Nuclear power in Russia

Russia is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy. In 2020 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 215.746 TWh, 20.28% of all power generation.[1] The installed gross capacity of Russian nuclear reactors is 29.4 GW in December 2020.

Recent historyEdit

In accord with legislation passed in 2001, all Russian civil reactors are operated by Energoatom. More recently in 2007 Russian Parliament adopted the law "On the peculiarities of the management and disposition of the property and shares of organizations using nuclear energy and on relevant changes to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", which created Atomenergoprom - a holding company for all Russian civil nuclear industry, including Energoatom, nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex) and nuclear facilities constructor Atomstroyexport.

 
Global status of nuclear deployment as of 2017 (source: see file description)
  Operating reactors, building new reactors

The overnight cost of construction in the seventies was a low 800 $/kW in 2016 dollars.[2] In 2019 a S&P Global Ratings report stated Russia's nuclear construction costs were well below European levels because of vertical integration, good learning-curve effects from serial production, and the large currency devaluation of 2014.[3]

The Russian nuclear industry employs around 200,000 people.[4] Russia is recognized for its nuclear disaster expertise and for the safety of its technology.[5][6][7][8] Russia is also pursuing an ambitious plan to increase sales of Russian-built reactors overseas,[9] and had 39 reactors under construction or planned overseas as of 2018.[10]

The VVER-1200 pressurised water reactor is the system currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features.[11] In August 2016 the first VVER-1200, Novovoronezh II-1, was connected to the grid.[12]

Through its membership in the multi-nation ITER project, Russia participates in the design of nuclear fusion reactors.

In 2013 the Russian state allocated 80.6 billion rubles ($2.4 billion) toward the growth of its nuclear industry, especially export projects where Russian companies build, own and operate the power station, such as the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant.[13]

In 2016 initial plans were announced to build 11 new nuclear power reactors by 2030, including the first VVER-600, a smaller two cooling circuit version of the VVER-1200, designed for smaller regions and markets.[14] Outline plans for near-surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level waste, and deep burial disposal facilities for high-level waste were also approved in the Krasnoyarsk Krai region.[14]

In October 2017 Rosatom was reported to be considering postponing commissioning new nuclear plants in Russia due to excess generation capacity and that new nuclear electricity prices are higher than for existing plant. The Russian government is considering reducing support for new nuclear under its support contracts, called Dogovor Postavki Moshnosti (DPM), which guarantee developers a return on investment through increased payments from consumers for 20 years.[15] In 2019 a S&P Global Ratings report stated that "We expect domestic nuclear capacity to increase only moderately because electricity demand in Russia is stagnating, given only modest GDP growth, a significant potential for energy savings, and the government's intention to avoid raising electricity prices through additional increases in capacity payments".[3]

Russia's first-floating nuclear power plant, Akademik Lomonosov, is equipped to provide power to a remote Russian town on the Bering Strait. The nuclear unit features small modular reactors (SMRs) technology.[16]

Nuclear power reactorsEdit

Reactors in operationEdit

Nuclear power plants in Russia (view)
  Active plants
  Closed plants
  Unfinished plants
  Under construction plants

Eleven of Russia's reactors are of the RBMK 1000 type, similar to the one at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Some of these RBMK reactors were originally to be shut down but have instead been given life extensions and uprated in output by about 5%. Critics say that these reactors are of an "inherently unsafe design", which cannot be improved through upgrades and modernization, and some reactor parts are impossible to replace. Russian environmental groups say that the lifetime extensions "violate Russian law, because the projects have not undergone environmental assessments".[17]

