People v. Turner, formally The People of the State of California v. Brock Allen Turner (2015), was a criminal case in which Brock Allen Turner was convicted by jury trial of three counts of felony sexual assault.[2][3]

People v. Turner
CourtSuperior Court of the State of California for and in the County of Santa Clara
Full case nameThe People of the State of California v. Brock Allen Turner
IndictmentJanuary 28, 2015, on counts:
1.) rape of an intoxicated person, in violation of California Penal Code § 261(a)(3)
2.) rape of an unconscious person, in violation of PC § 261(a)(4)
3.) sexual penetration of an unconscious person, in violation of PC § 289(d)
4.) sexual penetration of an intoxicated person, in violation of PC § 289(e)
5.) assault with intent to commit rape, in violation of PC § 220(a)(1)
StartedMarch 14, 2016
DecidedMarch 30, 2016
VerdictCount 1.) Withdrawn by prosecution[1]
Count 2.) Withdrawn by prosecution[1]
Count 3.) Guilty
Count 4.) Guilty
Count 5.) Guilty
DefendantBrock Allen Turner
Turner was sentenced on June 2, 2016, to six months' incarceration in the Santa Clara County jail to be followed by three years of probation. He was released three months early. Additionally, Turner must register as a sex offender for the rest of his life and participate in a sex offender rehabilitation program.
Court membership
Judge(s) sittingAaron Persky

On January 18, 2015, on the Stanford University campus, Turner, then a 19-year-old student athlete at Stanford, sexually assaulted 22-year-old Chanel Miller (referred to in court documents as "Emily Doe"), while she was unconscious.[4][5][6][1] Two graduate students intervened and held Turner in place until police arrived.[1][7] Turner was arrested and released the same day after posting $150,000 bail.[8][9][10]

Turner was initially indicted on five charges: two for rape, two for felony sexual assault, and one for attempted rape,[10] although the two rape charges were later withdrawn.[1] On February 2, 2015, Turner pleaded not guilty to all of the charges.[11] The trial concluded on March 30, 2016, with Turner convicted of three charges of felony sexual assault.[2][3] On June 2, 2016, Santa Clara County Superior Court Judge Aaron Persky sentenced Turner to six months in jail followed by three years of probation. Additionally, Turner was obliged to register as a sex offender for life[12] and to complete a rehabilitation program for sex offenders.[3]

On September 2, 2016, Turner was released after serving three months, which was half of his sentence, for good behavior.[13] In December 2017, Turner appealed his sentence. However, his appeal was declined on August 8, 2018.[14][15]

Chanel Miller's victim impact statement to the court, on June 2, 2016, was widely disseminated by international media outlets.[16] There was also widespread criticism of what was seen as a light sentence given by Judge Persky, and he was recalled by county voters in June 2018.[17][18][19] The case influenced the California legislature to require prison terms for rapists whose victims were unconscious, and to include digital penetration in the definition of rape.[20][21] In September 2019, Miller relinquished her anonymity and released an autobiography entitled Know My Name: A Memoir in which she discusses the assault, trial, and aftermath.[22][23][24]

Background edit

Brock Allen Turner was born August 1, 1995, in Dayton, Ohio.[10] He graduated from Oakwood High School in 2014.[25][26] At the time of his arrest, Turner was a 19-year-old freshman at Stanford University, enrolled on a swimming scholarship.[7][10]

Before sentencing, the prosecution filed a memo with the court describing Turner's history of drug and alcohol use at Stanford and earlier in high school. It recounted that police found photos and messages on Turner's cell phone that indicated extensive drug use, including LSD, ecstasy, marijuana extracts, and excessive alcohol. Turner was arrested in 2014 for possession of alcohol while under legal age.[27]

By the conventions of California courts and U.S. media, the woman Turner was convicted of assaulting was called "V01" in the redacted police report on the incident, "Jane Doe" in the indictment,[28] and "Emily Doe"[5] and "Jane Doe 1" by local and regional newspapers,[29] including the San Jose Mercury News, the Stanford Daily and the Palo Alto Weekly.[30] At the time of her assault, Doe was a 22-year-old alumna of a different college.[5][31][32]

The assault edit

Caught in the act edit

Two Swedish graduate students, Peter Lars Jonsson and Carl-Fredrik Arndt, were cycling on the Stanford campus at about 1:00 a.m., on January 18, 2015, when they spotted the assault taking place. According to Arndt and Jonsson, they surprised Turner behind a dumpster as he was on top of an unconscious woman[3] whose dress had been pulled up to expose her genitals,[7] her underwear and cell phone having been dropped beside her.[33] Jonsson and Arndt saw Turner thrust his hips into the woman,[34] who the two men observed appeared to be unconscious. Jonsson testified that he confronted Turner and asked him, "What the fuck are you doing? She's unconscious." According to Jonsson, Turner quickly rose and attempted to flee the scene. As Arndt briefly went to determine whether she was breathing, Jonsson chased Turner, tripped him and held him down around 75 feet (23 m) away from the dumpster, asking "What are you smiling for?"[7] Later, responding to the assistant District Attorney's questions during the trial, Turner testified that he was laughing because he found the situation ridiculous.[35] Arndt then joined the chase, helping to pin Turner down while a third bystander called sheriff's deputies.[7] When the authorities arrived,[34][36] they arrested Turner on suspicion of attempted rape.[37]

According to a deputy sheriff who described the victim as unconscious at the scene, when she arrived at the hospital, she did not respond to shouting and being shaken by the shoulders. She regained consciousness at 4:15 am.[38] She later testified at Turner's trial that at the time she regained consciousness, she had pine needles in her hair and on her body, and dried blood on her hands and elbows.[39] In an interview with police, she said she did not recall being alone with a man during the night and stated she did not consent to any sexual activity.[40] At the hospital, the victim was found to have abrasions and erythema (reddening) on her skin. One nurse who administered a sexual assault response team examination at the hospital determined that she had experienced significant trauma (physical injury, bruising, etc.) and penetrating trauma (piercing and cutting injuries).[41]

Turner and the victim had attended a party at Kappa Alpha Order fraternity earlier in the night. The victim's sister testified in the trial that Turner, a man previously unknown to her, had approached her twice and attempted to kiss her, but that she pulled away. She also testified that she never saw Turner and the victim interact at the party.[42] According to a police report compiled in the morning after the incident, Turner at first told police that he met the victim outside the fraternity house and left with her. He also stated he did not know her name and "stated that he would not be able to recognize her if he saw her again."[43][40]

After his arrest, Turner told police that he met the victim at the Kappa Alpha house, they "drank beer together," "walked away from the house holding hands," and that he took off her clothes and fondled her while she rubbed his back. Turner then said he got nauseous and told her he needed to vomit. Turner said he got up and started to walk away to throw up, and heard another person saying something to him which he could not understand, then heard the same person talking to another person in a foreign language. Turner initially denied but later admitted that he ran from the two Swedish graduate students before being tackled.[40][44] During his trial testimony, Turner stated that he and the victim drank beer together, danced and kissed at the party and agreed to go back to his room. Turner stated that the victim slipped on a slope behind a wooden shed, then Turner got down to the ground and started kissing the victim. Turner stated he then asked her if she wanted him to "finger" her, to which she said yes. He stated that he "fingered" her for a minute as they were kissing, then they started "dry humping." Turner testified that he stumbled down an incline where he was confronted by Jonsson and Arndt, who were saying things like "You're sick" and "Do you think that's OK?" Turner testified that he did not know what they were talking about.[45] Turner stated that he fled when Jonsson tried to put him in an armlock.[1][45]

Both prosecuting Attorney Alaleh Kianerci and the victim stated that Turner's narrative during trial testimony was fabricated.[32][46] Kianerci argued to the jury, "He's able to write the script because she has no memory. But just because he wrote the script doesn't mean that ... knowledgeable jurors have to believe it."[32] The victim described Turner's testimony as presenting "a strange new story, [that] almost sounded like a poorly written young adult novel."[46]

Alcohol edit

In his statements, Turner described initially drinking five Rolling Rock[45] beers and two swigs of Fireball whiskey in a friend's room, and then having more beer later,[47] reaching a total of nine drinks.[48]

Tested some time after[when?] his arrest, Turner's blood alcohol content was estimated to have been 0.171% at 1 a.m.[42][49] He testified that he did remember what happened that night.[1] Emily Doe's blood alcohol concentration was measured in a hospital several hours after the assault at 0.12%, and doctors estimated her intoxication level at 1 a.m., the estimated time of the assault, to have been around 0.22%,[49][50] or 0.242–0.249%.[42] She told the police that she did not remember the events from some point after her arrival at the party until she woke up more than three hours later in the hospital.[1][51] Shortly before 1 a.m., Doe phoned her boyfriend and left a voicemail message, which later would be entered as evidence by the prosecution. The Palo Alto Weekly described it as "almost entirely incomprehensible"; a juror later cited it as particularly strong evidence that she was not in a fit state to give consent.[52]

