partners in heterosexual relationships were more likely than males to use psychological aggression, including threats to hit or throw an object. A study of young adults by Giordano et al. found that females in intimate heterosexual relationships were more likely than males to threaten to use a knife or gun against their partner.
Numerous studies done between the 1980 and 1994 report that lesbian relationships have higher overall rates of interpersonal aggression (including psychological aggression/emotional abuse) than heterosexual or gay male relationships. Furthermore, women who have been involved with both men and women reported higher rates of abuse from their female partners.
In 1996, the National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, for Health Canada, reported that 39% of married women or common-law wives suffered emotional abuse by husbands/partners; and a 1995 survey of women 15 and over 36–43% reported emotional abuse during childhood or adolescence, and 39% experienced emotional abuse in marriage/dating; this report does not address boys or men suffering emotional abuse from families or intimate partners. A BBC radio documentary on domestic abuse, including emotional maltreatment, reports that 20% of men and 30% of women have been abused by a spouse or other intimate partner.
Emotional abuse of a child is commonly defined as a pattern of behavior by parents or caregivers that can seriously interfere with a child’s cognitive, emotional, psychological, or social development. Some parents may emotionally and psychologically harm their children because of stress, poor parenting skills, social isolation, and lack of available resources or inappropriate expectations of their children. They may emotionally abuse their children because the parents or caregivers were emotionally abused during their own childhood. Straus and Field report that psychological aggression is a pervasive trait of American families: "verbal attacks on children, like physical attacks, are so prevalent as to be just about universal." A 2008 study by English, et al. found that fathers and mothers were equally likely to be verbally aggressive towards their children.
Choi and Mayer performed a study on elder abuse (causing harm or distress to an older person), with results showing that 10.5% of the participants were victims of "emotional/psychological abuse," which was most often perpetrated by a son or other relative of the victim. Of 1288 cases in 2002–2004, 1201 individuals, 42 couples, and 45 groups were found to have been abused. Of these, 70 percent were female. Psychological abuse (59%) and material/financial (42%) were the most frequently identified types of abuse.
Keashly and Jagatic found that males and females commit "emotionally abusive behaviors" in the workplace at roughly similar rates. In a web-based survey, Namie found that women were more likely to engage in workplace bullying, such as name calling, and that the average length of abuse was 16.5 months.
Pai and Lee found that the incidence of workplace violence typically occurs more often in younger workers. "Younger age may be a reflection of lack of job experience, resulting in [an inability] to identify or prevent potentially abusive situations... Another finding showed that lower education is a risk factor for violence." This study also reports that 51.4% of the workers surveyed have already experienced verbal abuse, and 29.8% of them have encountered workplace bullying and mobbing.
Characteristics of abusersEdit
In their review of data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (a longitudinal birth cohort study) Moffitt et al. report that while men exhibit more aggression overall, sex is not a reliable predictor of interpersonal aggression, including psychological aggression. The study found that no matter what gender a person is, aggressive people share a cluster of traits, including high rates of suspicion and jealousy; sudden and drastic mood swings; poor self-control; and higher than average rates of approval of violence and aggression. Moffitt et al. also argue that antisocial men exhibit two distinct types of interpersonal aggression (one against strangers, the other against intimate female partners), while antisocial women are rarely aggressive against anyone other than intimate male partners.
Male and female perpetrators of emotional and physical abuse exhibit high rates of personality disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Rates of personality disorder in the general population are roughly 15–20%, while roughly 80% of abusive men in court-ordered treatment programmes have personality disorders. Many of these disorders are not reversible but can be managed with treatment. Often the abuser does not see fault in their actions and treatment is never sought out.
Abusers may aim to avoid household chores or exercise total control of family finances. Abusers can be very manipulative, often recruiting friends, law officers and court officials, and even the victim's family to their side, while shifting blame to the victim.
In intimate relationshipsEdit
Most victims of psychological abuse within intimate relationships often experience changes to their psyche and actions. This varies throughout the various types and lengths of emotional abuse. Long-term emotional abuse has long term debilitating effects on a person's sense of self and integrity. Often, research shows that emotional abuse is a precursor to physical abuse when three particular forms of emotional abuse are present in the relationship: threats, restriction of the abused party and damage to the victim's property.
Psychological abuse is often not recognized by survivors of domestic violence as abuse. A study of college students by Goldsmith and Freyd report that many who have experienced emotional abuse do not characterize the mistreatment as abusive. Additionally, Goldsmith and Freyd show that these people also tend to exhibit higher than average rates of alexithymia (difficulty identifying and processing their own emotions). This is often the case when referring to victims of abuse within intimate relationships, as non-recognition of the actions as abuse may be a coping or defense mechanism in order to either seek to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict.
Marital or relationship dissatisfaction can be caused by psychological abuse or aggression. In a 2007 study, Laurent et al. report that psychological aggression in young couples is associated with decreased satisfaction for both partners: "psychological aggression may serve as an impediment to couples' development because it reflects less mature coercive tactics and an inability to balance self/other needs effectively." In a 2008 study on relationship dissatisfaction in adolescents Walsh and Shulman explain, "The more psychologically aggressive females were, the less satisfied were both partners. The unique importance of males' behavior was found in the form of withdrawal, a less mature conflict negotiation strategy. Males' withdrawal during joint discussions predicted increased satisfaction."
