Pang Tong (audio speaker iconpronunciation ) (179–214),[a] courtesy name Shiyuan, was a Chinese politician. He was an adviser to the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. In his youth, Pang Tong was disregarded because he was plain looking, however Sima Hui highly esteemed him calling him the "Crown of Scolars in Jing Province". He studied under him along with Zhuge Liang, Xu Shu and Xiang Lang and was given the nickname of "Fledgling Phoenix". Because of his friendly attitude, he worked as an appraiser in Nan Commandery. When reviewing someone, he would prioritize their virtue over their abilities and would encourage them to help others.

Pang Tong
A Qing dynasty illustration of Pang Tong
Military Adviser General of the Household
(under Liu Bei)
In office
c. 209 (c. 209)–214 (214)
Serving with Zhuge Liang
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Assistant Officer in the Headquarters Office
(under Liu Bei)
In office
? (?)–? (?)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Assistant Officer (從事)
(under Sun Quan)
In office
? (?)–209 (209)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Prefect of Leiyang (耒陽令)
(under Sun Quan)
In office
? (?)–209 (209)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Personal details
Xiangyang, Hubei
Died214 (aged 35)[a]
Guanghan, Sichuan
Resting placePang Tong Shrine and Tomb
ChildrenPang Hong
  • Pang Lin (brother)
  • Pang Degong (uncle)
  • Pang Shanmin (cousin)
  • Pang Huan (nephew)
Courtesy nameShiyuan (士元)
Posthumous nameMarquis Jing (靖侯)
Nickname"Fledgling Phoenix"

He briefly served Zhou Yu and befriended Lu Ji, Gu Shao and Quan Cong before joining Liu Bei in 209 after the latter became the provincial governor. Under the recommendation of both Lu Su and Zhuge Liang, Liu Bei appointed him to Assistant Officer and promoted him to Military Adviser Generals of the Household. He advised Liu Bei to take over Yi Province accompanied him on on his campaign (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) against the warlord Liu Zhang, but was killed by a stray arrow during a battle at Luo County (north of present-day Guanghan, Sichuan) in 214.[1]

Early lifeEdit

Pang Tong was from Xiangyang Commandery, Jing Province. In his youth, he looked plain and simple, so he was not highly regarded. When he reached adulthood (around 19 years old), he visited Sima Hui, who was famous for spotting and recommending men of talent. They came to a mulberry tree, where Sima Hui climbed up to get the fruit while Pang Tong sat below, and they chatted for a whole day until nightfall. Sima Hui felt that Pang Tong was an extraordinary person and called Pang the "Crown of Sholars in Jing Province" (南州士之冠冕). Subsequently, Pang Tong started gaining more recognition among the scholar-gentry.[2] Along with Zhuge Liang who was nicknamed "Crouching Dragon" (臥龍) and Sima Hui who was nicknamed "Water Mirror" (水鏡). Pang Tong was nicknamed "Fledgling Phoenix" (鳳雛; also translated as "Young Phoenix") by his uncle Pang Degong (龐德公).[3]

Pang Tong's uncle was also from Xiangyang. He was an acquaintance of Zhuge Liang who dearly respected him always bowing deeply before him when he visited his house. While Pang Degong was crossing the Mian to pay respect and tributes along with sacrifices to his ancestor's tomb, Sima Hui visited his house so he called Pang Degong's wife and children then told them to prepare the meal for an important guest known from Xu Shu that would come to see him and Pang Degong. Pang Degong's wife and children respectfully followed his instructions. Soon Pang Degong was back and stood in attention for the meeting even though he did not know who the guest was. Sima Hui was ten years younger than Pang Degong and so he treated him as an older brother. Calling him affectionately Lord Pang to the point where people thought that Lord Pang (Pang Gong) was his personal name although it wasn't true.[4]

Pang Degong's son, Pang Shanmin (龐山民) also enjoyed a good reputation and married Zhuge Liang's youngest elder sister and became a Gate Appointment Gentleman but he died young. His son Pang Huan (龐渙), whose courtesy name was Shìwen (世文) between the years 280 and 289 became Administrator of Zangke. While he was young Pang Tong didn't have anyone take note of him and only Pang Degong valued him highly. When he was eighteen years, he was sent to meet Sima Hui. After Sima Hui talked with him, he sighed and said: “Pang Degong truly knows how to judge people. This is truly a boy of majestic moral character.”[5]