The blood alcohol estimates for Turner and Doe for 1 a.m. were made by a supervising criminalist for Santa Clara County using nominally hypothetical situations.[42]

Turner admitted to only limited prior experience with alcohol as a putative mitigating factor. However, evidence recovered from his cell phone texts recorded in the year before his 2015 arrest showed that he had extensively discussed his use of alcohol.[53] His text messages also revealed use of illegal drugs.[54] In 2014, Turner had been arrested on campus for underage drinking.[55]

Consciousness edit

Doe reported that her last memory was around midnight, and that she did not remember telephone calls to her sister and sister's friend made shortly after that. A responding paramedic said she did not respond to a "shake and shout" test, but that she opened her eyes when he pinched her nail beds. When Doe vomited on the scene before being taken away by ambulances, she was able to cough and spit out the vomit on her own without assistance. In a January 19 report, the paramedic rated her as 11 out of 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale.[42]

DNA edit

Santa Clara County criminalist Craig Lee testified that the woman's DNA was found under the fingernails of Turner's left and right hands and on a portion of his right finger. Lee's test did not show when the DNA was deposited and could not tell if it was blood, but he said it did resemble blood. The woman testified that she woke up with dried blood on her hands and elbows.[6][56]

Official responses edit

Turner withdrew from Stanford shortly after the incident rather than face disciplinary proceedings. On January 20—two days after his arrest—Stanford announced Turner had been banned from campus.[57] On June 6, shortly after Turner was sentenced, Stanford announced that within two weeks of the incident, it had conducted an internal investigation that led to Turner being banned from ever setting foot on campus again—the harshest disciplinary sanction it can impose on a student.[58]

Turner had aspirations to swim for the U.S. National Team in the 2016 Olympics, but USA Swimming stated on June 6 that he would not be eligible for membership if he sought to reapply.[59][60] On June 10, USA Swimming reiterated that it had banned Turner for life under their zero-tolerance policy for sexual misconduct. This decision effectively ended Turner's competitive swimming career; sanctioned meets in the United States, including the Olympic trials, are open only to members of USA Swimming.[61]

Indictment and charges edit

On January 28, 2015, Turner was indicted on five charges:[62][63]

  1. rape of an intoxicated person
  2. rape of an unconscious person
  3. sexual penetration (by a foreign object) of an unconscious woman
  4. sexual penetration (by a foreign object) of an intoxicated woman
  5. assault with intent to commit rape

These were summarized as "two counts of rape, two counts of penetration and one count of assault with intent to rape".[10] The two formal charges of rape under California state law were dropped at a preliminary hearing on October 7, 2015,[1][10][63] after DNA testing revealed no genetic evidence of genital-to-genital contact.[6][1] On March 7, 2016, The People filed Motions in Limine And Witness List, which outlined permissible Evidence guidelines for the trial.[64] The trial began on March 14, 2016.[65]

Sentencing edit

On March 30, 2016, Turner was found guilty of three felonies: assault with intent to rape an intoxicated woman, sexually penetrating an intoxicated person with a foreign object, and sexually penetrating an unconscious person with a foreign object.[66]

Prosecutors recommended that Turner be given a six-year prison sentence based on the purposefulness of the action, the effort to hide this activity, and her intoxicated state.[67] Santa Clara County probation officials, including his probation officer Monica Lassettre, recommended that Turner receive a "moderate" county jail sentence with formal probation based on Turner's lack of criminal history, youth, and expression of remorse.[68] The probation report did not mention another woman who said she had been upset by Turner's unwanted physical advances at a Kappa Alpha party eight days before the charged offense. This report was present in the trial record.[69]

On June 2, 2016, Judge Aaron Persky sentenced Turner to six months in the Santa Clara County jail[2] followed by three years of probation.[68][70] After three months in jail, Turner was released on September 2, 2016.[12][71] He is permanently registered as a sex offender[12] and was obligated to participate in a sex offender rehabilitation program.[3]

Reaction edit

Controversy over sentence edit

Prosecutors and victims' rights advocates criticized Persky's sentencing as lenient and biased.[72] Persky himself had been a student and lacrosse team captain at Stanford University.[73]

Nancy Brewer, a retired Santa Clara County assistant public defender, described Persky as being respected by both prosecutors and defenders, stating that he was seen as a fair judge who is not soft on crime or a judge who would give lenient sentences. Brewer said that Persky had carefully evaluated the evidence and gave what he thought was a fair and appropriate sentence in the case based on the Santa Clara County Probation Department's pre-sentence investigation report. Attorney and media legal analyst Danny Cevallos said: "[the judge] absolutely is obliged to consider very seriously the [probation department] report" and noted that the California penal code allows a judge to depart from the statutory minimum (two years) after considering the defendant's lack of criminal history and the effect of incarceration. Cevallos believed that while the sentence was lenient, Turner's prior clean record made him a candidate for minimum sentencing.[74]

Deputy Public Defender Sajid Khan did not consider the sentence lenient and noted "Turner will register as a sex offender for life, and if he violates his probation he could go to prison for 14 years." Khan further stated that "Persky's reputation among public defenders (a group closely attuned to racial inequities in the courtroom) is that of a fair-minded jurist," saying, "No one has been able to cite an example so far of him [sic] where a similarly situated minority client has been treated harshly by him. We appreciated ... the judge's understanding of Brock Turner's humanity ... and we would want any judge to do the same for our clients."[17][75] Similarly, other sitting judges (both state and federal) and legal commentators have defended Persky's decision, noting that the sentence may, in their opinion, be disproportionate due to the lifelong consequences of a criminal conviction and sex offender registration, and called on the State Bar of California to protect the independence of the judiciary.[76][77][78]

Turner's father protested the prison sentence requested by the prosecutor, saying "[The sentence] is a steep price to pay for 20 minutes of action out of his 20 plus years of life."[79] Santa Clara County District Attorney Jeffrey F. Rosen criticized the letter from Turner's father to the court, saying it reduced a brutal sexual assault to "20 minutes of action."[80]

Repercussions for the judge edit

Persky recalled edit

Although he did not face any opposition in an election held five days after the sentencing, Persky faced a campaign to recall him.[81] Online petitions calling for Persky to be removed attracted over a million signatures by June 10, 2016.[82] Professor Michele Dauber, of the Stanford Law School and longtime advocate on campus sexual assault,[83] who is also a family friend of the victim, led the Committee to Recall Judge Persky. The Committee planned to collect signatures in Santa Clara County to force a November 2017 recall vote.[84] A request for an injunction by Persky delayed that initiative. The California Attorney General's office supported the propriety of the approval of the petition by the county registrar of voters to allow the recall to go forward. Persky's legal team argued that since he was a state officer, only the California Secretary of State had the authority to approve its acceptance. The recall vote required gathering 90,000 verified signatures.[85] Persky paid $30,000 to the firm of Brian Seitchik to lead the opposition to the recall.[86] A retired judge living in Santa Cruz heard Persky's request for injunction to prevent the recall election and approved it.[87] The demands for recall received support from Representative Ted Poe (R-Texas), who spoke in the United States House of Representatives to condemn Turner's sentence as too lenient and to call for Persky's removal.[88]

The move to recall Persky was opposed by the Santa Clara County public defender, who said she was "alarmed by the hysteria" about the Turner sentence. A group of 70 public defenders petitioned in support of Persky, warning against "mass incarceration" brought upon by state legislatures or indiscreet judges, and fearing that the backlash against Persky could hurt their clients (mostly poor African and Latino) by compelling judges to give out harsh sentences. Deputy Public Defender Sajid Khan wrote "rather than using robotic, one size fits all punishment schemes, we want judges, like Judge Persky, to engage in thoughtful, case by case, individualized determinations of the appropriate sentence for a particular crime and particular offender."[17][18] Santa Clara County district attorney Jeff Rosen, whose office prosecuted Turner and did not appeal the sentence, stated, "While I strongly disagree with the sentence that Judge Persky issued in the Brock Turner case, I do not believe he should be removed from his judgeship,"[89] adding, "Judicial independence is a critical part of the U.S. justice system. The immense power that comes with judicial independence also comes with accountability to the people we serve."[18]

