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A perpetual count (Hungarian: örökös főispán, Latin: supremus et perpetuus comes)[1] was a head or an ispán of a county in the Kingdom of Hungary whose office was either hereditary or attached to the dignity of a prelate or of a great officer of the realm. The earliest examples of a perpetual ispánate are from the 12th century, but the institution flourished between the 15th and 18th centuries. Although all administrative functions of the office were abolished in 1870, the title itself was preserved until the general abolition of noble titles in Hungary in 1946.

Contents

HistoryEdit

List of perpetual ispánatesEdit

Ex officio ispánatesEdit

 
Archduke Joseph of Austria, palatine of Hungary, perpetual count of Pest and Pilis Counties
County Perpetual count Period Notes Source
Baranya Bishop of Pécs ?–1777 [2][verification needed]
Bács Archbishop of Kalocsa ?–1776 [2][verification needed]
Bihar Bishop of Várad 1466–1776 [2][verification needed]
Esztergom Archbishop of Esztergom 1270–1300
1301–1881
granted to archbishop Philip Türje by King Stephen V
King Andrew III temporarily deprived the archbishop from the ispánate
castellans of the archbishops' castle at Esztergom sometimes styled themselves ispán
[2][3][4]
Fehér Voivode of Transylvania [citation needed]
Győr Bishop of Győr 1453–1783 [2][5]
Heves Bishop (from 1804 Archbishop) of Eger 1498–1840 [2][verification needed]
Nyitra Bishop of Nyitra ?–1777 [2][6]
Outer Szolnok Bishop (from 1804 Archbishop) of Eger 1569–1840 [2][verification needed]
Pest Palatine ?–1848 [2][7]
Pilis Castellan of the Visegrád Castle ?–? [7]
Palatine 1569–1848 [2][verification needed]
Požega/Pozsega Bishop of Bosznia 1753–1770 renounced of the title [8]
Veszprém Bishop of Veszprém 1313–1323
1392–1773
although King Charles I awarded the bishops with the ispánate, he seems to have failed to confirm this grant in 1323
the bishops perpetually held the office from 1392
[2][9]

Hereditary ispánatesEdit

 
Pálffy Palace, Pressburg/Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia)
County Family Period Notes Source
Abaúj Perényi 1570–1598
1643–1699
[10]
Csáky 1702–1764
Árva Thurzó 1585–1626 also perpetual ispáns of Szepes County [11]
Thököly 1666–1668
Bereg Schönborn 1740– last grant of a perpetual ispánate [12]
Beszterce Hunyadi 1452–1458 earliest example of a hereditary title in Hungary proper [13]
Beszterce Szilágyi 1458–? [14]
Hont Koháry 1711–1826 [15]
Komárom Nádasdy 1751– last grant of a perpetual ispánate [16]
Liptó Illésházy 1582–1838 also perpetual ispáns of Trencsén County [17]
Požega/Pozsega Keglevich 1707–1749 [18]
Pozsony Pálffy 1651– always a member of the family was appointed ispán from 1580 [19]
Sáros Rákóczi 1666–1711 always a member of the family was appointed ispán from 1622 [20]
Sopron Esterházy 1686– always a member of the family was appointed ispán from 1626 [21]
Szepes Szapolyai 1464–1528 [22][23]
Thurzó 1531–1635 also perpetual ispáns of Árva County [24]
Csáky 1638– [25]
Teočak Újlaki 1464–? in Bosnia [26]
Trencsén Illésházy 1600–1838 also perpetual ispáns of Liptó County [27]
Turóc Révay 1712–1875 always a member of the family was appointed ispán from 1532 [28]
Valkó Draskovich 1693–1695 the county was dissolved in 1695 [29]
Varaždin/Varasd Erdődy 1570–c. 1582 [30]
Erdődy 1687– always a member of the family was appointed ispán from 1607 [29]
Vass Batthyány 1728– [31]
Zala Althann 1721–1824 [32]

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Nemes 1989, p. 81.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fallenbüchl 1994, p. 9.
  3. ^ Zsoldos 2011, p. 149.
  4. ^ Engel 1996, p. 126.
  5. ^ Engel 1996, p. 132.
  6. ^ Engel 1996, p. 159.
  7. ^ a b Engel 1996, p. 163.
  8. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 11., 130.
  9. ^ Engel 1996, p. 231.
  10. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 99.
  11. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 61.
  12. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 66.
  13. ^ Engel 2001, p. 293.
  14. ^ Pannon Reneszánsz : A Hunyadiak és a Jagelló-kor (1437–1526). Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica. 4. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  15. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 82.
  16. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 83.
  17. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 84.
  18. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 11., 129-130.
  19. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 92-93.
  20. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 93-94.
  21. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 96.
  22. ^ Engel 2001, p. 311.
  23. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, p. 99.
  24. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 9-10., 99.
  25. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 9., 99.
  26. ^ Engel 2001, p. 312.
  27. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 103.
  28. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 9., 104.
  29. ^ a b Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 11., 132.
  30. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, p. 132.
  31. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 107-108.
  32. ^ Fallenbüchl 1994, pp. 10., 111.

ReferencesEdit

  • ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian) Engel, Pál (1996). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1301–1457, I. ("Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1301–1457, Volume I"). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. ISBN 963-8312-44-0.
  • Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
  • ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian) ‹See Tfd›(in German) Fallenbüchl, Zoltán (1994). Magyarország főispánjai, 1526–1848 ("Lord-Lieutenants of Counties in Hungary, 1526–1848"). Argumentum Kiadó. ISBN 963-7719-81-4.
  • ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian) Nemes, Lajos (1989). Entry örökös főispán in: Bán, Péter; Magyar történelmi fogalomtár, I. kötet: L–Zs [=Thesaurus of Terms of Hungarian History, Volume I: L–Zs]. Gondolat. ISBN 963-282-204-8.
  • Rady, Martyn (2000). Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary. Palgrave (in association with School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London). ISBN 0-333-80085-0.
  • Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97290-4.
  • ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian) Zsoldos, Attila (2011). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1000–1301 ("Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1000–1301"). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. ISBN 978-963-9627-38-3.