Service as appraiserEdit

Pang Tong later served as an Officer of Merit (功曹) in Nan Commandery (南郡; around present-day Jiangling County, Hubei). By nature, Pang Tong was sociable and diligent in fostering and mentoring. Hence, he was nominated to be an appraiser. When he reviewed people, he focused more on their personal virtues rather than their abilities. He was fond of ethical lessons and consistently strove to maintain high moral standards. He usually overpraised when he was asked to assess a person.[6]

At times, people were puzzled so they questioned him on why he did that, to which he replied:

“The world is currently in disorder and customs and principles often forgotten. Good people are overwhelmed by the evil. I desire to change social norms and revive good customs by encouraging good people and giving them a better (exaggerated) reputation, so they can be admired by the many and served as role models for others. Let's say I give exaggerated praises for ten but I'm wrong for five of them however I still have gotten half of them then those can act as lofty examples to teach those of our time and cause the ambitious to act fairly, is this not acceptable?”[7]

Service under Zhou YuEdit

In 209, Zhou Yu, a general under the warlord Sun Quan, occupied Nan Commandery after the Battle of Jiangling. After Zhou Yu was appointed as the Administrator (太守) of Nan Commandery, Pang Tong served as an official under him. When Zhou Yu died in 210, Pang Tong travelled to Jiangdong to attend his funeral. He received a warm reception by the officials in Jiangdong. Pang Tong met and befriended Lu Ji, Gu Shao and Quan Cong. He also appraised each of them separately and described Lu Ji as "a horse that cannot run fast but has strong willpower", and Gu Shao as "an ox that is physically weak but capable of bearing burdens over great distances".[8] Then he compared Quan Cong to Fan Zizhao of Runan describing him as someone generous who admire respectable men.[9] They were very pleased with his comments.

Someone then asked Pang Tong: "Does that mean Lu Ji is better than Gu Shao?" Pang Tong replied: "Although a horse can run fast, it can only bear the weight of one person. An ox can travel 300 li a day; it can certainly bear more than just the weight of one person!" Gu Shao later asked Pang Tong: "You are also known for being a good judge of character. Between us, who do you think is the better one?" Pang Tong replied: "I am not as good as you in associating with people and assessing their characters. However, when it comes to politics and strategy, it seems that I am one day ahead of you." Gu Shao agreed with Pang Tong and developed a close bond with him.[10] Before Pang Tong left, Lu Ji and Gu Shao told him: "When peace is restored in the Empire, we want to have a good discussion with you about famous people." Both of them became friend with Pang Tong.[11]

Serving Liu Bei in Jing ProvinceEdit

Pang Tong became a subject of Liu Bei after the latter became the Governor of Jingzhou in late 209. He initially served as an Assistant Officer (從事) and as the county magistrate (縣令) of Leiyang, but was later dismissed from office due to poor performance. Sun Quan's general Lu Su wrote to Liu Bei, recommending Pang Tong as a great talent that should be employed to important tasks and not managing a small territory. Liu Bei's strategist Zhuge Liang also recommended Pang Tong, so Liu Bei recruited Pang to be an Assistant Officer in the Headquarters Office (治中從事). Liu Bei's treatment towards Pang Tong was second to that of Zhuge Liang. He later appointed both Pang Tong and Zhuge Liang as Military Adviser Generals of the Household (軍師中郎將).[12]

While making merry during a feast, Liu Bei asked Pang Tong: "You once worked as Zhou Gongjin’s officer of merit. Before when I went to Wu, I heard that he secretly pressed Zhongmou (Sun Quan) to detain me. Is it true? When a man is with his lord, he must be utterly honest with him." Pang Tong admit that it was true. Liu Bei then sighed and said: "At this moment, I was in danger and they rescued me hence I could not refuse their invitation and almost failed to escape Zhou Yu's grasp! In this world, men of talent and wisdom can see through each other's plan. Before I left, Kongming protested against this with all his will. He has seen through this. However I didn't listen because I was thinking that I was Zhongmou's defense against the north and that he would need my help. I had no doubts about him. This was trule entering into the tiger's den and a very risky plan."[13]

