List of presidents of the Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is a political party in India with widespread roots. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa.[a] From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain,[b][c] and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.[d]
|President of the Indian National Congress|
|Residence||24, Akbar Road, New Delhi-110001|
consisting the members of the Indian National Congress from the National and State Councils
|Term length||four years|
no term limit
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of the Indian National Congress|
|First holder||Womesh Chandra Banerjee|
Congress is a secular party whose social democratic platform is generally considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and socially marginalised people. The party primarily endorses social democracy—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, welfare and secularism. Its constitution states democratic socialism to be its ideal.
After the party's foundation in 1885, Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee became its first president. A total of sixty one people have served as the president of the Indian National Congress. Sonia Gandhi (one among the non-Indians) is the longest serving president of the Congress party, having held the office for nineteen years from 1998 to 2017.
During 1885–1933, the presidency had a term of 1 year only. Traditionally, the post rotated between prominent members of the party, successive terms for the same person being frowned upon. During Jawaharlal Nehru's premiership, he rarely held the Presidency of INC, even though he was always head of the Legislative Party.
Indira Gandhi however, institutionalized the practice of having the same person as the Congress President and the Prime Minister of India after she formed Congress (I) in 1978. Her son Rajiv Gandhi continued that practice.
P. V. Narasimha Rao too held both the Congress (I) President and the Prime Minister's posts. Sitaram Kesri held the post after INC was voted out. But as the party never returned to power under his leadership, he didn't hold the two posts together.
During 2000–09, INC did not host a conference for the first time in history. In 2004, when the INC was voted back into power, Manmohan Singh became the first Prime Minister, not to be the president of the party since Indira Gandhi established the practice of the president holding both positions. Sonia Gandhi is the longest serving president of the Congress party, having held the office for nineteen years from 1998 to 2017. Her son Rahul Gandhi, the last Congress President, resigned from the post on 3 July 2019. On 10 August, the Congress Working committee, elected Sonia Gandhi as the interim President. The decision led to critics saying that the Gandhi family is refusing to loosen its grip on the party’s internal power structures.
List of party presidentsEdit
|No.||Name of President||Picture||Life span||Year of Presidency||Place of Conference|
|1||Womesh Chandra Banerjee||29 December 1844 – 19 August 1906||1885||Bombay|
|2||Dadabhai Naoroji||4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917||1886||Calcutta|
|3||Badruddin Tyabji||10 October 1844 – 1906||1887||Madras|
|5||William Wedderburn||25 March 1838 – 25 January 1918||1889||Bombay|
|6||Pherozeshah Mehta||4 August 1845 – 5 November 1915||1890||Calcutta|
|7||Anandacharlu||August 1843 – 1908||1891||Nagpur|
|8||Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee||29 December 1844 – 1906||1892||Allahabad|
|9||Dadabhai Naoroji||4 September 1825 – 1917||1893||Lahore|
|11||Surendranath Banerjee||10 November 1848 – 6 August 1925||1895||Poona|
|12||Rahimtulla M. Sayani||5 April 1847 – 6 June 1902||1896||Calcutta|
|13||C. Sankaran Nair||11 July 1857 – 24 April 1934||1897||Amravati|
|14||Anandamohan Bose||23 September 1847 – 20 August 1906||1898||Madras|
|15||Romesh Chunder Dutt||13 August 1848 – 1909||1899||Lucknow|
|16||N. G. Chandavarkar||2 December 1855 – 1923||1900||Lahore|
|17||Dinshaw Edulji Wacha||2 August 1844 – 1936||1901||Calcutta|
|18||Surendranath Banerjee||10 November 1825 – 1917||1902||Ahmedabad|
|21||Gopal Krishna Gokhale||9 May 1866 – 1915||1905||Benares|
|22||Dadabhai Naoroji||4 September 1825 – 1917||1906||Calcutta|
|23||Rashbihari Ghosh||23 December 1845 – 1921||1907||Surat|
|24||Rashbihari Ghosh||23 December 1845 – 1921||1908||Madras|
|25||Madan Mohan Malaviya||25 December 1861 – 1946||1909||Lahore|
|27||Bishan Narayan Dar||1864–1916||1911||Calcutta|
|28||Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar||1857–1921||1912||Bankipore|
|29||Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur||?–1919||1913||Karachi|
|30||Bhupendra Nath Bose||1859–1924||1914||Madras|
|31||Lord Satyendra Prasanna Sinha||March 1863 – 1928||1915||Bombay|
|32||Ambica Charan Mazumdar||1850–1922||1916||Lucknow|
|33||Annie Besant||1 October 1847 – 1933||1917||Calcutta|
|34||Madan Mohan Malaviya||25 December 1861 – 1946||1918||Delhi|
|35||Syed Hasan Imam||31 August 1871 – 1933||1918||Bombay (Special Session)|
|36||Motilal Nehru||6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931||1919||Amritsar|
|37||Lala Lajpat Rai||28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928||1920||Calcutta (Special Session)|
|38||C. Vijayaraghavachariar||1852 – 19 April 1944||1920||Nagpur|
|39||Chittaranjan Das (President)
Hakim Ajmal Khan (Acting President)
|1863 – 29 December 1927||1921||Ahmedabad|
|40||Chittaranjan Das||5 November 1870 – 16 June 1925||1922||Gaya|
|41||Mohammad Ali Jouhar||10 December 1878 – 4 January 1931||1923||Kakinada|