Danny Cevallos stated that judges enjoy a modicum of independence from public pressure and "there are no apparent grounds for impeachment or allegations of judicial misconduct, based on this sentence alone." Cevallos said that the recall movement "raises the question: is removing judges good for the spirit of the judiciary system, especially when the judge's sole transgression is a legal sentence" where he correctly applied the law.[90][91] The Santa Clara County Bar Association released a statement saying that removing Persky would be a "threat to judicial independence" and weighs just one of his 13 years of decisions too heavily, saying they see "no credible assertions that in issuing the sentence, Judge Persky violated the law or his ethical obligations or acted in bad faith."[17] Similarly, other sitting judges (both state and federal) and legal commentators defended Persky's decision, noted that the sentence might, in their opinion, be disproportionate due to the lifelong consequences of a criminal conviction and sex offender registration, and called on the bar to protect the independence of the judiciary.[76][77][78]

In June 2016, at least ten prospective jurors refused to serve in a misdemeanor trial for possession of stolen property where Persky was presiding, citing the judge's sentencing of Turner as a reason.[92] The following week, Rosen filed a peremptory motion for recusal in a case where Persky was to preside over the criminal trial of a surgical nurse charged with sexual battery for allegedly touching the genitals of a patient under sedation. Rosen called his move to have the judge removed from the case, "a rare and carefully considered step for our office."[92]

As a result of the backlash in the wake of his sentencing, Persky asked not to hear any more criminal cases and was reassigned to the Civil Division of the California Court system.[93]

The Santa Clara County Registrar of Voters, on January 24, 2018, confirmed that sufficient signatures had been verified to put the recall on the ballot. There were 94,539 signatures submitted, only a fraction of which were verified in order to reach the total needed to qualify.[94] The recall issue was on the state elections ballot on June 5, 2018.[95] The California Commission on Judicial Performance found that Persky had not abused his discretion. He was supported by dozens of law school professors, retired judges, and the Santa Clara Bar Association. He stood by his sentencing, saying he's been unfairly targeted as the "face of rape" by recall advocates. At the same time he admitted, "There is an underlying deep frustration among actual victims of sexual assault and women in general about the criminal justice system not taking sexual assault and domestic violence seriously. It's a very genuine and important problem." "The passion is authentic, the end is justified, let's increase sexual assault reporting. Let's do criminal justice reform where it's smart to do so." In a press conference in May 2018, Persky compared his sentence handed down in the Turner case to that of Brown v. Board of Education.[96][97][98][99]

In a May 18, 2018 interview, Persky stated he had no regrets, and would rule exactly the same again on this case.[100]

Two women, Cindy Hendrickson, a Santa Clara County assistant district attorney, and Angela Storey, a civil attorney, appeared on the ballot to take Persky's position in the event of his successful recall.[101] Storey opposed the recall on principle. When the election results were being tabulated, and they indicated Persky would be recalled, Professor Dauber stated, "The vote today ... is a vote against impunity for high-status offenders of domestic violence and sexual violence." Hendrickson won the election to take Persky's place.[102] Persky left the bench and Hendrickson was sworn in ten days after the election results were certified.[101] In the June 5, 2018 primary election, nearly 200,000 Santa Clara County voters turned out, voting to remove Persky by 61.51% to 38.49%, a margin of over 23%. Persky was the first judge to be recalled by voters in California in 86 years and the first in the United States since 1977.[103]

In 2023, Harvard Law School lecturer Rebecca Richman Cohen produced the short documentary The Recall: Reframed exploring the unintended consequences of the recall of Judge Aaron Persky which came at the height of the #MeToo movement in 2018. The film cites the Turner case to critique the demand for harsh sentences to address sexual violence, which Cohen says disproportionately impacts low-income and people of color.[104]

Persky ordered to pay legal fees edit

The county clerk had 28 days within which to certify the recall election results, ten days after which Hendrickson would take Persky's place on the bench.[105] Persky was ordered to pay $161,000 in restitution for lawsuits he filed against the recall.[106] He sought over $135,000 in donations from the public to cover attorney fees after the $840,000 previously raised had been exhausted.[107]

Revisit of previous civil case of alleged rape edit

In 2011, Persky presided over a civil lawsuit against multiple members of the De Anza College baseball team, who were accused by plaintiff "Jane Doe" of gang-raping the then-underage girl while she was unconscious, until another party attendee who heard the commotion intervened. The civil trial came after the District Attorney had declined to prosecute a criminal case, as she thought evidence was lacking. During the civil trial, Persky decided that the jury should be allowed to view photographs of the plaintiff taken at another party she attended approximately a year after the alleged gang rape, as per the defense's claim that this evidence contradicted the plaintiff's claims of suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.[108] The jury found the defendants not liable.[109]

Following Turner's sentencing in 2016, the plaintiff's attorneys in the De Anza case criticized Persky for allowing the photos into evidence. Attorneys for Doe said the photographs were not the only evidence that Persky unfairly permitted. Four of the baseball players had invoked Fifth Amendment rights not to self-incriminate during the discovery phase of the litigation. According to a lawyer for Doe, that was a critical juncture: it prevented their legal team from obtaining evidence that could have helped them pursue their case. The original judge in the case ruled in 2010 that the defendants could refuse to testify, but that meant that they would be prohibited from subsequently testifying in the case. That prohibition was lifted by Persky after he took over the trial in 2011, a move that Doe's attorneys say undermined her case.[108]

Statements edit

Defendant's statements edit

After the guilty verdict, Turner said to his probation officer that the encounter was consensual.[110] He also gave an 11-page statement to the judge[47] that said he received verbal consent from the woman before she passed out.

According to Turner's statement, he and the woman drank, danced, and kissed at the party. Sometime around midnight, according to Turner, he asked her whether she would like to go back to his dorm and she said yes. He claimed that she had slipped behind a wooden shed, whereupon he sat down on the ground with her and engaged in consensual sexual activity, until he became nauseous and walked away to throw up.[1][111]

Turner stated, "It debilitates me to think that my actions have caused her emotional and physical stress that is completely unwarranted and unfair."[112]

Victim impact statements edit

Publication by BuzzFeed edit

BuzzFeed's publication of the victim impact statement

On June 2, 2016,[72] Doe read a 7,138-word victim impact statement[113] aloud in the sentencing phase of the trial. The New York Times described the statement as a "cri de coeur against the role of privilege in the trial and the way the legal system deals with sexual assault."[72] On June 3, 2016, Palo Alto Online[30] and BuzzFeed[46] published Doe's full statement. BuzzFeed's publication rapidly went viral, achieving over 8 million views in three days, driven by widespread sharing on social media.[114]

In one statement, she detailed the negative effects Turner had on her life: "You took away my worth, my privacy, my energy, my time, my safety, my intimacy, my confidence, my own voice, until today."[115] The statement also detailed the effect on Doe's ability to remain in her full-time job, which she left afterward "because continuing day to day was not possible."[29]

Doe's statement also described her experience at the hospital and learning she was being treated for sexual assault: "The next thing I remember I was in a gurney in a hallway. I had dried blood and bandages on the backs of my hands and elbow. ... My brain was talking my gut into not collapsing. Because my gut was saying, help me, help me."[29][116] Doe expresses gratitude to "the intern who made me oatmeal when I woke up at the hospital that morning, to the deputy who waited beside me, to the nurses who calmed me, to the detective who listened to me and never judged me, to my advocates who stood unwaveringly beside me, to my therapist who taught me to find courage in vulnerability."[29]

The statement articulated that "social class" should not be factored into the sentence: "The fact that Brock was a star athlete at a prestigious university should not be seen as an entitlement to leniency, but as an opportunity to send a strong cultural message that sexual assault is against the law regardless of social class." Doe also disagreed with the probation officer's assessment that Turner had shown remorse, stating that Turner had failed to show genuine remorse and this was a factor in her anger at the brief sentence.[29]

Released by Santa Clara County edit

The victim's statement was subsequently formally released by Santa Clara County[117] and was picked up by national and international media including The Washington Post,[29] CBS News,[118] Los Angeles Times,[119] Time,[120] The Mercury News,[121] Cosmopolitan[122] and the UK's The Guardian.[123] The letter went viral, shared over 11 million times in four days.[124] CNN anchor Ashleigh Banfield read most of the statement aloud during a 20-minute segment of CNN's Legal View.[125]

Read in U.S. Congress edit

External image
  Words From a Sexual Assault Survivor to Her Attacker -- read into the Congressional Record on the floor of the United States House of Representatives by multiple members of the United States Congress.[126]
Image of Congressional Record, text to the page on June 15, 2016, where members of U.S. Congress read the victim statement in the case of People v. Turner.[126]

On June 15, 2016, a bipartisan group of eighteen members of the House of Representatives took turns reading the statement on the House floor.[126][22] Representative Jackie Speier organized the reading to raise awareness about sexual assault and to promote her legislation on campus sexual assault.[126] Representative Ann McLane Kuster, Democrat from New Hampshire, said news of the attack led her to identify herself as the victim of sexual assaults, and to focus legislative efforts on the problem.[127] Representative Paul Gosar, Republican of Arizona, said: "People need to learn from this, ... This should matter to everyone." Cheri Bustos claimed a need for more women in the house to bring the issue of sexual assault to the forefront.[128]