 
Control room of a VVER-1000 in 2009, Kozloduy Unit 5
List of nuclear reactors in Russia [ view/edit ]
Name Unit
No.
Reactor Status Net capacity (MW) Construction start Commercial operation Closure
Type Model
Akademik Lomonosov 1 PWR KLT-40S Operational 32 15 April 2007 19 December 2019[18]
2 PWR KLT-40S Operational 32 15 April 2007 19 December 2019
Balakovo 1 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 December 1980 23 May 1986
2 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 August 1981 18 January 1988
3 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 November 1982 8 April 1989
4 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 April 1984 22 December 1993
5 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 950 28 December 1992
6 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 950 28 December 1992
Bashkir 1 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1980 1991
2 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1980 1991
3 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1980 1991
4 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1980 1991
Beloyarsk 1 LWGR AMB-100 Shut down 102 1 June 1958 26 April 1964 1 January 1983
2 LWGR AMB-200 Shut down 146 1 January 1962 1 December 1969 1 January 1990
3 SFR BN-600 Operational 560 1 January 1969 1 November 1981
4 SFR BN-800 Operational 789 18 July 2006 10 December 2015
5 SFR BN-1200 Planned 1100
Bilibino 1 LWGR EGP-6 Shut down 11 1 January 1970 1 April 1974 14 January 2019
2 LWGR EGP-6 Operational 11 1 January 1970 1 February 1975
3 LWGR EGP-6 Operational 11 1 January 1970 1 February 1976
4 LWGR EGP-6 Operational 11 1 January 1970 1 January 1977
Dimitrovgrad 1 FBR SVBR-100 Planned 90
Gorky 1 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 1982 1993
2 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 1982 1993
Kalinin 1 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 February 1977 12 June 1985
2 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 February 1982 3 March 1987
3 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 October 1985 8 November 2005
4 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 August 1986 25 December 2012
Kaliningrad 1 PWR VVER-1200 Under construction
(suspended)[19]
1109 22 February 2012
2 PWR VVER-1200 Planned 1109
Kola 1 PWR VVER-440 V-230 Operational 441 1 May 1970 28 December 1973
2 PWR VVER-440 V-230 Operational 441 1 May 1970 21 February 1975
3 PWR VVER-440 V-213 Operational 441 1 April 1977 3 December 1982
4 PWR VVER-440 V-213 Operational 441 1 August 1976 6 December 1984
Kola II[19][20] 1 PWR VVER-S-600 Planned (600) (2028) (2034)
2 PWR VVER-S-600 Planned (600) (2028) (2034)
Kostroma[19][21] 1 PWR VVER-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1979 1990
2 PWR VVER-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1979 1990
3 PWR VVER-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1979 1990
4 PWR VVER-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1979 1990
5 LWGR RBMKP-2400 Unfinished 1986 1986
6 LWGR RBMKP-2400 Unfinished 1986 1986
Kursk 1 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 June 1972 12 October 1977 19 December 2021
2 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 January 1973 17 August 1979
3 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 April 1978 30 March 1984
4 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 May 1981 5 February 1986
5 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925 1 December 1985 2012
6 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925 1 August 1986
Kursk II 1 PWR VVER-TOI Under construction 1115 29 April 2018
2 PWR VVER-TOI Under construction 1115 15 April 2019[22]
3 PWR VVER-TOI Planned 1115
4 PWR VVER-TOI Planned 1115
Leningrad 1 LWGR RBMK-1000 Shut down 925 1 March 1970 1 November 1974 21 December 2018[23]
2 LWGR RBMK-1000 Shut down 925 1 June 1970 11 February 1976 10 November 2020
3 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 December 1973 29 June 1980
4 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 February 1975 29 August 1981
Leningrad II 1 PWR VVER-1200 Operational 1085 25 October 2008 29 October 2018
2 PWR VVER-1200 Operational 1085 15 April 2010 22 March 2021[24]
3 PWR VVER-1200[25] Planned 1085
4 PWR VVER-1200[25] Planned 1085
MPEB #1[26][27] 1 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2027)
2 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2027)
MPEB #2[26][27] 1 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2027)
2 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2027)
MPEB #3[26][27] 1 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2028)
2 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2028)
MPEB #4[26][27] 1 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2031)
2 PWR RITM-200S Planned 53 (2031)
Nizhny Novgorod 1 PWR VVER-1200 Planned 1300
2 PWR VVER-1200 Planned 1300
3 PWR VVER-1200 Planned 1300
4 PWR VVER-1200 Planned 1300
Novovoronezh 1 PWR VVER-440 V-120 Shut down 197 1 July 1957 31 December 1964 16 February 1988
2 PWR VVER-440 V-120 Shut down 336 1 June 1964 14 April 1970 29 August 1990
3 PWR VVER-440 V-179 Shut down 385 1 July 1967 29 June 1972 25 December 2016
4 PWR VVER 440 V-179 Operational 385 1 July 1967 24 March 1973
5 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 March 1974 20 February 1981
Novovoronezh II 1 PWR VVER-1200 Operational 1114 24 June 2008 27 February 2017
2 PWR VVER-1200 Operational 1114 12 July 2009 6 November 2019
3 PWR VVER-1200 Planned 1175
4 PWR VVER-1200 Planned 1175
Obninsk 1 LWGR AM-1 Shut down 5 1 January 1951 1 December 1954 29 April 2002
Rostov 1 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 September 1981 25 December 2001
2 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 1 May 1983 10 December 2010
3 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 950 15 September 2009 27 December 2014
4 PWR VVER-1000 Operational 1011 16 June 2010 28 September 2018
Sakha 1 PWR RITM-200N Planned 45 (2024)[28] (2028)
2 PWR RITM-200N Planned 45 (2024) (2028)
Seversk 1 FBR BREST-300 Under construction 280 8 June 2021[29] (2026)
South Urals 1 FBR BN-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1100 1982 1993
2 FBR BN-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1100 1982 1993
3 FBR BN-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1100 1982 1993
Smolensk 1 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 October 1975 30 September 1983
2 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 June 1976 2 July 1985
3 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1 May 1984 12 October 1990
4 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925
5 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925
6 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925
Smolensk II 1 PWR VVER-TOI[25] Planned 1300
2 PWR VVER-TOI Planned 1300
3 PWR VVER-TOI Planned 1300
4 PWR VVER-TOI Planned 1300
Tatar 1 PWR VVER-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1980 1990
2 PWR VVER-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1980 1990
3 PWR Unfinished 1980 1990
4 PWR Unfinished 1980 1990
Voronezh 1 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 9 January 1983 5 July 1990
2 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 9 January 1983 5 July 1990