|42||Abul Kalam Azad||1888 – 22 February 1958||1923||Delhi (Special Session)|
|43||Mahatma Gandhi||2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948||1924||Belgaum|
|44||Sarojini Naidu||13 February 1879 – 2 March 1949||1925||Kanpur|
|45||S. Srinivasa Iyengar||11 September 1874 – 19 May 1941||1926||Gauhati|
|46||Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari||25 December 1880 – 10 May 1936||1927||Madras|
|47||Motilal Nehru||6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931||1928||Calcutta|
|48||Jawaharlal Nehru||14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964||1929 & 30||Lahore|
|49||Vallabhbhai Patel||31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950||1931||Karachi|
|50||Madan Mohan Malaviya||25 December 1861 – 1946||1932||Delhi|
|52||Rajendra Prasad||3 December 1884 – 28 February 1963||1934 & 35||Bombay|
|53||Jawaharlal Nehru||14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964||1936||Lucknow|
|55||Subhas Chandra Bose||23 January 1897 – ..||1938||Haripura|
|56||Subhas Chandra Bose (resigned)
Rajendra Prasad replaced Bose after
|23 January 1897 – ..||1939||Tripuri near Jabalpur|
|57||Abul Kalam Azad||1888 – 22 February 1958||1940–46||Ramgarh|
|58||J. B. Kripalani||1888 – 19 March 1982||1947||Meerut|
|59||Pattabhi Sitaraimayya||24 December 1880 – 17 December 1959||1948 & 49||Jaipur|
|60||Purushottam Das Tandon||1 August 1882 – 1 July 1961||1950||Nasik|
|61||Jawaharlal Nehru||14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964||1951 & 52||Delhi|
|64||U. N. Dhebar||21 September 1905 – 1977||1955||Avadi|
|69||Indira Gandhi||19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984||1959||Delhi (Special Session)|
|70||Neelam Sanjiva Reddy||19 May 1913 – 1 June 1996||1960||Bangalore|
|72||1962 & 63||Patna|
|73||K. Kamaraj||15 July 1903 – 2 October 1975||1964||Bhubaneswar|
|75||1966 & 67||Jaipur|
|76||S. Nijalingappa||10 December 1902 – 9 August 2000||1968–1969||Hyderabad|
|77||Jagjivan Ram||5 April 1908 – 6 July 1986||1970 & 71||Bombay|
|78||Shankar Dayal Sharma||19 August 1918 – 26 December 1999||1972–74||Calcutta|
|79||Devakanta Barua||22 February 1914 – 1996||1975–77||Chandigarh|
|80||Kasu Brahmananda Reddy||28 July 1909 – 20 May 1994||1977–1978||South Delhi|
|81||Indira Gandhi||19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984||1978–83||Delhi|
|82||1983 & 84||Calcutta|
|83||Rajiv Gandhi||20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991||1985–91||Bombay|
|84||P. V. Narasimha Rao||28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004||1991–96||Tirupati|
|85||Sitaram Kesri||November 1919 – 24 October 2000||1996–98||Calcutta|
|86||Sonia Gandhi||9 December 1946||1998–2017||Calcutta|
|87||Rahul Gandhi||19 June 1970||2017–2019||Delhi|
|88||Sonia Gandhi||9 December 1946||2019–||Delhi|
- "The first modern nationalist movement to arise in the non-European empire, and one that became an inspiration for many others, was the Indian Congress."
- "South Asian parties include several of the oldest in the post-colonial world, foremost among them the 129-year-old Indian National Congress that led India to independence in 1947"
- "The organization that led India to independence, the Indian National Congress, was established in 1885."
- "... anti-colonial movements ... which, like many other nationalist movements elsewhere in the empire, were strongly infuenced by the Indian National Congress."
- "Indian National Congress". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
- Marshall, P. J. (2001), The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 179, ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7
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- Kopstein, Jeffrey; Lichbach, Mark; Hanson, Stephen E. (2014), Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order, Cambridge University Press, p. 344, ISBN 978-1-139-99138-4
- "Indian National Congress – about INC, history, symbol, leaders and more". Elections.in. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Sahasrabuddhe, Vinay (8 August 2016). "In Decline Mode, Congress Struggles With a 'Crisis of Purpose'". The Quint. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- "Indian National Congress". Times of India. 9 February 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- "The Congress Constitution". Indian National Congress. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Indian National Congress: From 1885 till 2017, a brief history of past presidents". 5 December 2017.
- "Sonia Gandhi (Indian politician)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- Barbara A. Somervill (2007). Indira Gandhi: Political Leader in India. Capstone. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-0-7565-1885-1.
- DelhiDecember 16, Prabhash K. Dutta New; December 16, 2017UPDATED; Ist, 2017 13:38. "Rahul Gandhi is not youngest Congress president, not even in family". India Today.
- "Goodbye, Rahul Gandhi?". India Today.
- April 21, Nikhil Chakravartty; January 31, 2015 ISSUE DATE; April 28, 1978UPDATED; Ist, 2015 10:37. "Indira Gandhi installed as president of break-away faction of Congress Party". India Today.
- DelhiNovember 19, Prabhash K. Dutta New; November 19, 2018UPDATED; Ist, 2018 11:57. "Here's how Sonia Gandhi replaced Sitaram Kesri as Congress president". India Today.
- Parkin, Benjamin (2019). "India's Congress party names Sonia Gandhi interim president". Financial Times (11 August 2019). Financial times. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- Phukan, Sandeep (10 August 2019). "Congress brings back Sonia Gandhi to lead for now". The Hindu.