There are many different responses to psychological abuse. Jacobson et al. found that women report markedly higher rates of fear during marital conflicts. However, a rejoinder argued that Jacobson's results were invalid due to men and women's drastically differing interpretations of questionnaires. Coker et al. found that the effects of mental abuse were similar whether the victim was male or female. A 1998 study of male college students by Simonelli & Ingram found that men who were emotionally abused by their female partners exhibited higher rates of chronic depression than the general population. Pimlott-Kubiak and Cortina found that severity and duration of abuse were the only accurate predictors of after effects of abuse; sex of perpetrator or victim were not reliable predictors.
In the familyEdit
English et al. report that children whose families are characterized by interpersonal violence, including psychological aggression and verbal aggression, may exhibit a range of serious disorders, including chronic depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation and anger. Additionally, English et al. report that the impact of emotional abuse "did not differ significantly" from that of physical abuse. Johnson et al. report that, in a survey of female patients, 24% suffered emotional abuse, and that this group experienced higher rates of gynecological problems. In their study of men emotionally abused by a wife/partner or parent, Hines and Malley-Morrison report that victims exhibit high rates of post traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction, including alcoholism.
Glaser reports, "An infant who is severely deprived of basic emotional nurturance, even though physically well cared for, can fail to thrive and can eventually die. Babies with less severe emotional deprivation can grow into anxious and insecure children who are slow to develop and who have low self-esteem." Glaser also informs that the abuse impacts the child in a number of ways, especially on their behavior, including: "insecurity, poor self-esteem, destructive behavior, angry acts (such as fire setting and animal cruelty), withdrawal, poor development of basic skills, alcohol or drug abuse, suicide, difficulty forming relationships and unstable job histories."
Oberlander et al. performed a study which discovered that among the youth, those with a history of maltreatment showed that emotional distress is a predictor of early initiation of sexual intercourse. Oberlander et al. state, "A childhood history of maltreatment, including...psychological abuse, and neglect, has been identified as a risk factor for early initiation of sexual intercourse ... In families where child maltreatment had occurred, children were more likely to experience heightened emotional distress and subsequently to engage in sexual intercourse by age 14. It is possible that maltreated youth feel disconnected from families that did not protect them and subsequently seek sexual relationships to gain support, seek companionship, or enhance their standing with peers." It is apparent that psychological abuse sustained during childhood is a predictor of the onset of sexual conduct occurring earlier in life, as opposed to later.
In the workplaceEdit
Some studies tend to focus on psychological abuse within the workplace. Namie's study of workplace emotional abuse found that 31% of women and 21% of men who reported workplace emotional abuse exhibited three key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (hypervigilance, intrusive imagery, and avoidance behaviors). The most common psychological, professional, financial, and social effects of sexual harassment and retaliation are as follows:
- Psychological stress and health impairment, loss of motivation.
- Decreased work or school performance as a result of stressful conditions; increased absenteeism in fear of harassment repetition.
- Having to drop courses, change academic plans, or leave school (loss of tuition) in fear of harassment repetition or as a result of stress.
- Being objectified and humiliated by scrutiny and gossip.
- Loss of trust in environments similar to where the harassment occurred.
- Loss of trust in the types of people that occupy similar positions as the harasser or their colleagues, especially in cases where they are not supportive, difficulties or stress on peer relationships, or relationships with colleagues.
- Effects on sexual life and relationships: can put extreme stress upon relationships with significant others, sometimes resulting in divorce.
- Weakening of support network, or being ostracized from professional or academic circles (friends, colleagues, or family may distance themselves from the victim, or shun him or her altogether).
- Depression, anxiety or panic attacks.
- Sleeplessness or nightmares, difficulty concentrating, headaches, fatigue.
- Eating disorders (weight loss or gain), alcoholism, and feeling powerless or out of control.
In intimate relationshipsEdit
Recognition of abuse is the first step to prevention. It is often difficult for abuse victims to acknowledge their situation and to seek help. For those who do seek help, research has shown that people who participate in Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Program report less psychological aggression toward their targets of psychological abuse, and reported victimization from psychological abuse decreased over time for the treatment group.
There are non-profit organizations which provide support and prevention services, such as the Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men & Women (in the USA), operated by staff and trained volunteers to offer information and crisis intervention to victims of domestic violence.
In the familyEdit
Child abuse in the sole form of emotional/psychological maltreatment is often the most difficult to identify and prevent, as Child Protective Services is often the only method of intervention, and the institute "must have demonstrable evidence that harm to a child has been done before they can intervene. And, since emotional abuse doesn’t result in physical evidence such as bruising or malnutrition, it can be very hard to diagnose." Some researchers have, however, begun to develop methods to diagnose and treat such abuse, including the ability to: identify risk factors, provide resources to victims and their families, and ask appropriate questions to help identify the abuse.