International NPP projects in the Russian nuclear industryEdit

Country NPP Reactor Type MWe net MWe gross Construction start Commercially operational
Turkey Akkuyu-1/2/3/4 VVER-1200/491 1115 1200 2016 (1st block) 2023 (1st block)
Bangladesh Ruppur-1 VVER-1200/523 1080 1200 2017-11-30 2023
Ruppur-2 VVER-1200/523 1080 1200 2018-07-14 2024
Belarus Belarusian-1 VVER-1200/491 1115 1200 2013-11-06 2019
Belarusian-2 VVER-1200/491 1115 1200 2014-06-03 2020
Iran Bushehr-1 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 1975-05-01 (1995) 2013-09-23
Bushehr-2 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 2016-09-10 2025
Bushehr-3 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 2016-09-10 2027
India Kudankulam-1 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 2002-03-31 2013-10-22
Kudankulam-2 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 2002-07-04 2016-07-10
Kudankulam-3/4 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 negotiation
Slovakia Mochovce-3/4 VVER-440 440 471 1987-01-27, stopped 1991, restarted 2008-11-03[30] 2020 (estimated)
Vietnam Ninh Thuan 1-1/2 VVER-1000/428 950 1000 cancelled cancelled
Ninh Thuan 1-3/4 VVER-1000/428 950 1000 cancelled
China Tianwan-1 VVER-1000/428 990 1060 1999-10-20 2007-05-17
Tianwan-2 VVER-1000/428 990 1060 2000-10-20 2007-08-16
Tianwan-3 VVER-1000/428М 1050 1126 2012-12-27 2018
Tianwan-4 VVER-1000/428М 1050 1126 2013-09-27 2018
Ukraine Khmelnytskyi-3/4 VVER-1000/392B 950 1000 cancelled cancelled
Finland Hanhikivi-1 VVER-1200/AES-2006 1200 earliest 2021 estimated 2028

