Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province

Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province was a military campaign by the warlord Liu Bei in taking control of Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) from the provincial governor, Liu Zhang. The campaign took place between the years 211 and 214 in the late Eastern Han dynasty; although the conflict between Liu Bei and Liu Zhang started in late 212 when the latter discovered the former secret communications and subsequently executed Zhang Song. It concluded with victory for Liu Bei and his successful takeover of the province from Liu Zhang. Yi Province would serve as the foundation of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period.

Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province
Part of the wars at the end of the Han dynasty
DateWinter 212[1] – Summer 214[2]
Location
Yi Province (present-day Sichuan and Chongqing), China
Result Liu Bei victory
Belligerents
Liu Bei Liu Zhang
Commanders and leaders
Liu Bei Liu Zhang Surrendered
Strength
More than 30 000 soldiers under Liu Bei[3]
Unknown number of reinforcement by Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun and Zhuge Liang[4]
At least 30 000 soldiers defending Chengdu[5]
Unknown number of troops under the different commanders of the region[a]
Casualties and losses
Unknown[b] Unknown
Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province
Traditional Chinese劉備爭奪益州之戰
Simplified Chinese刘备争夺益州之战

BackgroundEdit

After the Battle of Red Cliffs, Sun Quan invited Liu Bei to take Yi Province with him, but the latter strongly rebutted the former, saying: "if you're going to conquer the land of Shu, I will loosen my hair and become a hermit in the deep hills. Earth under Heaven can hear my promise, and I'll live up to my words!"[8] Believing Liu Bei, Sun Quan aborted his plan; however, Liu Bei was actually trying to take Yi Province for himself and negotiated Yiling County and Nan Commandery from Sun Quan.[c] In 211, Liu Zhang, the Governor of Yi Province, heard that Cao Cao was planning to attack Zhang Lu in Hanzhong Commandery. As Hanzhong Commandery was a strategic location and the "gateway" into Yi Province, Liu Zhang sent Fa Zheng to form an alliance with Liu Bei after Zhang Song convinced him to do so. Liu Bei then led his men to Yi Province under the pretence of helping Liu Zhang conquer Hanzhong Commandery.[9]

The campaignEdit

Takeover of JiamengEdit

In 211, Liu Bei led an expedition force of tens of thousands of soldiers into Yi Province after leaving behind Zhuge Liang, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei and Zhao Yun to guard Jing Province.[10] When Liu Bei entered Yi province, it was as if he was returning home. When he arrived at Fu County (涪縣; in present-day Fuling District, Chongqing) Liu Zhang led 30 000 soldiers into flambloyant display to welcome Liu Bei warmly; it was the occasion of a great meeting where they feasted for more than 100 days. Liu Zhang provided Liu Bei with more provisions and equipment for his army before they parted ways.[11]

During this meeting; Fa Zheng told Liu Bei that Zhang Song along with Pang Tong wanted to use this opportunity to capture Liu Zhang and force him to hand over Yi Province to Liu Bei however Liu Bei didn't follow this plan because he felt that the plan was too hasty and that he should first win the hearts of the people of Yi province.[12] Many of Liu Zhang's retainers protested against his decision to invite Liu Bei into the Yi province. Among them were Liu Ba[13] and Huang Quan[14] with Wang Lei (王累) committing suicide.[15] Yan Yan famously remarked that Liu Zhang's decision was the equivalent of setting a tiger free to defend himself.[16]

Liu Bei's army totalled more than 30,000 soldiers, all well equipped along with many supplies. They headed to Jiameng Pass (southwest of present-day Guangyuan, Sichuan) at the border between Liu Zhang and Zhang Lu's territories. However, instead of engaging Zhang Lu, Liu Bei halted his advance and focused on building up connections and gaining influence around the area in preparation for his takeover of Yi Province. Since he was kind and virtuous, many among the masses soon joined him.[17] Among them was an eccentric man named Peng Yang (Han dynasty), he quickly became friend with Pang Tong and under his recommendation along with Fa Zheng's support joined Liu Bei's staff; he revealed himself a highly talented military instructor and became even more favoured by Liu Bei.[18]