In the workplaceEdit
The majority of companies within the United States provide access to a human resources department, in which to report cases of psychological/emotional abuse. Also, many managers are required to participate in conflict management programs, in order to ensure the workplace maintains an "open and respectful atmosphere, with tolerance for diversity and where the existence of interpersonal frustration and friction is accepted but also properly managed." Organizations must adopt zero-tolerance policies for professional verbal abuse. Education and coaching are needed to help employees to improve their skills when responding to professional-to-professional verbal abuse.
Several studies found double standards in how people tend to view emotional abuse by men versus emotional abuse by women. Follingstad et al. found that, when rating hypothetical vignettes of psychological abuse in marriages, professional psychologists tend to rate male abuse of females as more serious than identical scenarios describing female abuse of males: "the stereotypical association between physical aggression and males appears to extend to an association of psychological abuse and males".:446 Similarly, Sorenson and Taylor randomly surveyed a group of Los Angeles, California residents for their opinions of hypothetical vignettes of abuse in heterosexual relationships. Their study found that abuse committed by women, including emotional and psychological abuse such as controlling or humiliating behavior, was typically viewed as less serious or detrimental than identical abuse committed by men. Additionally, Sorenson and Taylor found that respondents had a broader range of opinions about female perpetrators, representing a lack of clearly defined mores when compared to responses about male perpetrators.
When considering the emotional state of psychological abusers, psychologists have focused on aggression as a contributing factor. While it is typical for people to consider males to be the more aggressive of the two sexes, researchers have studied female aggression to help understand psychological abuse patterns in situations involving female abusers. According to Walsh and Shluman, "The higher rates of female initiated aggression [including psychological aggression] may result, in part, from adolescents' attitudes about the unacceptability of male aggression and the relatively less negative attitudes toward female aggression". This concept that females are raised with fewer restrictions on aggressive behaviors (possibly due to the anxiety over aggression being focused on males) is a possible explanation for women who utilize aggression when being mentally abusive.
Some researchers have become interested in discovering exactly why women are usually not considered to be abusive. Hamel's 2007 study found that a "prevailing patriarchal conception of intimate partner violence" led to a systematic reluctance to study women who psychologically and physically abuse their male partners. These findings state that existing cultural norms show males as more dominant and are therefore more likely to begin abusing their significant partners.
Dutton found that men who are emotionally or physically abused often encounter victim blaming that erroneously presumes the man either provoked or deserved the mistreatment by their female partners. Similarly, domestic violence victims will often blame their own behavior, rather than the violent actions of the abuser. Victims may try continually to alter their behavior and circumstances in order to please their abuser. Often, this results in further dependence of the individual on their abuser, as they may often change certain aspects of their lives that limit their resources. Studies show that emotional abusers frequently aim to exercise total control of different aspects of family life. This behavior is only supported when the victim of the abuse aims to please their abuser.
Many abusers are able to control their victims in a manipulative manner, utilizing methods to persuade others to conform to the wishes of the abuser, rather than to force them to do something they do not wish to do. Simon argues that because aggression in abusive relationships can be carried out subtly and covertly through various manipulation and control tactics, victims often don't perceive the true nature of the relationship until conditions worsen considerably.
Some scholars state that wife abuse stems from "normal psychological and behavioral patterns of most men ... feminists seek to understand why men, in general, use physical force against their partners and what functions this serves for a society in a given historical context". Similarly, Dobash and Dobash claim that "Men who assault their wives are actually living up to cultural prescriptions that are cherished in Western society--aggressiveness, male dominance and female subordination--and they are using physical force as a means to enforce that dominance," while Walker claims that men exhibit a "socialized androcentric need for power".
While some women are aggressive and dominating to male partners, some studies show that the majority of abuse in heterosexual partnerships, at about 80% in the USA, is perpetrated by men. (Note that critics stress that this Department of Justice study examines crime figures, and does not specifically address domestic abuse figures. While the categories of crime and domestic abuse may cross-over, many instances of domestic abuse are either not regarded as crimes or reported to police—critics[who?] thus argue that it is inaccurate to regard the DOJ study as a comprehensive statement on domestic abuse.) A 2002 study reports that ten percent of violence in the UK, overall, is by females against males. However, more recent data specifically regarding domestic abuse (including emotional abuse) report that 3 in 10 women, and 1 in 5 men, have experienced domestic abuse.
Commentators argue that legal systems have in the past endorsed these traditions of male domination, and it is only in recent years that abusers have begun to be punished for their behavior. Conversely, in 1879, a Harvard University law scholar wrote, "The cases in the American courts are uniform against the right of the husband to use any chastisement, moderate or otherwise, toward the wife, for any purpose."
While recognizing that researchers have done valuable work and highlighted neglected topics critics suggest that the male cultural domination hypothesis for abuse is untenable as a generalized explanation for numerous reasons:
- Many variables (racial, ethnic, cultural and subcultural, nationality, religion, family dynamics, mental illness, etc.) make it very difficult or impossible to define male and female roles in any meaningful way that apply to the entire population.
- Studies show that disagreements about power-sharing in relationships are more strongly associated with abuse than are imbalances of power.