Then-Vice President Joe Biden wrote Doe an open letter titled, "An Open Letter to a Courageous Young Woman," which read in part, "I am filled with furious anger — both that this happened to you and that our culture is still so broken that you were ever put in the position of defending your own worth."[129]

Prosecutor's statements edit

Santa Clara County District Attorney Jeffrey F. Rosen stated that "the punishment does not fit the crime." Rosen described Turner as a "predatory offender" and stated he "has failed to take responsibility, failed to show remorse and failed to tell the truth," and added, "Campus rape is no different than off-campus rape. Rape is rape. And I will prosecute it as such."[72]

Juror's statement edit

A juror calling himself "A Concerned Juror" said this was his first time as a juror since recently becoming a U.S. citizen, after residing in the country for three decades. He wrote a letter to the judge expressing dissatisfaction with the sentencing length. The juror said that "the fact that Turner ran away after two Stanford graduate students noticed him on top of an unmoving woman" was compelling evidence, along with the incoherence of the message that Doe left her boyfriend before meeting Brock. The juror believed this was very strong evidence "that Turner should have reasonably known she was not able to give consent."[52]

Statements by Turner's family and friends edit

On June 4, Michele Dauber posted a letter written by Dan Turner, Brock's father, asking for leniency for his son, arguing that punishment was a "steep price to pay for 20 minutes of action out of his 20 plus years of life."[130][131][132] The letter sparked outrage and was cited as an example of the prevalence of rape culture.[72][80][133][134]

Dauber also circulated, again via Twitter, a letter written by Leslie Rasmussen, a female childhood friend of Turner, that defended Turner and blamed alcohol consumption and universities for advertising themselves as "party schools".[135] The letter was met with further criticism.[136][137] The publication of her letter, in which she also said Brock came from "a respectable family," led to cancellations of her band (Good English)'s engagements.[138] Rasmussen soon disavowed the letter, writing on Facebook, "I did not acknowledge strongly enough the severity of Brock's crime and the suffering and pain that his victim endured, and for that lack of acknowledgement, I am deeply sorry."[139]

Writing to the court and recommending against prison, Oakwood, Ohio Judge Margaret M. Quinn, a Turner family friend and retired federal prosecutor,[140] also blamed the assault on alcohol, minimizing Turner's culpability. "He made a mistake in drinking excessively to the point where he could not fully appreciate that his female acquaintance was so intoxicated. I know Brock did not go to that party intending to hurt, or entice, or overpower anyone."[141][142]

Brock's character was defended by at least 39 people including his ex-girlfriend who said he never pressured her[143] and that he was kind, loving and respectful.[143]

Doe's family's statements edit

Her sister, Tiffany,[144] (referred to by police at the time as "Jane Doe 2")[145] wrote a letter saying "an entire part of my heart has been permanently broken" by the assault, the lengthy prosecution, and Turner's failure to take responsibility for his actions.[146]

Police reports edit

The Stanford University Department of Public Safety provided the initial response and investigation. A felony complaint was filed in the Superior Court for the County of Santa Clara on January 28, 2015.[10][147]

The story was first disclosed to the public by The Fountain Hopper, an anonymous campus newsletter, after a line from the police blotter caught the interest of its editors.[148]

Turner had a prior campus law enforcement encounter when he was found by Stanford University police to be a minor in possession of cans of beer on November 11, 2014. He was cited as well for possession of a counterfeit Ohio driver's license. In addition, after subsequent publicized reports of the January 18, 2015, sexual assault incident, another female reported that Turner had made similar unwelcome physical advances toward her at a Kappa Alpha party on January 9, 2015.[69]

Jail and aftermath edit

Turner was released from Santa Clara County jail on September 2, 2016, having served three months of his six-month sentence.[149] The corrections officers who had kept him in protective custody gave Turner a package of hate mail which had built up during his stay as he exited prison.[150]

Under the terms of his release, Turner was mandated to live with his parents in Sugarcreek Township, Ohio,[151] where he was to register as a sex offender. He was placed on three years probation with reciprocal supervision through the Greene County, Ohio, Sheriff's Office. Conditions of probation included abstention from drugs and alcohol during that period.[152]

The day of his release, Turner's parents contacted the police, expressing concern about protesters being a danger to their safety.[153] The day after his release, protesters gathered on the sidewalk outside his family's Ohio home, several of them carrying guns and affiliated with an anarchist group that regularly organizes armed protests in Ohio.[154]

Today he is using his middle name, Allen, having dropped his first name, Brock.[155]

Appeal upheld conviction edit

At the time of his conviction, it was reported that Turner's legal appeal would be led by attorney Dennis Riordan,[156] who represented former baseball player Barry Bonds in a perjury case.[157] Riordan was present in court Thursday, June 2 with Turner's initial attorney Michael Armstrong.[158]

In December 2017, Turner requested that his conviction be overturned, that his lifetime requirement to register as a sex offender be canceled, and that he be given a new trial, on the grounds that the prosecutor claimed that the assault took place behind a trash bin, but the victim was found behind a garbage enclosure. Turner also argued that the jury should have been given the option to consider less serious charges and that he should have been able to call character witnesses.[14][159] Oral arguments were given on June 28, 2018, in San Jose.[160]

On August 8, 2018, Turner lost his appeal to overturn his conviction.[15][161] He reportedly tried to argue that he had intended to engage in outercourse, not intercourse, with his victim. The California Courts of Appeal were not persuaded and concluded that the appropriate course of action was to require Turner to register as a sex offender for the rest of his life.[162]

Legacy edit

California legislation edit

The public outrage at the sentence in the Turner case prompted the California State Legislature to pass two bills that would change California state law on sexual assault. Assembly Bill 701 would broaden California's definition of rape so that it would include digital as well as penile penetration. Assembly Bill 2888 (written by District Attorney Jeff Rosen) would provide for a mandatory minimum three-year prison sentence for sexual assault of an unconscious or intoxicated person. (Previously California law provided a mandatory minimum prison sentence when a defendant uses force, but had no mandatory minimum sentence when the victim is unconscious or incapacitated and unable to resist.)[163][164][165][166][20]

The final versions of A.B. 2888 and A.B. 701 were both unanimously approved by the California legislature.[166][20][167] Both bills subsequently went to Governor Jerry Brown's desk.[163][164] The bills were signed into law on September 30, 2016.[21]

After these laws were enacted, state law from before 2016 continued to provide that where imprisonment in the state prison is imposed for rape (when the victim is not a minor) or for the crime of sexual penetration when the victim is "prevented from resisting by any intoxicating or anesthetic substance," the imprisonment is for a period of "three, six, or eight years."[168][169]

Textbook definition of rape edit

Turner's mugshot used as the accompanying photo for the section on rape in a 2017 criminal justice textbook[170][171][172]

The second edition of the criminal justice textbook Introduction to Criminal Justice (ISBN 9781506347721), by University of Colorado, Denver, Professors Callie Marie Rennison and Mary Dodge, uses Turner's mugshot as the accompanying photo in the entry that defines rape.[170][172] According to the caption beneath Turner's photo, which appears on Page 20[171] at the top of the section in the book on "rape":

Brock Turner, a Stanford student who raped and assaulted an unconscious female student behind a dumpster at a fraternity party, was recently released from jail after serving only three months. Some are shocked at how short this sentence is. Others who are more familiar with the way sexual violence has been handled in the criminal justice system are shocked that he was found guilty and served any time at all. What do you think?[172][173]

The book was published in January 2017.[171] In September 2017, an image of the page was widely circulated on social media.[172] Rennison, who was awarded the Bonnie S. Fisher Victimology Career Award in 2016, explained in reference to her acceptance of that award that the textbook is her attempt to change the dialogue about victims of crime and its perpetrators within the criminal justice community, saying:[172]

Existing criminal justice books have focused on three elements: cops, courts and corrections. They speak little about victims, reflecting how they have effectively been in the shadows of our criminal justice system. In our book, victims are front and center with equal emphasis as cops, courts and corrections. This is the way it should be.[172]

Law & Order: Special Victims Unit edit

The eighteenth season of the television program Law & Order: Special Victims Unit highlighted the People v. Turner case, in its episode titled "Rape Interrupted."[174] The episode, which was influenced by the case,[174] guest-starred Anthony Edwards as Sgt. Patrick Griffin, Benson's first partner out of the Academy. Griffin's son is the suspect in a rape investigation that puts Benson at odds with Griffin and Assistant District Attorney.[175]