Next year in 212, Liu Bei send a letter to Liu Zhang where he told him that he needed more troops to divert Cao Cao's attention away from the east (where Sun Quan was under attack and asked for his help) and support Guan Yu against Yue Jin in Jing Province; he also mentioned that Zhang Lu was only looking to preserve his state and wouldn't engage into aggressive actions. Therefore, he requested for another 10,000 soldiers and additional provisions to aid in the defense of Jing Province. Liu Zhang gave him 40% of the troops and half of the others he asked for. When he saw that Liu Zhang didn't fulfill his demands, Liu Bei rallied his men and asked them how Liu Zhang could expect them to risk their lives for him when he accumulated wealth while being picky about the distribution of their reward.[19][20]

When Fa Zheng, Zhang Song and Meng Da heard that there were discussion about Liu Bei leaving to defend Jing province, they pressed Liu Bei to stay into Yi province. Soon, Zhang Su (張肅), Zhang Song's brother, discovered his brother's secret communications with Liu Bei, feared that he would be victim if it failed and reported the issue to Liu Zhang. Liu Zhang was furious and stunned when he heard that Zhang Song had been helping Liu Bei to plot against him; he executed Zhang Song and ordered his military officers guarding the passes to Chengdu to keep secret his knowledge of Liu Bei's intention.[21]

When Wei officials heard about the starting conflict between Liu Bei and Liu Zhang, there were discussions about who would overcome the other. Zhao Jian (趙戩) believed that Liu Bei didn't have the talent to accomplish such a task glossing over his past failures and highlighting the Yi province natural defences making it easy to defend and a arduous mission to conquer it. However Fu Gan (傅幹) argued that: "Liu Bei is benevolent and tolerant and his men are willing to give their lives in his service. Zhuge Liang is a perspicacious administrator who quickly grasp the changing situations. He is honorable, talented in planning and work as his chancellor. Zhang Fei and Guan Yu are brave and also possess righteousness. Both of them are known as warriors who are a match for ten thousand men (萬人敵) and are his commanders. These three men are heroes. Knowing of Liu Bei's awareness along with those three heroes assisting him. How he could not succeed?"[22]

Early SuccessEdit

However from secret communications, Liu Bei still heard about what happened to Zhang Song. Fa Zheng and Meng Da found a way to defect to Liu Bei's side before Yang Huai (楊懷) and Gao Pei (高沛), Liu Zhang's subordinates guarding Boshui Pass, knew about Liu Bei's true motive. Now, there was no other choice than to conquer Yi Province. Pang Tong outlined three plans for Liu Bei to choose from: The first was to advance swiftly to seize Chengdu, the capital of Yi Province, from Liu Zhang. The second was to take command of Liu Zhang's armies in the north and then move to capture Chengdu. The third one was to return to Baidicheng to await further action.[23]

Liu Bei chose the second option and lured Yang Huai and Gao Pei into a trap and executed them under the pretense of behaving disrespectfully towards him.[24] Wei Yan at this time, just began to serve under Liu Bei and was appointed as a bodyguard in his retinue; he made numerous achievements in several battles.[25] When they learned of Liu Bei's attack, Zheng Du (鄭度) suggested to Liu Zhang a scorched earth policy by forcing the civilians of Baxi (巴西) and Zitong (梓潼) commanderies to relocate elsewhere and destroy all the suppliers depots in the commanderies. His basic for his plan was that Liu Bei's army was low on supplies and composed of new recruits who may not be loyal to him (this statement was proven truth when Lu Dai reported that many of Liu Bei's men deserted). Following this strategy along with a solid defence into the fortress while refusing any engagement in open battles would force Liu Bei to retreat and allow Liu Zhang to launch a counter attack. Liu Bei felt greatly disturbed when he learned about their plan however Fa Zheng reassured him that Liu Zhang would never follow this plan. Indeed he was proven right as Liu Zhang refused to use his plan and told his subordinates: "I have heard of fighting the enemy to save the people; not of disrupting the people to avoid the enemy." Furthermore he removed Zheng Du from office.[26]

Finally, Liu Bei had Huang Zhong and Zhuo Ying (卓應) lead his soldiers against Liu Zhang.[27] During this campaign, Huang Zhong would show great martial skills and was always the first to break the ennemy's formations.[28] When he entered the different passes; he took the commanders as hostage along with their family, wives and children. Then, he took command of their troops, led his army along with Huang Zhong and Zhuo Ying to attack Fu County (涪縣; present-day Mianyang, Sichuan) and occupied the city.[29]