- Peer-reviewed studies have produced inconsistent results when directly examining patriarchal beliefs and wife abuse. Yllo and Straus argued that "low status" women in the United States suffered higher rates of spousal abuse; however, a rejoinder argued that Yllo and Straus's interpretive conclusions were "confusing and contradictory". Smith estimated that patriarchal beliefs were a causative factor for only 20% of wife abuse. Campbell writes that "there is not a simple linear correlation between female status and rates of wife assault.":19 Other studies had similar findings. Additionally, a study of Hispanic Americans revealed that traditionalist men exhibited lower rates of abuse towards women.
- Studies show that treatment programs based on the patriarchal privilege model are flawed due to a weak connection between abusiveness and one's cultural or social attitudes.
- Numerous empirical studies challenge the concept that male abuse or control of women is culturally sanctioned. Such studies show that abusive men are widely viewed as unsuitable partners for dating or marriage. A minority of abusive men qualify as pervasively misogynistic. The majority of men who commit spousal abuse agree that their behavior was inappropriate. A minority of men approve of spousal abuse under even limited circumstances. Furthermore, the majority of men are non-abusive towards girlfriends or wives for the duration of relationships, contrary to predictions that aggression or abuse towards women is an innate element of masculine culture.
- Dutton argues that the numerous studies establishing that heterosexual and gay male relationships have lower rates of abuse than lesbian relationships, and the fact that women who've been involved with both men and women were more likely to have been abused by a woman "are difficult to explain in terms of male domination." Additionally, Dutton suggests that "patriarchy must interact with psychological variables in order to account for the great variation in power-violence data. It is suggested that some forms of psychopathology lead to some men adopting patriarchal ideology to justify and rationalize their own pathology."
Some argue[who?] that fundamentalist views of religions tend to reinforce emotional abuse. Mobaraki states, "Gender inequity is usually translated into a power imbalance with women being more vulnerable. This vulnerability is more precarious in traditional patriarchal societies."
The Book of Genesis to see a precedent of all men subjugating their wives into sadness: "in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children: and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee"; in a chapter that mainly describes the basic features of men and women and could be describing the labour of childbirth or post-natal depression.
Studies suggest that fundamentalist religious prohibitions against divorce may make it more difficult for religious men or women to leave an abusive marriage. A 1985 survey of Protestant clergy in the United States by Jim M Alsdurf found that 21% of them agreed that "no amount of abuse would justify a woman's leaving her husband, ever," and 26% agreed with the statement that "a wife should submit to her husband and trust that God would honor her action by either stopping the abuse or giving her the strength to endure it." A 2016 report by the Muslim Women's Network UK cited several barriers for Muslim women in abusive marriages who seek divorce through Sharia Council services. These barriers include: selectively quoting religious text to discourage divorce; blaming the woman for the failed marriage; placing greater weight on the husband's testimony; requiring the woman to present two male witnesses; and pressuring women into mediation or reconciliation rather than granting a divorce, even when domestic violence is present.
- Dutton, Donald G. (Summer 1994). "Patriarchy and wife assault: the ecological fallacy". Violence & Victims. 9 (2): 167–182. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.9.2.167. PMID 7696196.
- Dutton, Mary Ann; Goodman, Lisa A.; Bennett, Lauren (2000), "Court-involved battered women's responses to violence: the role of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse", in Maiuro, Roland D.; O'Leary, K. Daniel (eds.), Psychological abuse in violent domestic relations, New York: Springer Publishing Company, p. 197, ISBN 9780826111463. Preview.
- Thompson, Anne E.; Kaplan, Carole A. (February 1996). "Childhood emotional abuse". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 168 (2): 143–148. doi:10.1192/bjp.168.2.143. PMID 8837902.
- "Emotional abuse". Counseling Center, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- Smith, Melinda; Segal, Jeanne (December 2014). "Domestic violence and abuse: signs of abuse and abusive relationships". helpguide.org. Helpguide.org. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Mega, Lesly Tamarin; Mega, Jessica Lee; Mega, Benjamin Tamarin; Harris, Beverly Moore (September – October 2000). "Brainwashing and battering fatigue: psychological abuse in domestic violence". North Carolina Medical Journal. 61 (5): 260–265. PMID 11008456. Pdf.
- National Domestic Violence Hotline; National Center for Victims of Crime; WomensLaw.org (23 July 2014). "Domestic violence". justice.gov. U.S. Department of Justice.
- "What is Emotional Abuse?". Public Health Agency of Canada. 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 April 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- Besharov, Douglas J. (1990). Recognizing child abuse: a guide for the concerned. New York Toronto New York: Free Press Collier Macmillan Maxwell Macmillan. ISBN 9780029030813.
- Tomison, Adam M.; Tucci, Joe (September 1997). "Emotional abuse: the hidden form of maltreatment". National Child Protection Clearing House (NCPC). 8.
- Vachss, Andrew (28 August 1994). "You carry the cure in your own heart". Parade. Athlon Publishing.
- Murphy, Christopher M.; O'Leary, K. Daniel (October 1989). "Psychological aggression predicts physical aggression in early marriage". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 57 (5): 579–582. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.57.5.579. PMID 2794178.
- Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K. (April 2012). "A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence". Partner Abuse. 3 (2): 231–280. doi:10.1891/1946-6518.104.22.168. PMC 3384540. PMID 22754606.
- Hamel, John (2014). Gender-inclusive treatment of intimate partner abuse: evidence-based approaches (2nd ed.). New York, New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC. ISBN 9780826196774.