Assisting Liu Bei in the conquest of Yi ProvinceEdit

Around the early 210s, Pang Tong convinced Liu Bei to seize Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) and use its resources to compete with his rival Cao Cao for supremacy over China. Pang Tong said :

“Jing Province is in ruins and ravaged by constant conflicts. His people are exhausted with Sun Quan to the east and Cao Cao to the north looming over them and so the tripartite balance will be difficult to achieve. Now Yi Province is wealthy and his people are strong, his population in the million and many troops and horses present in all the region that can be obtained and shouldn't be asked from the outside. Now, you can seize it and accomplish your great entreprise."[14]

Liu Bei answered :

“At this moment, my rival is Cao Cao. He is suspicious while I'm lenient. He is cruel while I'm kind. He is deceitful while I'm loyal. If I always oppose him in that way, our plan may be accomplish. Now for a small reason, I would lose the faith and trust of the people under the sky. I won't do it.”[15]

Pang Tong replied :

“This is a period of change where one must shown himself flexible and cannot be settled by a single principle. Subduing the weak while attacking secretly was the way of the Five Hegemons. Ending the rebellion and defending the loyal, treating them with respect and honesty while rewarding them fairly after the conflict end. How is that turning back on righteousness? Be careful that if you don't take it today, it ends in someone else's lap.”

Liu Bei heeded Pang Tong's suggestion.[16]

In 211, Liu Bei led an army from Jing Province into Yi Province on the pretext of helping Yi Province's governor, Liu Zhang, counter an invasion from the warlord Zhang Lu in Hanzhong Commandery. Zhuge Liang remained behind to guard Jing Province while Pang Tong followed Liu Bei to Yi Province.[17] Liu Zhang received Liu Bei at Fu County (涪縣; present-day Mianyang, Sichuan). Pang Tong urged Liu Bei to use the opportunity to capture Liu Zhang and force him to hand over Yi Province, but Liu Bei refused because he was new to Yi Province and had not established a strong foundation there yet. Liu Zhang later returned to Yi Province's capital, Chengdu.[18]

Advising Liu Bei against Liu ZhangEdit

Pang Tong outlined three plans for Liu Bei to choose from:

  • The upper plan: Select the best soldiers to form an elite force and advance quickly towards Chengdu, and force Liu Zhang to surrender and hand over Yi Province. Pang Tong also believed that Liu Zhang was not competent in military affairs and was unprepared, so the chances of success were high. Pang Tong considered this to be the best plan.
  • The middle plan: Knowing that Yang Huai (楊懷) and Gao Pei (高沛) were famous generals who led strong troops defending Guantou, and that in the past they had advised Liu Zhang to send Liu Bei back to Jing Province. Before the army advances, spread false news that Liu Bei was returning to Jing Province saying that the region was in danger and that Liu Bei need to rescue it while making it look like the army will leave. With Liu Bei's reputation and wanting to see him leave, they would certainly come see him off with light cavalry away from the fortified mountain passes they were defending, kill them and take control of their positions and troops, and finally advance towards Chengdu.
  • The lower plan: Retreat to Baidicheng and wait for another opportunity to attack. Pang Tong considered this to be the worst plan.

Pang Tong told Liu Bei that if he took too much time and didn't go then he would be in great danger and couldn't last.[19] Liu Bei chose the middle plan and executed it – he killed Yang Huai and Gao Pei, led his forces towards Chengdu and conquered several of Liu Zhang's territories along the way.[20]

Disagreement over Liu Bei's behavior during the campaignEdit

When Liu Bei expressed joy during a banquet in Fu County to celebrate his success saying that today should be a merry day, Pang Tong chided him, saying that "celebrating the invasion of others' territory isn't what a man of ren (benevolence) should do". The drunk Liu Bei retorted angrily, "King Wu of Zhou also rejoiced after his victory over King Zhou of Shang. Is he not an example of a man of ren? You're wrong, so get out now!"[21] After Pang Tong left, Liu Bei regretted what he said so he invited Pang back. Pang Tong returned to his seat and did not say anything, acting as usual, so Liu Bei asked, "When that quarrel happened just now, whose fault do you think it was?" Pang Tong replied, "It was both yours and mine." Liu Bei laughed and the banquet continued.[22]