Executive producer Julie Martin told The Huffington Post, "It is a phenomenon. Unfortunately, there have been several cases like that over the spring and the summer." Mariska Hargitay pondered if a similar case were to happen on the show: "Like if I was the detective on that case? It could be healing to somebody to see what should happen. [Seeing] justice," Hargitay continued, "If a judge would do a different sentence. You know, that's healing for people to see the right thing, the just thing happen."[176]

Book by Chanel Miller edit

In September 2019, Chanel Miller revealed that she was the "Emily Doe" in the case, and released a book titled Know My Name: A Memoir on September 4, 2019.[177][23][24] She first began work on the book in 2017,[178][22][179] as an endeavor to reappropriate her narrative identity and describe the trauma she went through, after being referred to in the press as "unconscious intoxicated woman."[180][177][181] The author discusses her experience of the assault and the trial, as well as how she has coped since then.[180][182][183] Through research for the work, Miller perused court transcripts and testimony of individuals involved in the court proceedings—materials she had been unable to view throughout the trial of Brock Turner itself.[184][185][22]

The book was initially published by Viking Books, through efforts by the publisher's editor-in-chief Andrea Schulz.[186][187][188] Schulz took quick action after being contacted by Miller's literary agent, Philippa Brophy.[188] Schulz worked to acquire the rights to the book because of Miller's writing skill and her compelling account.[189][187][188] The same month as the book's publication, Miller was interviewed on the CBS News program 60 Minutes, where she read from her original victim impact statement.[190][191][183]

U.S. Congresswoman Jackie Speier, a well-known crime victim herself,[192] who coordinated the June 2016 movement in Congress to openly read the text of Miller's victim statement to the United States House of Representatives,[126] called the book "a powerful example of how we can overcome adversity."[193] Stanford law professor Michele Dauber commented, "When people read her book, they will be impressed with her. They will be convinced that Judge Persky and Stanford University behaved very badly."[194][195]