- Basile, Steve (February 2004). "Comparison of abuse alleged by same- and opposite-gender litigants as cited in requests for abuse prevention orders". Journal of Family Violence. 19 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1023/B:JOFV.0000011583.75406.6a.
...male and female defendants, who were the subject of a complaint in domestic relations cases, while sometimes exhibiting different aggressive tendencies, measured almost equally abusive in terms of the overall level of psychological and physical aggression.
- Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J.; Gómez, José Luis Graña; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Lozano, Pilar González (2007). "Physical and psychological aggression in dating relationships in Spanish university students". Psicothema. 19 (1): 102–107. PMID 17295990. Pdf.
- Welsh, Deborah P.; Shulman, Shmuel (December 2008). "Directly observed interaction within adolescent romantic relationships: What have we learned?". Journal of Adolescence. 31 (6): 877–891. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.10.001. PMC 2614117. PMID 18986697.
- Straus, Murray A.; Hamby, Sherry L.; Boney-McCoy, Sue; Sugarman, David B. (May 1996). "The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2): development and preliminary psychometric data". Journal of Family Issues. 17 (3): 283–316. doi:10.1177/019251396017003001. Short form from PMID 15844722 Pdf.
- Giordano, Peggy C.; Millhollin, Toni J.; Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Pugh, M.D.; Rudolph, Jennifer L. (February 1999). "Deliquency, identity, and women's involvement in relationship violence". Criminology. 37 (1): 17–40. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00478.x.
- Brand, Pamela A.; Kidd, Aline H. (May 1996). "Frequency of physical aggression in heterosexual and female homosexual dyads". Psychological Reports. 59 (3): 1307–1313. doi:10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1247. PMID 3823329.
- Loulan, JoAnn (1987). Lesbian passion: loving ourselves and each other. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute. ISBN 9780933216297.
- Coleman, Vallerie E. (1990). Violence between lesbian couples: a between-groups comparison (Ph.D. thesis). California School of Professional Psychology. OCLC 30418940. Unpublished. University microfilm id. 9109022.
- Kelly, Carl E.; Warshafsky, Lynn (July 1987). Partner abuse in gay male and lesbian couples. Durham, New Hampshire. Paper presented at the Third National Conference for Family Violence Researchers.
- Lie, Gwat-Yong; Schilit, Rebecca; Bush, Judy; Montagne, Marilyn; Reyes, Lynn (Summer 1991). "Lesbians in currently aggressive relationships: how frequently do they report aggressive past relationships?". Violence & Victims. 6 (2): 121–135. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.6.2.121. PMID 1742239.
- Lie, Gwat-Yong; Gentlewarrior, Sabrina (November 1991). "Intimate violence in lesbian relationships: discussion of survey findings and practice implications". Journal of Social Service Research. 15 (1–2): 41–59. doi:10.1300/J079v15n01_03.
- "Boys don't cry". BBC Radio 1Xtra. BBC. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009. A BBC radio documentary.
- Straus, Murray A.; Field, Carolyn J. (November 2003). "Psychological aggression by American parents: national data on prevalence, chronicity, and severity". Journal of Marriage and Family. 65 (4): 795–808. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.360.7774. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00795.x. JSTOR 3599891.
- English, Diana J.; Graham, J. Christopher; Newton, Rae R.; Lewis, Terri L.; Richard, Thompson; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Weisbart, Cindy (May 2009). "At-risk and maltreated children exposed to intimate partner aggression/violence: what the conflict looks like and its relationship to child outcomes". Child Maltreatment. 14 (2): 157–171. doi:10.1177/1077559508326287. PMID 18984806.
- Choi, Namkee G.; Mayer, James (August 2000). "Elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation: risk factors and prevention strategies". Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 33 (2): 5–25. doi:10.1300/J083v33n02_02. Pdf.
- Age Concern New Zealand (October 2007), "Executive summary: key findings", in Age Concern New Zealand (ed.), Elder abuse and neglect prevention challenges for the future: including an analysis of referrals to Age Concern elder abuse and neglect prevention services from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2006 (PDF), Wellington: Age Concern New Zealand, p. 6, ISBN 9780473128142.
- Burnazi, Laurela; Keashly, Loraleigh; Neuman, Joel H. (10 August 2005), "Aggression revisited: Prevalence, antecedents, and outcomes", in Dunn (chair), Jennifer R. (ed.), Counterproductive work behaviors (symposium conducted at the meeting of the Academy of Management), Honolulu, Hawaii: Academy of Management
- Jagatic, Karen; Burnazi, Laurela (September 2000). The nature, extent, and impact of emotional abuse in the workplace: Results of a statewide survey. Toronto, Canada: Academy of Management. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Conference.
- Keashly, Loraleigh; Neuman, Joel H. (September 2000). Exploring persistent patterns of workplace aggression. Denver, Colorado: Academy of Management. Paper presented at the Academy of Management. Pdf of conference presentation.
- Keashly, Loraleigh; Jagatic, Karen (2010), "By any other name: American perspectives on workplace bullying", in Einarsen, Ståle; Hoel, Helge; Zapf, Dieter; et al. (eds.), Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: American perspectives in research and practice (2nd ed.), London New York: Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9780415253598. Details.