Following those success, Liu Bei organized a banquet where he expressed his great joy having conquered all the passes. He said to Pang Tong that today is an auspicious day. However Pang Tong answered that celebrating warfare isn't what a benevolent man should do. Liu Bei was angry at his response and told him that he should leave. Liu Bei came to regret his actions and asked for Pang Tong to rejoin him. Pang Tong then drank and eat as before, when Liu Bei asked him who was in the wrong previously, he answered both of them. Liu Bei greatly laughed and feasted as before.[30]

In the spring of 213, Liu Zhang sent Liu Gui (劉璝), Leng Bao (冷苞), Zhang Ren, Deng Xian (鄧賢), Wu Yi along with other officers to stop him at Fu. However all of them were defeated and had to retreat to Mianzhu. They were either killed or captured by Liu Bei's forces.[31] Despite being the most trusted vassal of Liu Zhang, Wu Yi soon changed allegiance.[32] Li Yan and Fei Guan were also sent to help them at Mianzhu, but they surrendered to Liu Bei as well. With each victories, Liu Bei's army became stronger therefore he could dispatch commanders to pacify the other commanderies.[33] After he conquered Mianzhu, Ma Liang's brother Ma Su who accompanied him was left in charge to act as his Prefect (令).[34]

While Liu Bei led his army deeper into Yi province, Huo Jun was left in charge of the defence of Jiameng pass; a strategic point between Liu Zhang and Zhang Lu's territories. Zhang Lu wanted to use this opportunity to conquer Jiameng and had Yang Bo (楊帛) sent to deceive Huo Jun into opening the gate however Huo Jun saw through this and told him that they could take his head; never the fortress. Yang Bo could only withdrew his troops. After this, Liu Zhang's generals Fu Jin (扶禁), Xiang Cun (向存) and others led an army of more than 10 000 soldiers and attacked his position. Even if he only disposed of just a few hundred men; Huo Jun stalwart defence allowed him to resist their assault. After a siege that lasted one year, discipline within Liu Zhang's army was low. Huo Jun used this opportunity and selected his best soldiers to lead a sortie; he inflicted them a heavy defeat beheading Xiang Cun during the battle.[35]

Defence of Luo CountyEdit

Liu Zhang's eldest son, Liu Xun (劉循), took command of the remnants and retreated to Luo County (雒縣; north of present-day Guanghan, Sichuan) to join forces with Zhang Ren.[36] Zhang Ren, attempted to break the siege by leading his men onto the Wild Goose Bridge and charging Liu Bei's forces, but he was defeated and captured. His loyalty and bravery were well known, so Liu Bei ordered his army to force the captive into submission. However, Zhang Ren said, "A loyal subject will never serve two masters!" Liu Bei lamented his determination and had him executed.[37] While they besieged Luo county, Fa Zheng wrote to Liu Zhang a letter to convince him to surrender however it Liu Zhang ignored it.[38] Liu Bei ordered his troops to surround Luo County and sent his adviser Pang Tong to lead a major assault on the castle. However, the defenders fought back with projectiles and Pang Tong was killed by a stray arrow.[39]

Thus following Pang Tong's death, the siege became a prolonged one that lasted nearly a year. During this time, Lu Dai met Liu Bei who reported to Sun Quan that his army was in disarray and since they were stuck into a lasting siege inside an hostile territory many of his soldiers also deserted. Lu Dai himself believed Liu Bei would fall to conquer Yi province against Wu Fan's opinion, another Wu official.[40]

Such a situation forced Liu Bei to call forth reinforcements from Jing Province. Zhang Fei led an army from Jing Province to attack Jiangzhou (in present-day Chongqing), where he captured an enemy officer, Yan Yan. Facing Zhang Fei's insults, Yan Yan condemned him for invading Yi Province. Yan Yan was originally ordered to be executed by the angry Zhang Fei, but his fearlessness of death impressed Zhang, who pardoned the captive's life. Following the Dian River (垫江), Zhang Fei broke through a thin defence line, guarded by an enemy major, and rendezvoused with Liu Bei.[41] Zhang Fei also defeated another army along the way sent by Liu Zhang and led by Zhang Yi to intercept Liu Bei's reinforcement at Deyang; thereafter, he could lead his army to Chengdu.[42] During this campaign, Liu Bei's adopted son; Liu Feng followed the reinforcement army. He was just more than 20 but he impressed many with his martial skills and extraordinary strength.[43] Zhao Yun and Zhuge Liang also conquered the surrounding counties and commanderies in the area before their arrival from another route.[44]