After Miller made the decision to go public with her real name, Stanford University released a statement: "We applaud Ms. Miller's bravery in talking publicly about the ordeal she has experienced and the horrible act that she suffered on our campus. As a university, we are continuing our efforts to prevent and respond effectively to sexual violence, with the ultimate goal of eradicating it from our community."[193]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Miller, Michael E. (March 31, 2016). "All-American swimmer found guilty of sexually assaulting unconscious woman on Stanford campus". The Washington Post. Washington DC: Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Fimrite, Peter (June 3, 2016). "Ex-Stanford swimmer to serve 6 months in unconscious woman's rape". San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, California: Hearst Newspapers. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e Xu, Victor (June 2, 2016). "Brock Turner sentenced to six months in county jail, three years probation". Stanford Daily. Stanford, California: The Stanford Daily Publishing Corporation. Retrieved June 4, 2016. Turner was arrested Jan. 18, 2015, after two graduate students found him on top of an unconscious woman outside Kappa Alpha fraternity at approximately 1 a.m.
  4. ^ Kadvany, Elena (March 18, 2016). "Alleged victim testifies in Brock Turner trial". Palo Alto Online. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. The 23-year-old woman whom former Stanford University student Brock Turner allegedly sexually assaulted on campus in the early hours of January 18, 2015, testified Friday afternoon in Palo Alto that she had no memory of the incident.
  5. ^ a b c Kadvany, Elena (October 5, 2015). "Woman in Stanford sexual-assault case testifies". Archived from the original on October 9, 2015. Deputy District Attorney Alaleh Kianerci, who works with the county's sexual-assault unit, questioned "Emily Doe" for about an hour at the Palo Alto Courthouse on Monday, as well as two other witnesses – Doe's sister, and one of the graduate students who intervened that night, Peter Jonsson.
  6. ^ a b c Lee, Jacqueline; Kaplan, Tracey (March 22, 2016). "Witness: Stanford rape defendant had victim's DNA on fingers". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved June 10, 2016. A red-brown substance that the criminalist said resembles blood and contains the woman's DNA was found under Turner's fingernails on his right and left hands and part of his right finger, Lee said. The substance was similar in color to a fluid taken from her vagina, he said, bolstering the prosecution's argument that he digitally penetrated her. However, the criminalist told the Santa Clara County Superior Court jury there is no way to tell definitively if it was blood. He also acknowledged under cross-examination by defense attorney Armstrong that the tests do not show when the DNA was deposited. On Friday, the Palo Alto woman was in tears as she testified that she woke up in the hospital with pine needles in her disheveled hair, dried blood on her hands and elbows
  7. ^ a b c d e Herhold, Scott (March 21, 2016). "Herhold: Thanking two Stanford students who subdued campus sex assault suspect". San José Mercury News. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  8. ^ Molinet, Jason (February 2, 2015). "All-American swimmer pleads not guilty in Stanford rape case". New York Daily News. New York City: Tronc. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  9. ^ Phillips, Alice (January 27, 2015). "Freshman swimmer Brock Turner faces five felony counts after alleged rape". Stanford Daily. Stanford, California: The Stanford Daily Publishing Corporation. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "Timeline of Significant Dates in the Life of Brock Turner". Sunnyvale, California: Oath Inc. Associated Press. June 11, 2016. Archived from the original on June 12, 2016.
  11. ^ Kaplan, Tracey (February 3, 2015). "Former Stanford swimmer pleads not guilty to rape charges". Mercury News. San Jose, California: Digital First Media. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c "Brock Turner sentenced to six months amid calls for tougher penalty". June 5, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  13. ^ Emanuella Grinberg; Catherine E. Shoichet (September 2, 2016). "Brock Turner released after 3 months in jail". CNN. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
  14. ^ a b Mark, Michelle (December 2, 2017). "Brock Turner appeals sexual assault conviction". Business Insider. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  15. ^ a b Hauser, Christine (August 9, 2018). "Brock Turner Loses Appeal to Overturn Sexual Assault Conviction". The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  16. ^ Hamze, Adam (June 9, 2016). "Stanford Rapist Brock Turner Will Get Out of Jail Three Months Early". VICE News. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d Merlan, Anna. "After the Brock Turner Case, Would Recalling Judge Aaron Persky Really Achieve Anything?". Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c Chammah, Maurice (June 16, 2016). "Could Removing Brock Turner's Judge Hurt Poor and Minority Defendants?". The Marshall Project. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  19. ^ "Northern California Judge Aaron Persky recalled from office for sexual assault sentence critics called too lenient". Associated Press. June 6, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  20. ^ a b c Jessica Calefati, Brock Turner case: Bill to mandate prison for sexually assaulting unconscious victims clears Assembly, Mercury News (August 29, 2016).
  21. ^ a b Stanglin (September 30, 2016). "Calif. gov signs bill mandating prison for sexual assault". USA Today.
  22. ^ a b c d "You Know Emily Doe's Story. Now Learn Her Name". The New York Times. September 4, 2019.
  23. ^ a b "'Know My Name': Chanel Miller, Stanford sex assault victim formerly known as "Emily Doe," reveals her name", CBS News, CBS, September 4, 2019, retrieved September 4, 2019
  24. ^ a b "Stanford sexual assault: Chanel Miller reads victim impact statement", BBC News, BBC, September 4, 2019, retrieved September 4, 2019
  25. ^ "Brock A Turner - CollegeSwimming". SwimCloud. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  26. ^ "Oakwood ex-Stanford student convicted in sex case". WHIO-TV. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  27. ^ "Court Papers Give Insight Into Stanford Sex Assault". The New York Times. June 12, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  28. ^ "Felony Complaint Case Summary, Superior Court of California, County of Santa Clara" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 6, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  29. ^ a b c d e f "She's known in local newspapers as 23-year-old "Emily Doe" — a pseudonym to protect her privacy ..." Bever, Lindsey (June 4, 2016). "'You took away my worth': A sexual assault victim's powerful message to her Stanford attacker - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  30. ^ a b Kadvany, Elena (June 3, 2016). "Stanford sex-assault victim: 'You took away my worth'". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  31. ^ Kadvany, Elena (March 21, 2016). "Prosecution, defense strategies emerge in Stanford sexual-assault case". Tiffany Doe, the woman's younger sister
  32. ^ a b c Dremann, Sue (March 28, 2016). "Brock Turner case goes to jury". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved June 12, 2016. Armstrong said that testimony by Doe's own sister, Tiffany, refutes the prosecution's claims
  33. ^ Lee, Jacqueline (March 21, 2016). "Witness: Stanford rape defendant Brock Turner had victim's DNA on hands". Archived from the original on September 7, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  34. ^ a b O'Connor, Ema (June 8, 2016). "In Their Words: The Swedish Heroes Who Caught The Stanford Sexual Assailant". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  35. ^ "Brock Turner laughed after bystanders stopped Stanford sex assault, files show". The Guardian. Julia Carrie Wong, August 26, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  36. ^ Bever, Lindsey (June 8, 2016). "The Swedish Stanford students who rescued an unconscious sexual assault victim speak out". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 8, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  37. ^ Phillips, Alice (January 29, 2015). "Police report: Brock Turner admits sexual contact, denies alleged rape". The Stanford Daily. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  38. ^ Dremann, Sue (October 6, 2015). "Brock Turner to stand trial on sex-assault charges". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved June 10, 2016. Deputy Sheriff Jeffrey Paul Taylor of the Stanford Department of Public Safety was the first officer on the scene. The woman, he said Tuesday, was lying near an access road behind a Dumpster. Taylor checked her pulse, and she began to snore, but she remained unconscious, he said. (..) At the hospital, he shook her shoulders, trying to wake her. Taylor shouted to her in a loud voice, a foot away from her face: "Please wake up. Can you help me understand who you are?" he recalled. Emily finally came to at 4:15 a.m.
  39. ^ Kaplan, Tracey (March 23, 2016). "Sex assault trial: Former Stanford swimmer Brock Turner testifies drunk woman consented". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  40. ^ a b c Kadvany, Elena (January 30, 2015). "Stanford swimmer denies alleged rape in police report". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  41. ^ Kadvany, Elena (March 21, 2016). "Woman testifies in Brock Turner trial". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  42. ^ a b c d e Knowles, Hannah (March 21, 2016). "Brock Turner trial continues in second week of testimony". Stanford Daily. Stanford, California: The Stanford Daily Publishing Corporation. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  43. ^ Phillips, Alice; Beyda, Joseph (January 29, 2015). "Police Report: Brock Turner admits sexual contact, denies alleged rape". The Stanford Daily. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  44. ^ "Probation Report" (PDF). Palo Alto Online. Palo Alto Online. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  45. ^ a b c Lee, Jacqueline (March 24, 2016). "Woman and former Stanford swim star accused of sexually assaulting her both testify". Archived from the original on October 4, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2022. Turner, now 20, said he had about five Rolling Rock beers and a couple of sips of Fireball throughout the night.
  46. ^ a b c Baker, Katie J. M. "Here's The Powerful Letter The Stanford Victim Read To Her Attacker". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  47. ^ a b Cleary, Tom (June 8, 2016). "Brock Turner's Full Statement to Judge Aaron Persky". Retrieved June 26, 2016. In his 11-page statement, Turner said he was getting sick because of the amount of alcohol he drank when he was approached by the two students
  48. ^ Siemaszko, Corky (June 6, 2016). "Recall Effort Launched Against Judge Aaron Persky in Stanford Rape Case". Turner admitted having sex with the woman after drinking nine beers and whiskey at a party, but he denied raping her.
  49. ^ a b Kaplan, Tracey (March 22, 2016). "Expert witness falters in sex assault trial of former Stanford swimmer". The Mercury News. Retrieved June 9, 2016. The woman's blood-alcohol was more than .24, or three times the legal limit. Turner's blood-alcohol content was .17, or more than twice the legal limit of .08.
  50. ^ Sanchez, Ray (June 11, 2016). "Stanford rape case: Inside the court documents". The victim finally regained consciousness about 4:15 a.m. at a hospital.
  51. ^ Fuller, Thomas (June 12, 2016). "Court Papers Give Insight Into Stanford Sex Assault". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  52. ^ a b Kadvany, Elena (June 13, 2016). "Brock Turner juror to judge: 'Shame on you'". Palo Alto Weekly. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  53. ^ Rocha, Veronica (June 10, 2016). "Stanford swimmer convicted of sex assault lied about never partying, documents show". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  54. ^ Photos, text messages surface indicating Brock Turner used drugs before Stanford,San Francisco Chronicle, Amy Graff, June 10, 2016.