- Namie, Gary (October 2000). U.S. Hostile Workplace Survey 2000. Workplace Bullying Institute (WBI). Paper presented at the New England Conference on Workplace Bullying, Suffolk University Law School, Boston. Pdf.
- Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan (May 2011). "Risk factors for workplace violence in clinical registered nurses in Taiwan". Journal of Clinical Nursing. 20 (9–10): 1405–1412. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03650.x. PMID 21492284.
- Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Rutter, Michael; Silva, Phil A. (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behaviour conduct disorder, delinquency, and violence in the Dunedin longitudinal study. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521010665.
- Dutton, Donald G.; Bodnarchuk, Mark (2005), "Through a psychological lens: personality disorder and spouse assault", in Gelles, Richard J.; Loseke, Donileen R.; Cavanaugh, Mary M. (eds.), Current controversies on family violence (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, pp. 5–18, ISBN 9780761921066.
- Carney, Michelle M.; Buttell, Frederick P. (July 2004). "A multidimensional evaluation of a treatment program for female batterers: a pilot study". Research on Social Work Practice. 14 (4): 249–258. doi:10.1177/1049731503262223. Pdf.
- Henning, Kris; Feder, Lynette (April 2004). "A comparison of men and women arrested for domestic violence: who presents the greater threat?". Journal of Family Violence. 19 (2): 69–80. doi:10.1023/B:JOFV.0000019838.01126.7c.
- Bancroft, Lundy (2002). Why does he do that? Inside the minds of angry and controlling men. New York, New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 9780425191651. Preview.
- Hirigoyen, Marie-France (2004). Stalking the soul: emotional abuse and the erosion of identity. Helen Marx (translator, from French); Thomas Moore (afterword). New York: Helen Marx Books. ISBN 9781885586995. Details.
- Packota, Valerie J. (2000). "Emotional abuse of women by their intimate partners: a literature review". springtideresources.org. Springtide Resources.
- Follingstad, Diane R.; Rutledge, Larry L.; Berg, Barbara J.; Hause, Elizabeth S.; Polek, Darlene S. (June 1990). "The role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships". Journal of Family Violence. 5 (2): 107–120. doi:10.1007/BF00978514.
- Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J. (April 2005). "Awareness for emotional abuse". Journal of Emotional Abuse. 5 (1): 95–123. doi:10.1300/J135v05n01_04. Pdf.
- Weiten, Wayne; Lloyd, Margaret A.; Dunn, Dana S.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost (2008). Psychology applied to modern life: adjustment in the 21st century (9th ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780495553397.
- Snyder, C. R., ed. (1999). Coping the psychology of what works. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198028031.
- Zeidner, Moshe; Endler, Norman S., eds. (1996). Handbook of coping: theory, research, applications. New York: Wiley. ISBN 9780471599463.
- Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Kima, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M. (December 2008). "Interaction and relationship development in stable young couples: effects of positive engagement, psychological aggression, and withdrawal". Journal of Adolescence. 31 (6): 815–835. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.11.001. PMC 2642009. PMID 18164053.
- Jacobson, Neil S.; Gottman, John M.; Waltz, Jennifer; Rushe, Regina; Babcock, Julia; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy (October 1994). "Affect, verbal content, and psychophysiology in the arguments of couples with a violent husband". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 62 (5): 982–988. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.62.5.982. PMID 7806730.
- Dutton, Donald G. (2006). Rethinking domestic violence. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 9781282741072.
- Coker, Ann L.; Davis, Keith E.; Arias, Ileana; Desai, Sujata; Sanderson, Maureen; Brandt, Heather M.; Smith, Paige H. (November 2002). "Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 23 (4): 260–268. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00514-7. PMID 12406480.
- Simonelli, Catherine J.; Ingram, Kathleen M. (December 1998). "Psychological distress among men experiencing physical and emotional abuse in heterosexual dating relationships". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 13 (6): 667–681. doi:10.1177/088626098013006001.
- Pimlott-Kubiak, Sheryl; Cortina, Lilia M. (June 2003). "Gender, victimization, and outcomes: reconceptualizing risk". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 71 (3): 528–539. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.519.8059. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.528. PMID 12795576. Pdf.
- Johnson, J.K.; John, R.; Humera, A.; Kukreja, S.; Found, M.; Lindow, S.W. (July 2007). "The prevalence of emotional abuse in gynaecology patients and its association with gynaecological symptoms". European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 133 (1): 95–99. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.04.035. PMID 16757091.
- Hines, Denise A.; Malley-Morrison, Kathleen (July 2001). "Psychological effects of partner abuse against men: a neglected research area". Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 2 (2): 75–85. doi:10.1037/1524-9126.96.36.199. Pdf.
- Glaser, Danya (June 2002). "Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): a conceptual framework". Child Abuse & Neglect. 26 (6–7): 697–714. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(02)00342-3. PMID 12201163.
- Oberlander, Sarah E.; Wang, Yan; Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M. (December 2011). "Childhood maltreatment, emotional distress, and early adolescent sexual intercourse: multi-informant perspectives on parental monitoring". Journal of Family Psychology. 25 (6): 885–894. doi:10.1037/a0025423. PMC 3874382. PMID 21928888.
