The politics of Uganda occurs in an authoritarian context. Since assuming office in 1986 at the end of the Ugandan civil war, Yoweri Museveni has ruled Uganda as an autocrat. Political parties were banned from 1986 to 2006 in the wake of the 2005 Ugandan multi-party referendum which was won by pro-democracy forces. Since 2006, Museveni has used legal means, patronage, and violence to maintain power.
Under the Uganda constitution, Uganda is a presidential republic in which the President is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government business. There is a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is given to both the government and the National Assembly. The system is based on a democratic parliamentary system with equal rights for all citizens over 18 years of age. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Uganda a "hybrid regime" in 2022.
Political culture edit
After taking power after a five-year civil war in 1986, the authoritarian Yoweri Museveni regime banned political parties from campaigning in elections or field candidates directly (although electoral candidates could belong to political parties). A constitutional referendum canceled this 19-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005.
Presidential elections were held in February 2006. Museveni ran against several candidates, of whom the most prominent was the exiled Dr. Kizza Besigye. Museveni was declared the winner. Besigye alleged fraud, and rejected the result. The Supreme Court of Uganda ruled that the election was marred by intimidation, violence, voter disenfranchisement, and other irregularities. However, the Court voted 4-3 to uphold the results of the election.
|President||Yoweri Museveni||National Resistance Movement||26 January 1986|
|Prime Minister||Robinah Nabbanja||National Resistance Movement||21 June 2021|
The head of state in Uganda is the President, who is elected by a popular vote to a five-year term. This is currently Yoweri Museveni, who is also the head of the armed forces. The previous presidential elections were in February 2011, and in the election of February 2016, Museveni was elected with 68 percent of the vote. The cabinet is appointed by the president from among the elected legislators. The prime minister, Robina Nabbanja, assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet.
The Cabinet of Uganda, according to the Constitution of Uganda, "shall consist of the President, the Vice President and such number of Ministers as may appear to the President to be reasonably necessary for the efficient running of the State."
Ministries of Uganda edit
The below are the ministries in Uganda:
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ministry of Justice & Constitutional Affairs
- Ministry of Public Service
- Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Economic Development
- Ministry of Education and Sports
- Ministry for Karamoja Affairs
- Ministry of Local Government
- Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Works and Transport
- Ministry of Lands, Housing & Urban Development
- Ministry of Internal Affairs
- Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities
- Ministry of Water and Environment
- Ministry of Gender, Labour & Social Development
- Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development
- Ministry of Security
- Ministry of Defence and Veterans Affairs
- Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
- Ministry of Information and Communications Technology
- Ministry of Disaster Preparedness and Refugees
- Ministry of Trade, Industry and Cooperatives
Political parties and elections edit
Presidential elections edit
The most recent presidential elections in Uganda were held on 14 January 2021 featuring 11 aspirants comprising 10 men and 1 woman.
The announced but contested results are as follows;
|Amuriat Oboi Patrick||337,589||3.26%|
|Kabuleta Kiiza Joseph||45,424||0.44%|
|Kalembe Nancy Linda||38,772||0.37%|
|Robert Kyagulanyi Ssentamu||3,631,437||35.08%|
|Mugisha Muntu Gregg||67,574||0.65%|
|Tumukunde Henry Kakurugu||51,392||0.50%|
Source: Uganda Electoral Commission
In 2021, the pop star-turned-politician Bobi Wine (also known as Robert Kyagulanyi Sentamu), challenged the election results in the country's highest court (Supreme Court) seeking to over-turn Museveni's victory. The highly contested elections was marred with violence, the European Parliament voiced outrage, condemnation and for sanctions against individuals and organisations responsible for human rights violations in Uganda.
The results of the most recent presidential election from 2021 are as below:
|Yoweri Museveni||National Resistance Movement||6,042,898||58.38|
|Bobi Wine||National Unity Platform||3,631,437||35.08|
|Patrick Amuriat||Forum for Democratic Change||337,589||3.26|
|Mugisha Muntu||Alliance for National Transformation||67,574||0.65|
|Norbert Mao||Democratic Party||57,682||0.56|
Parliamentary elections edit
The results of the most recent parliamentary election from 2021 are as below:
|National Resistance Movement||4,158,934||41.60||218||4,532,814||44.81||101||17||336||+42|
|National Unity Platform||1,347,929||13.48||43||1,607,425||15.89||14||0||57||New|
|Forum for Democratic Change||729,247||7.29||24||674,154||6.66||8||0||32||–4|
|Uganda People's Congress||180,313||1.80||7||229,884||2.27||2||0||9||+3|
|Alliance for National Transformation||72,018||0.72||0||82,318||0.81||0||0||0||New|
|People's Progressive Party||10,076||0.10||1||0||1||+1|
|Uganda Economic Party||6,199||0.06||0||0||0||New|
|Ecological Party of Uganda||4,287||0.04||0||0||0||New|
|Social Democratic Party||719||0.01||0||0||0||0|
|Forum for Integrity in Leadership||122||0.00||0||0||0||New|
|Congress Service Volunteers Organisation||68||0.00||0||0||0||New|
|Uganda People's Defence Force||10||10||0|
|Source: Electoral Commission|
The Ugandan judiciary operates as an independent branch of government and consists of magistrate's courts, high courts, courts of appeal (which organizes itself as the Constitutional Court of Uganda when hearing constitutional issues), and the Supreme Court. Judges for the High Court are appointed by the president; Judges for the Court of Appeal are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature.
Foreign relations edit
International organization participation edit
- ACP (Lomé Convention)
- African Development Bank
- Commonwealth of Nations
- East African Development Bank
- Food and Agriculture Organization
- Group of 77
- Intergovernmental Authority on Development
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
- International Civil Aviation Organization
- International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
- International Criminal Court
- International Development Association
- International Finance Corporation
- International Fund for Agricultural Development
- International Labour Organization
- International Monetary Fund
- International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
- International Olympic Committee
- International Organization for Migration
- International Organization for Standardization (correspondent)
- International Telecommunication Union
- Islamic Development Bank
- Non-Aligned Movement
- Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
- Organisation of African Unity
- Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
- Permanent Court of Arbitration
- United Nations
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
- United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
- United Nations Industrial Development Organization
- Universal Postal Union
- World Customs Organization
- World Federation of Trade Unions
- World Health Organization
- World Intellectual Property Organization
- World Meteorological Organization
- World Tourism Organization
- World Trade Organization
See also edit
- Makara, Sabiti; Wang, Vibeke (2023), "Uganda", Democratic Backsliding in Africa?, Oxford University Press, pp. 212–234, ISBN 0-19-286732-6
- Tapscott, Rebecca (2021). Arbitrary States. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198856474.001.0001. ISBN 0-19-885647-4.
- "Democracy Index 2022: Frontline democracy and the battle for Ukraine" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2023. Retrieved 2023-02-09.
- "Uganda's Museveni wins election", BBC, 25 February 2006
- 1995 Constitution of Uganda (see page 83 of 192)
- 2005 amended Constitution of Uganda (see page 100 of 231)
- "Home - Ministry of Trade Industry and Cooperatives". mtic.go.ug.
- administrator (2021-01-27). "2021 General Elections". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
- "Supreme Court outlines timeline for handling Bobi petition". Daily Monitor. 11 February 2021. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
- "Human rights breaches in Uganda, Rwanda and Kazakhstan | News | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 2021-11-02. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
- Ntale, Samson. "Guards for African leaders battle; dozen injured". edition.cnn.com.