Fall of ChengduEdit

After a siege of near one year; Luo County finally fell.[45] Liu Bei then surrounded Chengdu with the other armies[46][47] Ma Chao, a former Liang Province warlord and a vassal of Zhang Lu was hated by Zhang Lu's subordinate Yang Bai (楊柏) along with others who were jealous of his ability and wanted to harm him therefore Ma Chao wanted to use this opportunity to join Liu Bei.[48] Liu Bei was pleased to hear this and exclaimed "Yi province is mine."[49] He had Li Hui that recently joined him when he was at Mianzhu welcome Ma Chao and provided him soldiers and supplies to besiege the city.[50][51] Upon seeing Ma Chao's army to the north of Chengdu, the citizens inside the city were terrified and within 10 days following his arrival, Liu Zhang promptly surrender.[52][53] Moreover, the morale of Liu Zhang's army was at an all-time low and only a few of his generals such as Huang Quan wouldn't yield to Liu Bei and keep their defenses intact.[54]

After a siege that lasted several weeks, Liu Bei decided to send his longtime adviser, Jian Yong, whom Liu Zhang was already fond of before the war broke out, to speak to Liu Zhang. Jian Yong managed to convince Liu Zhang to surrender.[55] Thus, Liu Zhang opened Chengdu's gates and surrendered to Liu Bei; at this time the city still possessed 30 000 soldiers along with enough supplies for a year; many among the officials and people wanted to fight to death however Liu Zhang refused stating that he didn't want to see further bloodshed; everyone inside the city wept for his sacrifice.[56] Liu Bei then succeeded Liu Zhang as Governor of Yi Province, and he conferred on the latter the seal and tassel of General of Vehement Might (奮威將軍) before expatriating him and Liu Chan to Gong'an County in Jing province.[57]

Since the Yi Province was prosperous, Liu Bei was able to start a great banquet. He used the gold and silver recently won to reward his soldiers and commanders; moreover he gave grain and silk to the common people.[58] After he assumed the position of Governor of Yi Province, he promoted his followers, new and old to higher ranks; even those recently employed by Liu Zhang such as Dong He, Huang Quan and Li Yan or related to him by marriage such as Fei Guan and Wu Yi. All of them were put into position of power to make use of their talent. Among the elite with talent; there were none who did not compete for Liu Bei's attention.[59] Then, he married Wu Yi's sister in an attempt to solidify his control on the newly conquered domain.[60] Moreover a new code of law was applied to Yi Province called the Shu Ke (蜀科) formulated by Liu Bei's followers, Zhuge Liang and Yi Ji along with recently retainers of Liu Zhang; Fa Zheng, Li Yan and Liu Ba.[61] According to Zhuge Liang's biography; although the new code of law was strict nobody complained because he was fair.[62]

AftermathEdit

Upon hearing Liu Bei had taken Yi Province, Sun Quan sent envoys to ask him for the return of the commanderies in Jing Province, but Liu Bei said: "Jing Province will be returned after I take Liang Province." Sun Quan was furious when his envoy reported Liu Bei's words, and he sent Lü Meng and Ling Tong with another four officers to retake southern Jing Province. After Lü Meng and his colleagues captured three commanderies, Liu Bei returned to Gong'an County and prepared to seize back the three commanderies by force. However, he eventually arrived at a border treaty with Sun Quan when he heard Cao Cao was planning to attack Hanzhong Commandery.[63]

