- /p, b/ are bilabial, whereas /f, v/ are labiodental.
- /ʒ/ is restricted to word-initial position, and occurs only in loanwords from French. It tends to either devoice to [ʃ] or be affricated to [d͡ʒ].
- /k, kʲ/ are velar.
- The exact place of articulation of /x, ɣ/ varies:
- Word-initial /x/ is restricted to the sequence /sx/.
- /h/ may be dropped by some speakers.
- /p, t, tʲ, k, kʲ, v, z/ may be affricated to [p͡ɸ, t͡s, t͡sʲ, k͡x, k͡xʲ, b͡v, d͡z]. Peters (2010) does not specify the environment(s) in which the affrication of /v/ and /z/ takes place. In the case of stops, it occurs in pre-pausal position.
- /v, z/ are realized as voiceless [v̥, z̥] when they occur between vowels, and often also in word-initial position (in which the devoicing may be only partial). /ɣ/ is devoiced in a similar manner.
- /m, β/ are bilabial.
- /n, l, r/ are alveolar.
- /n/ before /k/ is pronounced as follows:
- Word-final [nʲ] appears only in loanwords from French.
- /l/ tends to be velarized, especially postvocalically.
- /r/ has a few possible realizations:
- Apical trill [r] or an apical fricative [ɹ̝] before a stressed vowel in word-initial syllables.
- Intervocalically and in the onset after a consonant, it may be a tap [ɾ].
- Word-final /r/ is highly variable; the most frequent variants are an apical trill fricative [r̝], an apical fricative [ɹ̝] and an apical rhotic affricate [ɾ͡ɹ̝]. The last two variants tend to be voiceless ([ɹ̝̊, ɾ̥͡θ̠]) in pre-pausal position.
- The sequence /ər/ can be vocalized to [ɐ] or [ə].
- /ŋ/ is velar, whereas /j/ is palatal.
- /β, j/ appear only word-initially and intervocalically.
Final devoicing and assimilationEdit
Morpheme-final /p, t, k/ may be voiced if a voiced plosive or a vowel follows.
The Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect contains 18 monophthong and 12 diphthong phonemes. A notable feature of it are quite unusual contrasts between /eː, øː/, /ei, øy/ and /ɛɪ, œʏ/.
- The majority of the vowels (/iː, y, yː, uː, eː, øː, ə, o, oː, ɛː, œː/) are close to the canonical values of the corresponding IPA symbols.
- /y/ and /o/ occur only in few loanwords from French.
- /yː, uː, ɒː/ before /t, d/ within the same syllable may be realized as centering diphthongs [yə, uə, ɒə], often with a labial glide before the schwa [ywə, uwə, ɒwə]. Alternatively, in place of the schwa an unrounded variant of the first vowel may appear: [yi, uɯ, ɒɑ]. In the same environment, /øː/ can be realized as [øjə].
- /ɪ, ʏ, ʊ/ are phonetically near-close. /ʏ/ is close to the canonical value of ⟨ʏ⟩, yet /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ are more peripheral ([ɪ̟, ʊ̠]) than the canonical values of ⟨ɪ, ʊ⟩.
- /ɛ, œ/ are closer ([ɛ̝, œ̝]) than the canonical values of ⟨ɛ, œ⟩.
- /ɔ, ɒ, ɒː/ are closer ([ɔ̝, ɒ̝, ɒ̝ː] than the canonical values of ⟨ɔ, ɒ⟩.
- /ɔː/ appears only before /t, d/ and only as a phonetic centering diphthong [ɔə].
- /a, aː/, which are phonological back vowels, are central [ä, äː] phonetically.
- When stressed, short vowels cannot occur in open syllables. Exceptions to this rule are high-frequency words like [βa] 'what', and loanwords from French, such as [dəˈpo] 'depot'.
|Closing||uɪ ei øy ɛɪ œʏ əʊ ɞʊ aɪ aʊ|
|Centering||iə eə ɛə|
- The quality of most diphthongs (/uɪ, ei, øy, ɛɪ, œʏ, əʊ, ɞʊ/) is close to the canonical values of the IPA symbols used to transcribe them.
- The starting points of /aɪ, aʊ/ are near-open central [ɐ]. The ending points are [ɪ] and [ʊ], close to the canonical values of the IPA symbols used to transcribe them.
- The starting points of the centering diphthongs /iə, eə, ɛə/ are close to the canonical values of the IPA symbols used to transcribe them ([i, e, ɛ]), whereas their ending points are not fully central but centralized front; [ë] in the case of /iə/, [ë̞] in the case of /eə, ɛə/.
Stress location is largely the same as in Belgian Standard Dutch. In loanwords from French, the original word-final stress is often preserved, as in [kəˈdaʊ] 'cadeau'.
[də ˈnœrdərβ̞ɪnt ʔɛn də zɔn ˈʔadən ən dɪsˈkøːsə ˈɛvə də vɾoːx | β̞i van ən tβ̞iː də ˈstɛɾəkstə β̞as | tʏn dʏɪ ʒyst ˈɛmant v̥œrˈbɛːkɔm bə nən ˈdɪkə ˈβ̞aɾəmə ja̰s a̰ːn]
De noordenwind en de zon hadden een discussie over de vraag wie van hun tweeën de sterkste was, toen er juist iemand voorbij kwam met een dikke, warme jas aan.
- Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083