- "Common effects of sexual harassment". webcom.com. Dealing with sexual harassment: with focus on Santa Cruz, California. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007.
- Taken from: Dervin Flower, Hilary. Women's Crisis Support publication.
- "Sexual Harassment: Myths and Realities". psysci.co. Psychology, Science and Health. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- Taken from: unknown (16 March 1998). "Sexual harassment: myths and realities". APA Public Information Home Page. American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/
- Stop violence against women (9 May 2007). "Effects of sexual harassment". stopvaw.org/. The Advocates for Human Rights. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- From the original: Commission of the European Communities (EEC) (24 February 1992). "Commission Recommendation of 27 November 1991 on the protection of the dignity of women and men at work (92/131/EEC)". Official Journal L 049: 0001–0008. Archived from the original on 31 May 2005.
- Piotrkowski, Chaya S. "Gender issues: articles from the ILO encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety, volume II". ilo.org. International Labor Office. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- Print version: Piotrkowski, Chaya S. (1998), "34.28: Psychosocial and organizational factors: Interpersonal factors: sexual harassment", in Mager Stellman, Jeanne (ed.), Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety, volume II, Geneva, Switzerland: International Labor Office, pp. 1989–1990, ISBN 9789221092032.
- Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Turner, Lisa A. (August 2012). "The efficacy of an intimate partner violence prevention program with high-risk adolescent girls: a preliminary test". Prevention Science. 13 (4): 384–394. doi:10.1007/s11121-011-0240-7. PMID 21842333.
- "Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men and Women". dahmw.org. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015.
- Field, T.; Winterfield, A., "Abuse, part 2: sexual abuse", in Englewood, C.O. (ed.), Tough problems, tough choices: guidelines for needs-based service planning in child welfare, American Humane Association, Annie E. Casey Foundation, and Casey Family Programs Pdf.
- Schechter, Daniel S.; Myers, Michael M.; Brunelli, Susan A.; Coates, Susan W.; Zeanah, Jr., Charles H.; Davies, Mark; Grienenberger, John F.; Marshall, Randall D.; McCaw, Jaime E.; Trabka, Kimberly A.; Liebowitz, Michael R. (September – October 2006). "Traumatized mothers can change their minds about their toddlers: understanding how a novel use of videofeedback supports positive change of maternal attributions". Infant Mental Health Journal. 27 (5): 429–447. doi:10.1002/imhj.20101. PMC 2078524. PMID 18007960.
- Kinder, Andrew; Hughes, Rick; Cooper, Cary (2008). Employee well-being support a workplace resource. Chichester, England Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470060018.
- Sofield, Laura; Salmond, Susan W. (July – August 2003). "Workplace violence: a focus on verbal abuse and intent to leave the organization". Orthopaedic Nursing. 22 (4): 274–283. doi:10.1097/00006416-200307000-00008. PMID 12961971.
- Follingstad, Diane R.; DeHart, Dana D.; Green, Eric P. (August 2004). "Psychologists' judgments of psychologically aggressive actions when perpetrated by a husband versus a wife". Violence & Victims. 19 (4): 435–452. doi:10.1891/vivi.19.4.435.64165. PMID 15726937.
- Sorenson, Susan B.; Taylor, Catherine A. (March 2005). "Female aggression toward male intimate partners: an examination of social norms in a community-based sample". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 29 (1): 78–96. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00170.x.
- Hamel, John (2009). "Toward a gender-inclusive conception of intimate partner violence research and theory: part 2 – new directions". International Journal of Men's Health. 8 (1): 41–59. doi:10.3149/jmh.0801.41. Pdf.
- Tjaden, Patricia G.; Thoennes, Nancy (July 2000). Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence: findings from the national violence against women survey. National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pdf. NCJ 181867
- Cantalano, Shannan (28 December 2006). Intimate partner violence in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
- Simon, Jr., George (2010), "Epilogue: aggression and covert-aggression in a permissive and undisciplined society", in Simon, Jr., George (ed.), In sheep's clothing: understanding and dealing with manipulative people, Little Rock, Arkansas: Parkhurst Brothers, pp. 111–136, ISBN 9781935166306.
- Simon, Jr., George K. (2011), "The aggressive pattern", in Simon, Jr., George K. (ed.), Character disturbance: the phenomenon of our age, Little Rock, Arkansas: Parkhurst Brothers, pp. 118–119, ISBN 9781935166320.
- Bograd, Michele Louise (1988), "Feminist perspectives on wife abuse: an introduction", in Yllö, Kersti; Bograd, Michele Louise (eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse, Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, p. 13, ISBN 9780803930537.
- Dobash, R. Emerson; Dobash, Russell (1979). Violence against wives: a case against the patriarchy. New York: Free Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780029078105.
- Walker, Lenore E. (April 1989). "Psychology and violence against women". American Psychologist. 44 (4): 695–702. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.695. PMID 2729743.