Order of battleEdit

In popular cultureEdit

The campaign is featured as one of the playable stages in Koei's video game series Dynasty Warriors. In the game, all the battles in the campaign were aptly summed up in one single battle, called the "Battle of Chengdu", although technically, there was no battle fought at Chengdu at all in the campaign. In Dynasty Warriors 3 and 4, Liu Zhang's surrender is optional and often a special requirement for certain unlockable items. The concept was removed in Dynasty Warriors 5 and Liu Zhang surrenders immediately after his defeat. In Dynasty Warriors 6, the battle is renamed to "Pacification of Chengdu" and the geographical design of the stage has changed but the events remain almost the same. In Dynasty Warriors 7, the campaign is split into two battles with the Battle of Luo Castle and battle of Chengdu. Battle of Luo Castle has Liu Xun as commander of Liu Zhang's forces and Pang Tong as commander of Liu Bei's forces. The battle serves as Pang's only appearance in Story Mode. The Battle of Chengdu follows Lou Castle with Zhuge Liang as commander after Pang's death.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Although, we know from Huo Jun's biography that Fu Jin (扶禁) and Xiang Cun (向存) when they attacked him could field more than 10 000 soldiers.[6]
  2. ^ Although, we know from Wu Fan's biography that when Lu Dai met Liu Bei's army, he had lost half of his army due to the fighting and desertion.[7]
  3. ^ Yiling was an entrance to Yi Province from Jing Province (covering present-day Hubei and Hunan).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sima (1084), vol. 66.
  2. ^ a b c Sima (1084), vol. 67.
  3. ^ (先主並軍三萬餘人,車甲器械資貨甚盛。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  4. ^ (諸葛亮、張飛、趙雲等將兵溯流定白帝、江州、江陽,惟關羽留鎮荊州。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  5. ^ (城中尚有精兵三萬人,谷帛支一年,) Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  6. ^ (後璋將扶禁、向存等帥萬餘人由閬水上,攻圍峻,) Sanguozhi vol. 41.
  7. ^ (後呂岱從蜀還,遇之白帝,說備部眾離落,死亡且半,) Sanguozhi vol. 63.
  8. ^ ((孫權)遣孫瑜率水軍住夏口。備不聽軍過,謂瑜曰:「汝欲取蜀,吾當被發入山,不失信於天下也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  9. ^ (十六年,益州牧劉璋遙聞曹公將遣鍾繇等向漢中討張魯,內懷恐懼。別駕從事蜀郡張松說璋曰:「曹公兵強無敵於天下,若因張魯之資以取蜀土,誰能御之者乎?」璋曰:「吾固憂之而未有計。」松曰:「劉豫州,使君之宗室而曹公之深讎也,善用兵,若使之討魯,魯必破。魯破,則益州強,曹公雖來,無能為也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  10. ^ (先主留諸葛亮、關羽等據荊州,將步卒數萬人入益州。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  11. ^ (敕在所供奉先主,先主入境如歸。先主至江州北,由墊江水 詣涪,去成都三百六十里,是歲建安十六年也。璋率步騎三萬馀人,車乘帳幔,精光曜日,往就與會;先主所將將士,更相之適,歡飲百馀日。璋資給先主,使討張魯,然後分別。 ) Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  12. ^ (至涪,璋自出迎,相見甚歡。張松令法正白先主,及謀臣龐統進說,便可於會所襲璋。先主曰:「此大事也,不可倉卒。」) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  13. ^ (璋遣法正迎劉備,巴諫曰:「備,雄人也,入必為害,不可內也。」既入,巴復諫曰:「若使備討張魯,是放虎於山林也。」璋不聽。巴閉門稱疾。) Lingling Xianxian Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 39.