Xi Zuochi commented on this event and said :

“When one is acting as a warlord, he must first observe benevolence and righteousness in each of his actions, consider faith and justice as his model; if one of those is not respected than the way isn't the right one. Now Liu Bei attacked and seized the lands of Liu Zhang, using strength to serve his entreprise and turning his back on the faith and trust of others and violating virtue and righteousness in his process. Although by this choice, he prospered. He should have greatly grieved for his defeated enemies. Like breaking a hand to preserve a body, what joy there is to find? Pang Tong feared this conversation would be leaked and that his lord would see he was in the wrong so in front of everyone corrected his error and did not act his usual modest way being rectifying his lord's mistake while being truthful and loyal. A superior who can correct his mistakes will have followers while achieving success. With many followers, one may be able to achieve great entreprise. If he follows reason, he will have his goal realized. With one speech, three goods were illuminated while with one remonstrance hundred of generations followed righteousness, this can be used as an example. If one tries to change his faults while he doesn't focus his attention on his qualities, understand his faults, will itself be honest and loyal, those would be able to complete great entreprise and achieve their affairs, there has never been such before.”[23]

Pei Songzhi added :

“Although the plan to attack Liu Zhang came from Pang Tong, it violated righteousness to accomplish the desired goal and so was at his root deceptive knowing this Pang Tong felt guilty and restrained himself from happy feelings. Hence when he heard Liu Bei speak about being merry he acted unconsciously frank and answered as such. Liu Bei at this feast drank too much and was happy at another's misfortune comparing himself to King Wu of Zhou without any shame. This was Liu Bei being at fault while Pang Tong wasn't. His statement that both of them were in the wrong was to avoid conflict. In this discussion though Master Xi Zuochi's purpose isn't wrong, the implication of those words have digressed.”[24]


Pang Tong memorial hall and tomb in Luojiang

Pang Tong later participated in a battle against Liu Zhang's forces at Luo County (雒縣; north of present-day Guanghan, Sichuan). He died after being hit by a stray arrow in the midst of battle. He was 36 years old (by East Asian age reckoning) at the time of his death. Liu Bei was deeply saddened by Pang Tong's death and he would weep whenever Pang Tong was mentioned. Pang Tong was posthumously made a Secondary Marquis (關內侯) after Liu Bei became emperor and established the state of Shu Han in 221.[25] In October or November 260, Liu Bei's son and successor, Liu Shan, honoured Pang Tong with the posthumous title "Marquis Jing" (靖侯).[26]

Liu Bei had a shrine and tomb constructed for Pang Tong near Luo County. The shrine and tomb is located in present-day Baimaguan Town (白馬關鎮), Luojiang County, Sichuan. On 25 May 2006, it became a Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level.[27]

Family and descendantsEdit

After Pang Tong's death, Liu Bei appointed Pang's father – whose name was not recorded in history – as a Consultant (議郎) and later promoted him to a Counsellor Remonstrant (諫議大夫).[28]

Pang Tong had a younger brother, Pang Lin (龐林), who served as an Assistant Officer in Jing Province's Headquarters Office (荊州治中從事). He participated in the Battle of Xiaoting in 221–222 alongside the general Huang Quan and was in charge of defending the northern flank from possible attacks by Shu's rival state, Wei. After Liu Bei lost to Sun Quan's general Lu Xun at the Battle of Xiaoting, Pang Lin and Huang Quan were separated from Liu Bei's remaining forces and could not return to Shu, so they brought along their troops and surrendered to Wei. Pang Lin served as the Administrator (太守) of Julu Commandery (鉅鹿郡) in Wei and received a marquis title.[29]