  55. ^ Kimble, Lindsay (June 9, 2016). "Convicted Stanford Sex Offender Allegedly Lied to Authorities About History with Drinking and Drug Use: Reports". People. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  56. ^ Crockett, Emily (June 9, 2016). "Brock Turner was convicted of sexual assault but not "rape." What does that mean?". New York City: Vox Media. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  57. ^ "Stanford Freshman Brock Turner Arrested After Sexual Assault Allegations". SwimSwam. January 30, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  58. ^ "Stanford University statement regarding Brock Turner case". Stanford News. June 6, 2016. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  59. ^ Keith, Braden. "BROCK TURNER 'WOULD NOT BE ELIGIBLE' FOR USA SWIMMING MEMBERSHIP". SwimSwam. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  60. ^ Auerbach, Nicole (June 8, 2016). "Former Stanford swimmer won't be eligible for USA Swimming events". USA Today. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  61. ^ Windsor, Morgan (June 10, 2016). "USA Swimming Bans Ex-Stanford Student Brock Turner for Life After Sex Assault Conviction". ABC News. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  62. ^ Christy, Ceci (January 30, 2015). "Explaining the Charges Filed Against Brock Turner". SwimSwam. Turner has been charged with five felony counts: rape of an intoxicated person, rape of an unconscious person, sexual penetration by a foreign object of an unconscious woman, sexual penetration by a foreign object of an intoxicated woman, and assault with intent to commit rape
  63. ^ a b Aydin, Rebecca (October 6, 2015). "Brock Turner, accused of rape last winter, undergoes preliminary hearing". The Stanford Daily. Retrieved June 7, 2016. Turner pleaded not guilty last February to the five felony charges against him, including rape of an intoxicated person, rape of an unconscious person, sexual penetration of an intoxicated woman, sexual penetration of an unconscious woman and assault with intent to commit rape.
  64. ^ "Court Motions/Orders/Instructions/Minutes Chronological Order" (PDF). Palo Alto Online. February 2, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  65. ^ Kadvany, Elena (March 17, 2016). "Trial begins in Stanford sex-assault case". Palo Alto Weekly. Palo Alto, California: Embarcadero Media. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  66. ^ Knowles, Hannah (March 30, 2016). "Brock Turner found guilty on three felony counts". The Stanford Daily. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  67. ^ Rosen, Jeff (June 3, 2016). "Campus rape is no different than off-campus rape. Rape is rape. We will prosecute it the same". District Attorney Jeffrey Rosen. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  68. ^ a b Anderson, Nick; Svrluga, Susan (June 10, 2016). "In Stanford sexual assault case, probation officer recommended 'moderate' jail term". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  69. ^ a b "Reports 14-319-0270U & 15-018-0019U]" (PDF). Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  70. ^ Levin, Sam (June 2, 2016). "Ex-Stanford swimmer gets six months in jail and probation for sexual assault". The Guardian. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  71. ^ [1] "Brock Turner: Stanford sex attack swimmer freed from jail". BBC News. September 2, 2016.
  72. ^ a b c d e Stack, Liam (June 6, 2016). "Light Sentence for Brock Turner in Stanford Rape Case Draws Outrage". The New York Times. New York City. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  73. ^ Levin, Sam (June 6, 2016). "Judge in Stanford sexual assault case faces recall effort over light sentence". The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  74. ^ Gollom, Mark (June 8, 2016). "Stanford University sexual assault case sentencing seen as too lenient by legal experts". CBC News. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  75. ^ Chammah, Maurice (June 16, 2016). "Could Removing Brock Turner's Judge Hurt Poor and Minority Defendants?". The Marshall Project. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  76. ^ a b Wooldridge, Nicholas (June 18, 2016). "Sex, Lies and "Severe Impact": In Defense of Judge Aaron Persky". JURIST.
  77. ^ a b "Brock Allen Turner: The Sort of Defendant Who Is Spared "Severe Impact"".
  78. ^ a b "Judge Curiel Doesn't Need A Defense, But Judge Aaron Persky Does".
  79. ^ "Father of student convicted of rape: Steep price for '20 minutes of action'". USA Today. June 6, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  80. ^ a b Miller, Michael E. (June 6, 2016). "'A steep price to pay for 20 minutes of action': Dad defends Stanford sex offender". Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  81. ^ Note (2019). "Recent Election: California Judge Recalled for Sentence in Sexual Assault Case" (PDF). Harvard Law Review. 132: 1369.
  82. ^ The 1 million figure refers to a petition on "Other petitions at and the White House's We the People site have each garnered more than 100,000 signatures." McLaughlin, Eliott C. (June 10, 2016). "1 million sign petition to oust judge in Brock Turner case. Will it matter?". CNN. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  83. ^ Bumanlag, Isabela (June 25, 2015). "Stanford Law grads write open letter, question Judge Persky recall". Stanford Daily. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  84. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Recall Judge Aaron Persky. Archived from the original on July 19, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  85. ^ State AG Sides With Recall Effort To Oust Judge Persky, KPIX, August 22, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  86. ^ Judge in Brock Turner rape case hires Trump consultant, CBS News, August 2, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  87. ^ Editorial: Judge Persky's misjudgment, Palo Alto Online, August 18, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  88. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (June 10, 2009). "Stanford rape case: Republican Congressman demands court overturns Brock Turner's 'pathetic' sentence". The Independent. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  89. ^ Stack, Liam (June 7, 2016). "Judge Aaron Persky Under Fire for Sentencing in Stanford Rape Case". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  90. ^ Kaplan, Tracey (June 8, 2016). "Brock Turner case: Q&A on sexual assault sentence, possible appeal and more". The Mercury News. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  91. ^ Cevallos, Danny (June 11, 2016). "Judge Persky's sentence in Stanford rape case unpopular but legal". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  92. ^ a b Kaplan, Tracey (June 14, 2016). "Brock Turner judge Aaron Persky gets kicked off new sex case". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  93. ^ Emanuella Grinberg and Dan Simon (August 26, 2016). "Brock Turner judge to no longer hear criminal cases". CNN. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  94. ^ Judge who sentenced Stanford swimmer to six months in jail for sexual assault faces recall vote, Los Angeles Times, Joseph Serna, January 24, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  95. ^ Judge in Brock Turner assault case to face vote for removal in June, The Mercury News, Courtney Ham, January 23, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  96. ^ "The Judge In The Brock Turner Case Just Compared His Decision To School Desegregation". BuzzFeed. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  97. ^ "Santa Clara County Elections: June 5, 2019, Statewide Direct Primary: Recall, Superior Court Judge," Santa Clara County Elections Department,
  98. ^ Maggie Astor, "California Voters Remove Aaron Persky, the Judge Who Gave a 6-Month Sentence for Sexual Assault," New York Times, June 6, 2018.
  99. ^ "Woman Defeats Judge in Madison", The New York Times, archives, September 8, 1977. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  100. ^ "Judge Persky has no regrets in Brock Turner case". Palo Alto Daily Post, Paul Elias (AP), May 5, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  101. ^ a b Judge Aaron Persky faces recall on Election Day over Brock Turner sentencing, ABC7 News, David Louie, June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  102. ^ Recall of Brock Turner judge succeeds: Voters oust Aaron Persky for sentence in sexual assault case, The Mercury News, Tracey Kaplan, June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  103. ^ Elias, Paul (May 2, 2018). "Judge in Stanford rape case faces recall over sentencing". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 13, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  104. ^ Capehart, Jonathan (March 19, 2023). "A New Documentary Short Explores the Recall of Judge Aaron Persky". MSNBC. Archived from the original on March 26, 2023. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  105. ^ California Primary Election 2018 Results, The Mercury News, June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  106. ^ "Ex-Judge Persky ordered to pay $161,000 in legal fees to group led by Dauber". Palo Alto Daily Post. October 24, 2018. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  107. ^ Fry, Hannah (December 12, 2018). "Judge who was recalled after Stanford sexual assault case seeks donations to pay $135,000 in attorney fees". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  108. ^ a b Walters, Joanna; Wong, Julia Carrie; Levin, Sam (June 9, 2016). "Stanford judge allowed revealing photos of alleged gang-rape victim in prior case". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  109. ^ "No defendants found liable in De Anza rape trial, no damages awarded". Silicon Valley Mercury News. April 7, 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
  110. ^ Kingkade, Tyler (June 8, 2016). "Brock Turner Repeatedly Used Alcohol As An Excuse". HuffPost. Retrieved June 26, 2016. After the guilty verdict, Turner continued to insist to his probation officer that the encounter was consensual. He said the victim had simply slipped behind a wooden shed and then he got down on the ground with her and started kissing and fingering her until he got nauseous and decided to walk away.
  111. ^ "Brock Turner Statement". Scribd. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  112. ^ Levin, Sam; Wong, Julia Carrie (June 7, 2016). "Brock Turner's statement blames sexual assault on Stanford 'party culture'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  113. ^ "Rachel Sklar on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  114. ^ Baysinger, Tim (June 7, 2016). "How BuzzFeed Became the Outlet That Made the Stanford Rape Victim's Letter Go Viral". AdWeek. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  115. ^ "Sexual Assault Victim Shares Powerful Letter to Her Attacker After He Was Sentenced to Only 6 Months in Jail". People. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  116. ^ Crockett, Emily (June 6, 2016). "This letter from a Stanford sexual assault victim destroys 5 bad assumptions about rape". Vox. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  117. ^ Doe, Emily (June 2, 2016). "B-Turner VIS.pdf" (PDF). Santa Clara County Board of Supervisors. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  118. ^ "Sex assault victim to ex-Stanford swimmer: "Assault is not an accident"". CBS News. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  119. ^ "Prosecutors release moving 12-page statement from woman raped by former Stanford swimmer". Los Angeles Times. June 4, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  120. ^ "Read the Powerful Letter a Sexual Assault Victim Wrote to Her Attacker". Motto. Archived from the original on June 7, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  121. ^ "Brock Turner sexual assault case: Stanford victim's letter to attacker, judge". The Mercury News. June 3, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  122. ^ "Woman Raped by Stanford Swimming Star Reads Powerful Letter Aloud to Her Attacker". Cosmopolitan. June 5, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  123. ^ "Stanford sexual assault case: victim impact statement in full". The Guardian. June 6, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  124. ^ Tim Baysinger (June 7, 2016). "How BuzzFeed Became the Outlet That Made the Stanford Rape Victim's Letter Go Viral". Ad Week. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  125. ^ O'Connor, Lydia (June 6, 2016). "CNN Host Lets Sexual Assault Victim's Powerful Statement Speak For Itself". HuffPost. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  126. ^ a b c d e Speier, Jackie (June 15, 2016), "Words From a Sexual Assault Survivor to Her Attacker", Congressional Record, From the Congressional Record Online through the Government Publishing Office, United States House of Representatives, vol. 162, no. 95, pp. H3905–H3909, retrieved September 5, 2019