  14. ^ (璋主簿黃權陳其利害,... 璋一無所納,敕在所供奉先主,先主入境如歸。) Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  15. ^ (從事廣漢王累自倒縣於州門以諫,) Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  16. ^ (初,先主入蜀,至巴郡,顏拊心歎曰:「此所謂獨坐窮山,放虎自衞也!」) Huayang Guo Zhi annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  17. ^ (先主並軍三萬餘人,車甲器械資貨甚盛。是歲,璋還成都。先主北到葭萌,未即討魯,厚樹恩德,以收眾心。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  18. ^ (統大善之,而法正宿自知羕,遂並致之先主。先主亦以為奇,數令羕宣傳軍事,指授諸將,奉使稱意,識遇日加。) Sanguozhi vol. 40.
  19. ^ (明年,曹公徵孫權,權呼先主自救。先主遣使告璋曰:「曹公徵吳,吳憂危急。孫氏與孤本為脣齒,又樂進在青泥與關羽相拒,今不往救羽,進必大克,轉侵州界,其憂有甚於魯。魯自守之賊,不足慮也。」乃從璋求萬兵及資(寶),欲以東行。璋但許兵四千,其餘皆給半。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  20. ^ (〈《魏書》曰:備因激怒其眾曰:「吾為益州徵強敵,師徒勤瘁,不遑寧居;今積帑藏之財而吝於賞功,望士大夫為出死力戰,其可得乎!」〉) Wei Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  21. ^ (張松書與先主及法正曰:「今大事垂可立,如何釋此去乎!」松兄廣漢太守肅,懼禍逮己,白璋發其謀。於是璋收斬松,嫌隙始構矣。 璋敕關戍諸將文書勿複關通先主。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  22. ^ (傅子曰:初,劉備襲蜀,丞相掾趙戩曰:“劉備其不濟乎?拙於用兵,每戰則敗,奔亡不暇,何以圖人?蜀雖小區,險固四塞,獨守之國,難卒並也。”徵士傅幹曰:“劉備寬仁有度,能得人死力。諸葛亮達治知變,正而有謀,而為之相;張飛、關羽勇而有義,皆萬人之敵,而為之將:此三人者,皆人傑也。以備之略,三傑佐之,何為不濟也?”) Fu Zi annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  23. ^ (璋既還成都,先主當為璋北征漢中,統復說曰:「陰選精兵,晝夜兼道,徑襲成都;璋既不武,又素無預備,大軍卒至,一舉便定,此上計也。楊懷、高沛,璋之名將,各仗彊兵,據守關頭,聞數有牋諫璋,使發遣將軍還荊州。將軍未至,遣與相聞,說荊州有急,欲還救之,並使裝束,外作歸形;此二子既服將軍英名,又喜將軍之去,計必乘輕騎來見,將軍因此執之,進取其兵,乃向成都,此中計也。退還白帝,連引荊州,徐還圖之,此下計也。若沈吟不去,將致大因,不可久矣。」) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  24. ^ (先主大怒,召璋白水軍督楊懷,責以無禮,斬之。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  25. ^ (以部曲隨先主入蜀,數有戰功,) Sanguozhi vol. 40.
  26. ^ (鄭度說璋曰:「左將軍縣軍襲我,兵不滿萬,士衆未附,野穀是資,軍無輜重。其計莫若盡驅巴西、梓潼民內涪水以西,其倉廩野穀一皆燒除,高壘深溝,靜以待之。彼至,請戰,勿許,乆無所資,不過百日,必將自走。走而擊之,則必禽耳。」先主聞而惡之,以問正。正曰:「終不能用,無可憂也。」璋果如正言,謂其羣下曰:「吾聞拒敵以安民,未聞動民以避敵也。」於是黜度,不用其計。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  27. ^ (乃使黃忠、卓膺勒兵向璋。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  28. ^ (自葭萌受任,還攻劉璋,忠常先登陷陣,勇毅冠三軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  29. ^ (先主徑至關中,質諸將並士卒妻子,引兵與忠、膺等進到涪,據其城。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  30. ^ (先主然其中計,即斬懷、沛,還向成都,所過輒克。於涪大會,置酒作樂,。。。先主大笑,宴樂如初。) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  31. ^ (璋遣劉跂、冷苞、張任、鄧賢等拒先主於涪,皆破敗,退保綿竹。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  32. ^ (劉璋時,為中郎將,將兵拒先主於涪,詣降。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.
  33. ^ (璋復遣李嚴督綿竹諸軍,嚴率眾降先主。先主軍益強,分遣諸將平下屬縣,) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  34. ^ (良弟謖,字幼常,以荊州從事隨先主入蜀,除綿竹) Sanguozhi vol. 39.
  35. ^ (先主自葭萌南還襲劉璋,留峻守葭萌城。張魯遣將楊帛誘峻,求共守城,峻曰:「小人頭可得,城不可得。」帛乃退去。後璋將扶禁、向存等帥萬餘人由閬水上,攻圍峻,且一年,不能下。峻城中兵纔數百人,伺其怠隙,選精銳出擊,大破之,即斬存首。) Sanguozhi vol. 41.