Pang Lin's wife was the sister of Xi Zhen, In 208, she was separated from Pang Lin when the warlord Cao Cao invaded Jing Province and occupied Xiangyang. She only managed to reunite with Pang Lin in 222 when he and Huang Quan defected to Wei after the Battle of Xiaoting. During those 14 years of separation, she remained faithful to her husband and raised their daughter on her own. The Wei emperor Cao Pi praised her for her virtues and awarded her gifts.[30]

Pang Tong had a son, Pang Hong (龐宏), whose courtesy name was Jushi (巨師). Pang Hong, who served in the Shu government, was known for being frugal, upright and outspoken. He offended Chen Di (陳袛), the Prefect of the Masters of Writing (尚書令). Chen Di found fault with Pang Hong and blocked him from getting promoted. He died in office while serving as the Administrator (太守) of Fuling Commandery (涪陵郡).[31]


Chen Shou, who wrote Pang Tong's biography in the Sanguozhi, appraised Pang as follows: "Pang Tong was charming and was good associating with others, he diligently studied the classics and pondered many strategies for his lord. During his time, people from Jing and Yi provinces thought he was an exceptional talent. In comparison with officials from (Cao) Wei, if Pang Tong was akin to Xun Yu and Xun You then Fa Zheng should be comparable to Cheng (Yu) and Guo (Jia).[32]

In Romance of the Three KingdomsEdit

Pang Tong appears as a character in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which romanticises the historical events before and during the Three Kingdoms period. In the novel, Pang Tong is portrayed as a brilliant military strategist who equals Zhuge Liang. Sima Hui recommends Pang Tong and Zhuge Liang as talents to aid Liu Bei by saying, "Hidden Dragon and Young Phoenix. If you can get either of them, you'll be able to pacify the empire."[33]

In Chapter 47, before the Battle of Red Cliffs, Jiang Gan recommends Pang Tong to Cao Cao. Pang Tong presents a "chain links strategy" (連環計) to Cao. The plan involves linking Cao Cao's battleships together with strong iron chains to make the ships more stable when they were sailing, as well as to reduce the chances of Cao's soldiers falling seasick due to excessive rocking. This leads to Cao Cao's defeat as his battleships are unable to separate from each other during the fire attack, and when one ship is set aflame, the other ships linked to it catch fire as well.[34]

Pang Tong's death during the war between Liu Bei and Liu Zhang is highly dramatised in Chapter 63. At the outset of the battle at Luo County, before Liu Bei and Pang Tong split forces for a two-pronged attack, Pang Tong's horse rears and throws him off its back. This is seen as a bad omen. Liu Bei then let Pang Tong borrow his famous steed, Dilu (的盧). However, Dilu is believed to bring bad luck to its rider despite having saved Liu Bei's life earlier. Liu Zhang's general Zhang Ren, who plans an ambush near Luo County, recognises Dilu and mistakes its rider to be Liu Bei, so he orders his archers to fire at the rider. Pang Tong is hit by several arrows which pierce through his body and he dies on the spot. His place of death is called "Valley of the Fallen Phoenix".[35]

In popular cultureEdit

Pang Tong is featured as a playable character in Koei's Dynasty Warriors, Warriors Orochi and Dynasty Tactics video game series.

In Koihime Musou, Pang Tong appears as a shy and reserved young girl called Hinari Shigen Houtou. First appearing in episode 10 of Shin Koihime Musou, Hinari lives with Zhuge Liang / Shuri Koumei Shokatsuryou teacher.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Pang Tong's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that he died at the age of 36 (by East Asian age reckoning) in 214. By calculation, his year of birth should be around 179.