- Rennison, Callie Marie (February 2003). Intimate partner violence, 1993-2001. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. NCJ 197838
- Straus, Murray A. (1999), "The controversy over domestic violence by women: a methodological, theoretical, and sociology of science analysis", in Arriaga, Ximena B.; Oskamp, Stuart (eds.), Violence in intimate relationships, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, pp. 17–44, ISBN 9781452204659
- Simmons, Jon; et al. (July 2002). Crime in England and Wales 2001/2002. Home Office. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. NCJ 198270
- For the most recent figures visit the UK's Office for National Statistics (ONS) website.
- St. John Green, Nicholas (1874). Criminal Law Reports: Being Reports of Cases Determined in the Federal and State Courts of the United States, and in the Courts of England, Ireland, Canada, Etc. with Notes, Volume 2. New York: Hurd and Houghton. OCLC 22125148. Details.
- Dutton, Donald G. (2004). The batterer: a psychological profile. Susan Golant (contributor). Princeton, New Jersey: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic. ISBN 9780465033881.
- Levinson, David (1989). Family violence in cross-cultural perspective. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications. ISBN 9780803930766.
- Coleman, Diane H.; Straus, Murray A. (Summer 1986). "Marital power, conflict, and violence in a nationally representative sample of American couples". Violence & Victims. 1 (2): 141–157. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.1.2.141. PMID 3154145.
- Initially presented as a paper at the meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, California, 1985.
- Yllö, Kersti A.; Straus, Murray A. (1990), "Patriarchy and violence against wives: the impact of structural and normative factors", in Straus, Murray A.; Gelles, Richard J. (eds.), Physical violence in American families: risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8,145 families, Christine Smith (contributor), New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, pp. 383–401, ISBN 9780887382635.
- Smith, Michael D. (Winter 1990). "Patriarchal ideology and wife beating: a test of a feminist hypothesis". Violence & Victims. 5 (4): 257–273. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.5.4.257. PMID 2098090.
- Campbell, J.C. (1993). "Prevention of wife battering: insights from cultural analysis. Nursing Network on Violence against Women". Response. 14 (3): 18–24.
- Sugarman, David B.; Frankel, Susan L. (March 1996). "Patriarchal ideology and wife-assault: a meta-analytic review". Journal of Family Violence. 11 (1): 13–40. doi:10.1007/BF02333338.
- Felson, Richard B.; Outlaw, Maureen C. (2007). "The control motive and marital violence". Violence & Victims. 22 (4): 387–407. doi:10.1891/088667007781553964. PMID 17691548.
- Kantor, Glenda K.; Jasinski, Jana L.; Aldarondo, Etiony (Fall 1994). "Sociocultural status and incidence of marital violence in Hispanic families". Violence & Victims. 9 (3): 207–222. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.9.3.207. PMID 7647043.
- Browning, James J.; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence (1984). Stopping the violence: Canadian programmes for assaultive men. Ottawa, Canada: Health and Welfare Canada. OCLC 16927209.
- Neidig, Peter; Friedman, Dale H. (1984). Spouse abuse: a treatment program for couples. Champaign, Illinois: Research Press Co. ISBN 9780878222346.
- Dutton, Donald G. (1988). The domestic assault of women: psychological and criminal justice perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 9780205113231.
- Dutton, Donald G.; Hemphill, Kenneth J. (Spring 1992). "Patterns of socially desirable responding among perpetrators and victims of wife assault". Violence & Victims. 7 (1): 29–39. PMID 1504031.
- Dutton, Donald G.; Browning, James J. (1988), "Power struggles and intimacy anxieties as causative factors of violence in intimate relationships", in Russell, Gordon W. (ed.), Violence in intimate relationships, Great Neck, New York: PMA Publishing Corp., ISBN 9780893352318.
- Dutton, Donald G. (October 1986). "Wife assaulter's explanations for assault: the neutralization of self-punishment". Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 18 (4): 381–390. doi:10.1037/h0079964.
- Stark, R.; McEvoy, J. (November 1970). "Middle class violence". Psychology Today. 4 (6): l07–l12.
- Straus, Murray A.; Gelles, Richard J. (1990). Is family violence increasing? A comparison of 1975 and 1985 national survey rates. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
- Initially presented as a paper to the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, California, November, 1985.
- Kennedy, Leslie W.; Dutton, Donald G. (1987). The incidence of wife assault in Alberta. Edmonton area series report, no. 53. Edmonton, Alta: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta. OCLC 17948290.
- Straus, Murray A.; Gelles, Richard J.; Steinmetz, Suzanne K. (1980). Behind closed doors: violence in the American family. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday. ISBN 9780385142595.
- Schulman, Mark A.; Kentucky Commission on Women (1979). A survey of spousal violence against women in Kentucky. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. OCLC 6374427.
- Mobaraki, A.E.H.; Söderfeldt, B. (January 2010). "Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health". Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 16 (1): 113–118. doi:10.26719/2010.16.1.113. PMID 20214168.
- Jones, Ann; Schechter, Susan (1992). "More help for you and your kids: for family, friends, and helpers". In Jones, Ann; Schechter, Susan (eds.). When love goes wrong: what to do when you can't do anything right. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780060163068.
- Gohir, Shaista (January 2016). "Information and Guidance on Muslim Marriage and Divorce in Britain" (PDF). Muslim Women's Network UK. pp. 40–46. Retrieved 28 February 2019.