  36. ^ (進圍雒縣,) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  37. ^ (益部耆舊雜記曰:任勒兵出於雁橋,戰復敗。禽任。先主聞任之忠勇,令軍降之,任厲聲曰:「老臣終不復事二主矣。」乃殺之。先主嘆惜焉。) Yizhou Qijiu Zaji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  38. ^ (及軍圍雒城,正牋與璋曰:「正受性無術, ... 以保尊門。」) Sanguozhi vol. 37.
  39. ^ (統率眾攻城,為流矢所中,卒,時年三十六。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  40. ^ (及壬辰歲,範又白言:「歲在甲午,劉備當得益州。」權以難範,範曰:「臣所言者天道也,而岱所見者人事耳。」備卒得蜀。) Sanguozhi vol. 63.
  41. ^ (至江州,破璋將巴郡太守嚴顏,生獲顏。飛呵顏曰:「大軍至,何以不降,而敢拒戰?」顏荅曰:「卿等無狀,侵奪我州,我州但有斷頭將軍,無有降將軍也。」飛怒,令左右牽去斫頭,顏色不變,曰:「斫頭便斫頭,何為怒邪!」飛壯而釋之,引為賔客。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  42. ^ (張飛自荊州由墊江入,璋授裔兵,拒張飛於德陽陌下,軍敗,還成都。) Sanguozhi vol. 41.
  43. ^ (及先主入蜀,自葭萌還攻劉璋,時封年二十餘,有武藝,氣力過人,將兵俱與諸葛亮、張飛等泝流西上,所在戰克。) Sanguozhi vol. 40.
  44. ^ (先主自葭萌還攻劉璋,召諸葛亮。亮率雲與張飛等俱泝江西上,平定郡縣。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  45. ^ (十九年夏,雒城破) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  46. ^ (飛所過戰克,與先主會于成都。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  47. ^ (至江州,分遣雲從外水上江陽,與亮會于成都。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  48. ^ (又魯將楊白等欲害其能,超遂從武都逃入氐中, ...) Dianlue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  49. ^ (備聞超至,喜曰:「我得益州矣。」) Dianlue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  50. ^ (先主嘉之,從至雒城,遣恢至漢中交好馬超,超遂從命。) Sanguozhi vol. 43.
  51. ^ (先主遣人迎超,超將兵徑到城下。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  52. ^ (城中震怖,璋即稽首) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  53. ^ (超到,令引軍屯城北,超至未一旬而成都潰。) Dianlue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  54. ^ (及先主襲取益州,將帥分下郡縣,郡縣望風景附,權閉城堅守,須劉璋稽服,乃詣降先主。先主假權偏將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 43.
  55. ^ (先主入益州,劉璋見雍,甚愛之。後先主圍成都,遣雍往說璋,璋遂與雍同輿而載,出城歸命。) Sanguozhi vol. 38.
  56. ^ (城中尚有精兵三萬人,谷帛支一年,吏民咸欲死戰。璋言:「父子在州二十餘年,無恩德以加百姓。百姓攻戰三年,肌膏草野者,以璋故也,何心能安!」遂開城出降,群下莫不流涕。) Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  57. ^ (備遷璋於公安,歸其財寶,後以病卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  58. ^ (蜀中殷盛豐樂,先主置酒大饗士卒,取蜀城中金銀分賜將士,還其穀帛。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  59. ^ (先主復領益州牧,。。。皆處之顯任,盡其器能。有誌之士,無不競勸。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  60. ^ (納壹妹為夫人。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.
  61. ^ (與諸葛亮、法正、劉巴、李嚴共造蜀科;蜀科之制,由此五人焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 38.
  62. ^ (刑法政令虽然严厉,却没有人怨恨他,因为他用心公平而且劝戒明白。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  63. ^ (二十年,孫權以先主已得益州,使使報欲得荊州。先主言:「須得涼州,當以荊州相與。」權忿之,乃遣呂蒙襲奪長沙、零陵、桂陽三郡。先主引兵五萬下公安,令關羽入益陽。是歲,曹公定漢中,張魯遁走巴西。先主聞之,與權連和,分荊州、江夏、長沙、桂陽東屬,南郡、零陵、武陵西屬,引軍還江州。) Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  • Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
  • Chang Qu (4th century). Chronicles of Huayang (Huayang Guo Zhi).
  • Pei, Songzhi. Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
  • Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.