  1. ^ de Crespigny (2007), p. 689.
  2. ^ (...襄陽人也。少時樸鈍,未有識者。潁川司馬徽清雅有知人鑒,統弱冠往見徽,徽採桑於樹上,坐統在樹下,共語自晝至夜。徽甚異之,稱統當為南州士之冠冕,由是漸顯。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  3. ^ (襄陽記曰:諸葛孔明為卧龍,龐士元為鳳雛,司馬德操為水鏡,皆龐德公語也。) Xiangyang Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  4. ^ (德公,襄陽人。孔明每至其家,獨拜床下,德公初不令止。德操嘗造德公,值其渡沔,上祀先人墓,德操徑入其室,呼德公妻子,使速作黍,「徐元直向云有客當來就我與龐公譚。」其妻子皆羅列拜於堂下,奔走供設。須臾,德公還,直入相就,不知何者是客也。德操年小德公十歲,兄事之,呼作龐公,故世人遂謂龐公是德公名,非也。) Xiangyang Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  5. ^ (德公子山民,亦有令名,娶諸葛孔明小姊,為魏黃門吏部郎,早卒。子渙,字世文,晉太康中為牂牁太守。統,德公從子也,少未有識者,惟德公重之,年十八,使往見德操。德操與語,既而歎曰:「德公誠知人,此實盛德也。」) Xiangyang Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  6. ^ (性好人倫,勤於長養。每所稱述,多過其才,) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  7. ^ (時人怪而問之,統答曰:「當今天下大亂,雅道陵遲,善人少而惡人多。方欲興風俗,長道業,不美其譚即聲名不足慕企,不足慕企而為善者少矣。今拔十失五,猶得其半,而可以崇邁世教,使有志者自勵,不亦可乎?」) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  8. ^ (吳將周瑜助先主取荊州,因領南郡太守。瑜卒,統送喪至吳,吳人多聞其名。及當西還,並會昌門,陸勣、顧劭、全琮皆往。統曰:「陸子可謂駑馬有逸足之力,顧子可謂駑牛能負重致遠也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  9. ^ (謂全琮曰:「卿好施慕名,有似汝南樊子昭。雖智力不多,亦一時之佳也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  10. ^ (張勃吳錄曰:或問統曰:「如所目,陸子為勝乎?」統曰:「駑馬雖精,所致一人耳。駑牛一日行三百里,所致豈一人之重哉!」劭就統宿,語,因問:「卿名知人,吾與卿孰愈?」統曰:「陶冶世俗,甄綜人物,吾不及卿;論帝王之秘策,攬倚伏之要最,吾似有一日之長。」劭安其言而親之。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  11. ^ (績、劭謂統曰:「使天下太平,當與卿共料四海之士。」深與統相結而還。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  12. ^ (先主領荊州,統以從事守耒陽令,在縣不治,免官。吳將魯肅遺先主書曰:「龐士元非百里才也,使處治中、別駕之任,始當展其驥足耳。」諸葛亮亦言之於先主,先主見與善譚,大器之,以為治中從事。親待亞於諸葛亮,遂與亮並為軍師中郎將。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  13. ^ (江表傳曰:先主與統從容宴語,問曰:「卿為周公瑾功曹,孤到吳,聞此人密有白事,勸仲謀相留,有之乎?在君為君,卿其無隱。」統對曰:「有之。」備歎息曰:「孤時危急,當有所求,故不得不往,殆不免周瑜之手!天下智謀之士,所見略同耳。時孔明諫孤莫行,其意獨篤,亦慮此也。孤以仲謀所防在北,當賴孤為援,故決意不疑。此誠出於險塗,非萬全之計也。」) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  14. ^ (九州春秋曰:統說備曰:「荊州荒殘,人物殫盡,東有吳孫,北有曹氏,鼎足之計,難以得志。今益州國富民彊,戶口百萬,四部兵馬,所出必具,寶貨無求於外,今可權借以定大事。」) Jiuzhou Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  15. ^ (備曰:「今指與吾為水火者,曹操也,操以急,吾以寬;操以暴,吾以仁;操以譎,吾以忠;每與操反,事乃可成耳。今以小故而失信義於天下者,吾所不取也。」) Jiuzhou Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  16. ^ (統曰:「權變之時,固非一道所能定也。兼弱攻昧,五伯之事。逆取順守,報之以義,事定之後,封以大國,何負於信?今日不取,終為人利耳。」備遂行。) Jiuzhou Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  17. ^ (亮留鎮荊州。統隨從入蜀。