  127. ^ Nilsen, Ella. "U.S. Rep. Annie Kuster speaks out about personal experiences with sexu al assault". Concord Monitor. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
  128. ^ Aguilera, Jasmine (June 16, 2016). "House Members Unite to Read Stanford Rape Victim's Letter". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  129. ^ Travis M. Andrews (June 10, 2016). "'I am filled with furious anger': Biden writes letter to Stanford sexual assault victim". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  130. ^ Paquette, Danielle (June 7, 2016). "What makes the Stanford sex offender Brock Turner's six month jail sentence so unusual". The Independent. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  131. ^ Dauber, Michele. "Brock Turner's father: son not violent, got only 20 minutes of action". Twitter. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  132. ^ Reich, J. E. (June 4, 2016). "Father of Stanford Rapist Argues His Son Should Not Be Punished for '20 Minutes of Action'". Jezebel. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  133. ^ Hunt, Elle (June 5, 2016). "'20 minutes of action': father defends Stanford student son convicted of sexual assault". The Guardian. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  134. ^ Cauterucci, Christina (June 5, 2016). "Brock Turner's Father Sums Up Rape Culture in One Brief Statement". Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  135. ^ Dauber, Michele (June 6, 2016). "Brock Turner court probation report is fetid pond of victim-blaming rapeyness". Twitter. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  136. ^ Zielinski, Alex (June 6, 2016). "Friend Of Stanford Rapist Blamed Victim, Urged Judge Not To Be 'Politically Correct'". Think Progress. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  137. ^ Jackson, Abby (June 6, 2016). "Childhood friend of the ex-Stanford swimmer who sexually assaulted an unconscious woman blames political correctness". Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  138. ^ Garbe, Will; Pepper, Grant (June 7, 2016). "Amid backlash against sex assault sentence, reactions, Brock Turner friends remain supportive". Dayton Daily News. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  139. ^ Brock Turner's Childhood Friend Apologizes for Defending His Character, Cosmopolitan, Megan Friedman, June 13, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  140. ^ Hamilton, Matt (June 6, 2016). "Stanford sex offender's friends and relatives wrote to persuade judge to keep him out of prison". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  141. ^ Kaplan, Tracey (June 8, 2016). "Stanford sex offender Brock Turner's court file shows he lied about drug use". The Mercury News. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  142. ^ Bennish, Steve; Gokavi, Mark; Wilson, Richard (November 5, 2013). "Quinn wins race for Oakwood judge". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  143. ^ a b Graff, Amy (June 14, 2016). "Brock Turner's ex-girlfriend defends his character: 'He never once pressured me into any situation'". Turner's ex-girlfriend is one of at least 39 people who submitted statements to the court defending the convicted felon's character. In a letter included in court documents from Turner's trial obtained by the San Francisco Chronicle, Lydia Pocisk refers to Turner as her "dearest friend"... Drawing from her past experiences with him, she attests to his character calling him a "kind, loving, respectful, relaxed, silently hilarious, and determined individual."
  144. ^ [The Irrepressibly Political Survivorship of Chanel Miller], The New Yorker. Doreen St. Félix, October 11, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2022.
  145. ^ Stanford assault victim’s family speaks: ‘My heart’s been broken’, New York Post, Melissa Klein, June 12, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2022.
  146. ^ "Sister of Ex-Stanford Swimmer's Victim Penned Scathing Letter to Him". ABC News. June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  147. ^ "Complaint Brock Turner". February 2, 2015. Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  148. ^ Glenza, Jessica; Carroll, Rory (February 8, 2015). "Stanford, the swimmer and Yik Yak: can talk of campus rape go beyond secrets?". The Guardian.
  149. ^ "Brock Turner scheduled to be released from jail on Friday". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  150. ^ "Brock Turner leaves jail after serving half a 6-month sentence for sex assault". Associated Press. June 7, 2018. Archived from the original on September 3, 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2022 – via Chicago Tribune. Sheriff Laurie Smith .. said jail guards gave Turner a large package of hate mail sent to him over the last three months and that Turner lived in protective custody in jail after receiving threats.
  151. ^ "Brock Turner released from jail this morning". Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  152. ^ "Ex-Stanford swimmer exits jail after serving half his term". September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  153. ^ "Cops on Alert for Possible Violence at Brock Turner's Home". TMZ. September 3, 2016. Turner's parents are scared for their son's safety ... so much so they've asked cops to help them deal with protesters and others who might do him harm
  154. ^ "Armed anarchists rally at Brock Turner's home: 'Try this again, we'll shoot you'". the Guardian. September 6, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  155. ^ "Convicted Stanford Assaulter Brock Turner Goes Viral Again Via 'Whisper Network' In Ohio". SFist - San Francisco News, Restaurants, Events, & Sports. August 22, 2022. Retrieved August 9, 2023.
  156. ^ "Behind the Headlines - Inside the Brock Turner Trial". Palo Alto Online. March 25, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2016 – via YouTube.
  157. ^ Wilson, Duff; Pogash, Carol (December 8, 2007). "Elite Lawyers Anchor the Defense". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  158. ^ Kadvany, Elena (June 2, 2016). "Brock Turner sentenced to six months in county jail, three-year probation". Palo Alto Online. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  159. ^ Salam, Maya (December 2, 2017). "Brock Turner Is Appealing His Sexual Assault Conviction". The New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  160. ^ "AP Exclusive: California judge in rape case has no regrets". WTOP. May 18, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  161. ^ People v. Turner, No. H043709 (Cal. Ct. App. August 8, 2018).
  162. ^ "Brock Turner loses 'outercourse' appeal, has to register as sex offender for life". ThinkProgress. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  163. ^ a b Jazmine Ulloa, Prescription drug costs, sex crimes, marijuana and the other big issues we're following through the California Legislature, Los Angeles Times (August 25, 2016).
  164. ^ a b Governor should sign one Brock Turner bill, veto the other, Sacramento Bee (September 1, 2016).
  165. ^ Kaplan, Tracey (August 25, 2016). "Brock Turner judge Aaron Persky gives up criminal cases after Stanford sex trial uproar". The Mercury News. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  166. ^ a b "California legislature votes to close loophole after Brock Turner sex assault case". CBC/Radio-Canada. August 31, 2016.
  167. ^ AB-701 Sex crimes: rape.(2015-2016), California State Legislature.
  168. ^ "Justia, California Code, Penal Code, Part 1, Title 9. CHAPTER 5 - Bigamy, Incest, and the Crime Against Nature, Section 289". Justia. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  169. ^ "2015 California Code :: Penal Code - PEN :: PART 1 - OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS :: TITLE 9 - OF CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON INVOLVING SEXUAL ASSAULT, AND CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC DECENCY AND GOOD MORALS :: CHAPTER 1 - Rape, Abduction, Carnal Abuse of Children, and Seduction :: Section 264". Justia. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  170. ^ a b Buncombe, Andrew (September 13, 2017). "Brock Turner's mugshot used to illustrate definition of 'rape' in criminal justice textbook". The Independent.
  171. ^ a b c Rennison, Callie Marie; Dodge, Mary (January 3, 2017). Introduction to Criminal Justice: Systems, Diversity, and Change. Second Edition. SAGE Publications. Archived at Google Books. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  172. ^ a b c d e f Evon, Dan (September 12, 2017). "Did a Textbook Use Brock Turner as an Example?". Snopes.
  173. ^ Batey, Eve (September 13, 2017), "Brock Turner Is Now Literally The Textbook Definition Of 'Rape'", SFist, archived from the original on September 13, 2017
  174. ^ a b Easton, Anne (October 27, 2016). "Law & Order: SVU' 18×05 Recap: An Unsettling, But Necessary, Examination". The Observer. London. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  175. ^ Gennis, Sadie (October 20, 2016). "Law & Order: SVU Exclusive: Get a First Look at the ER Reunion with Anthony Edwards!". TV Guide. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
  176. ^ Ledbetter, Carly (September 21, 2016). "Why You Should Expect A Brock Turner–Inspired Episode On 'Law & Order: SVU' This Season". HuffPost. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
  177. ^ a b Neary, Lynn (September 4, 2019), "Victim of Brock Turner sexual assault reveals her identity", Minnesota Public Radio, retrieved September 5, 2019
  178. ^ Barbour, Shannon (September 4, 2019), "Chanel Miller, the Woman Sexually Assaulted by Ex–Stanford Swimmer Brock Turner, Reveals Her Identity", Cosmopolitan, retrieved September 4, 2019
  179. ^ Lord, Craig (September 5, 2019), "'Know My Name – Chanel Miller': Brock Turner's Victim Reveals Her Name Ahead Of Memoir", Swimming World Magazine, retrieved September 5, 2019
  180. ^ a b Jones, Valerie (September 4, 2019), "Survivor in Stanford sexual assault case comes forward with name, memoir", Deseret News, retrieved September 5, 2019
  181. ^ Steafel, Eleanor (September 5, 2019), "Victim of Stanford sex attacker Brock Turner bravely waives her anonymity", The Telegraph, retrieved September 5, 2019
  182. ^ Feller, Madison (September 4, 2019), "Chanel Miller Comes Forward as 'Emily Doe' From the Brock Turner Sexual Assault Case", Elle, retrieved September 4, 2019
  183. ^ a b "Stanford sexual assault survivor identifies herself before release of memoir", The Guardian, September 4, 2019, retrieved September 5, 2019
  184. ^ Feng, Lydia (September 5, 2019), "'You don't know me': Chanel Miller comes forward as victim in Brock Turner sexual assault case", SBS News, retrieved September 5, 2019
  185. ^ Wood, Heloise (September 4, 2019), "'Emily Doe' reveals true identity ahead of memoir on Brock Turner assault", The Bookseller, retrieved September 5, 2019
  186. ^ Ceron, Ella (September 4, 2019), "Her statement to her rapist went viral - now Chanel Miller is speaking out as herself",, retrieved September 4, 2019
  187. ^ a b McNamara, Audrey (September 4, 2019), "Brock Turner's Victim Reveals Her Identity", The Daily Beast, retrieved September 4, 2019
  188. ^ a b c "Know My Name: Stanford sexual assault victim reveals identity in new memoir", Irish Times, September 5, 2019, retrieved September 5, 2019
  189. ^ Dowd, Katie (September 4, 2019), "'Emily Doe' in Brock Turner case steps forward, identifies herself as Chanel Miller", San Francisco Chronicle, retrieved September 4, 2019
  190. ^ Hanlon, Greg (September 4, 2019), "Woman Sexually Assaulted by Stanford Swimmer Reveals Her Identity", People, retrieved September 4, 2019
  191. ^ Dickson, EJ (September 4, 2019), "Chanel Miller, Survivor at the Center of Brock Turner Case, Comes Forward", Rolling Stone, Yahoo! Entertainment, retrieved September 4, 2019
  192. ^ Staff (October 2006). "Senator Jackie Speier one of honored guests at banquet" (Press release). Armenian National Committee of America Western Region. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2022.
  193. ^ a b Nguyen, Chris (September 5, 2019), "Brock Turner's sex assault victim makes her name public", KTRK-TV, archived from the original on September 5, 2019, retrieved September 5, 2019
  194. ^ Proudfoot, Jenny (September 5, 2019), "Brock Turner's anonymous sexual assault victim has identified herself", Marie Claire UK, retrieved September 5, 2019
  195. ^ Kirk, Tristan (September 5, 2019), "'I'm Emily Doe': Sex assault case victim reveals identity in book", Evening Standard, retrieved September 5, 2019

External links edit