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  18. ^ (益州牧劉璋與先主會涪,統進策曰:「今因此會,便可執之,則將軍無用兵之勞,而坐定一州也。」先主曰:「初入他國,恩信未著,此不可也。」璋旣還成都,先主當為璋北征漢中,...) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  19. ^ (璋既還成都,先主當為璋北征漢中,統復說曰:「陰選精兵,晝夜兼道,徑襲成都;璋既不武,又素無預備,大軍卒至,一舉便定,此上計也。楊懷、高沛,璋之名將,各仗彊兵,據守關頭,聞數有牋諫璋,使發遣將軍還荊州。將軍未至,遣與相聞,說荊州有急,欲還救之,並使裝束,外作歸形;此二子既服將軍英名,又喜將軍之去,計必乘輕騎來見,將軍因此執之,進取其兵,乃向成都,此中計也。退還白帝,連引荊州,徐還圖之,此下計也。若沈吟不去,將致大因,不可久矣。」) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  20. ^ (先主然其中計,即斬懷、沛,還向成都,所過輒克) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  21. ^ (先主然其中計,即斬懷、沛,還向成都,所過輒克。於涪大會,置酒作樂,謂統曰:「今日之會,可謂樂矣。」統曰:「伐人之國而以為歡,非仁者之兵也。」先主醉,怒曰:「武王伐紂,前歌後舞,非仁者邪?卿言不當,宜速起出!」於是統逡巡引退。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  22. ^ (先主尋悔,請還。統復故位,初不顧謝,飲食自若。先主謂曰:「向者之論,阿誰為失?」統對曰:「君臣俱失。」先主大笑,宴樂如初) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  23. ^ (習鑿齒曰:夫霸王者,必體仁義以為本,仗信順以為宗,一物不具,則其道乖矣。今劉備襲奪璋土,權以濟業,負信違情,德義俱愆,雖功由是隆,宜大傷其敗,譬斷手全軀,何樂之有?龐統懼斯言之泄宣,知其君之必悟,故眾中匡其失,而不脩常謙之道,矯然太當,盡其蹇諤之風。夫上失而能正,是有臣也,納勝而無執,是從理也;有臣則陛隆堂高,從理則群策畢舉;一言而三善兼明,暫諫而義彰百代,可謂達乎大體矣。若惜其小失而廢其大益,矜此過言,自絕遠讜,能成業濟務者,未之有也。) Xi Zuochi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  24. ^ (臣松之以為謀襲劉璋,計雖出於統,然違義成功,本由詭道,心既內疚,則歡情自戢,故聞備稱樂之言,不覺率爾而對也。備宴酣失時,事同樂禍,自比武王,曾無愧色,此備有非而統無失,其云「君臣俱失」,蓋分謗之言耳。習氏所論,雖大旨無乖,然推演之辭,近為流宕也。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  25. ^ (進圍雒縣,統率衆攻城,為流矢所中,卒,時年三十六。先主痛惜,言則流涕。 ... 追賜統爵關內侯,謚曰靖侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  26. ^ ([景耀]三年秋九月,追謚故將軍關羽、張飛、馬超、龐統、黃忠。) Sanguozhi vol. 33.
  27. ^ 昭化古城001 [Zhaohua Gucheng 001] (4 June 2014). "庞统祠墓 [Pang Tong Shrine and Tomb]". (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  28. ^ (拜統父議郎,遷諫議大夫,諸葛亮親為之拜。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  29. ^ (統弟林,以荊州治中從事參鎮北將軍黃權征吳,值軍敗,隨權入魏,魏封列侯,至鉅鹿太守。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  30. ^ (襄陽記云:[龐]林婦,同郡習禎姉。禎事在楊戲輔臣贊。曹公之破荊州,林婦與林分隔,守養弱女十有餘年,後林隨黃權降魏,始復集聚。魏文帝聞而賢之,賜牀帳衣服,以顯其義節。) Xiangyang Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  31. ^ (統子宏,字巨師,剛簡有臧否,輕傲尚書令陳袛,為袛所抑,卒於涪陵太守。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  32. ^ (評曰:龐統雅好人流,經學思謀,於時荊楚謂之高俊。...儗之魏臣,統其荀彧之仲叔,正其) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  33. ^ Sanguo Yanyi ch. 35.
  34. ^ Sanguo Yanyi ch. 47-50.
  35. ^ Sanguo Yanyi ch. 63.

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