In addition Atomstroyexport challenging NPP projects list contains:[31]

Nuclear engineering companiesEdit

  • Atomenergomash: power engineering company; produces steam generators for NPPs
  • Atommash: by far Russia's largest nuclear engineering company designed to build up to 8 reactors per year.
  • Atomstroyexport: nuclear power equipment and service export monopoly
  • OKBM Afrikantov: nuclear reactor design and engineering company. The world's leading company in production of fast breeder reactors.
  • OKB Gidropress: nuclear reactor design and engineering company

SafetyEdit

Russia, responding to the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, will perform a 'stress test' on all its reactors "to judge their ability to withstand earthquakes more powerful than the original design anticipated".[33]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.rosatom.ru/en/press-centre/news/rosenergoatom-a-share-of-nuclear-power-in-the-energy-mix-of-russia-exceeded-20
  2. ^ USA. (1982). Technology and Soviet energy availability. Boulder (Colo.: Westview press. p. 126.
  3. ^ a b "State support pivotal to Russia's nuclear sector, says report". World Nuclear News. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Nuclear rethink urged". The Moscow News. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
  5. ^ "Benchmarking the global nuclear industry 2012 Heading for a fast recovery" (PDF). E&Y. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2014.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "Rosatom today and overview of its current and prospective Nuclear Power Plant projects" (PDF). Rosatom. 21 August 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  7. ^ "International Standards of Safety and the Modern Projects of Nuclear Power Stations" (PDF). Rosatom. 4 November 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  8. ^ "Russia's efforts to improve safety following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents" (PDF). IBRAE. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2014. External link in |publisher= (help)
  9. ^ [1] Pulitzer Center On Crisis Reporting
  10. ^ "Russia leads the world at nuclear-reactor exports". The Economist. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  11. ^ Nikolay Fil (26–28 July 2011). "Status and perspectives of VVER Status and perspectives of VVER nuclear power plants nuclear power plants" (PDF). OKB Gidropress. IAEA. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  12. ^ "Russia connects Novovoronezh 6 reactor to grid". World Nuclear News. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  13. ^ "Russia invests in nuclear". World Nuclear News. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Russia to build 11 new nuclear reactors by 2030". World Nuclear News. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Rosatom considers delaying reactor commissioning". Nuclear Engineering International. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Rosatom's floating nuclear power unit arrives in Chukotka, Russia". Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis. 15 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  17. ^ Igor Koudrik and Alexander Nikitin (13 December 2011). "Second life: The questionable safety of life extensions for Russian nuclear power plants". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  18. ^ "Rosatom State Atomic Energy Cooperation | ROSATOM's first of a kind floating power unit connects to isolated electricity grid in Pevek, Russia's Far East". rosatom.ru. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  19. ^ a b c "Nuclear Power in Russia | Russian Nuclear Energy - World Nuclear Association". world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  20. ^ "Кольскую АЭС-2 начнут строить в 2028 году".
  21. ^ Dollezhal N.A. At the origins of the man-made world: Notes of the designer - M .: Knowledge, 1989 - Academician's Tribune - 256s.(Доллежаль Н. А. У истоков рукотворного мира: Записки конструктора — М.: Знание, 1989 — Трибуна академика — 256с.)
  22. ^ "The construction of the 2nd innovative VVER-TOI power block at the Kursk NPP-2 site has started ahead of schedule". rosenergoatom.ru. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  23. ^ "Russia retires Leningrad unit 1". World Nuclear News. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  24. ^ "Unit 6 of Leningrad NPP commissioned for commercial operation". rosatom.ru. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  25. ^ a b c "Four new npp units will be built in russia". rosatom-europe.com. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  26. ^ a b c d "Russia commits to further floating NPPs : New Nuclear - World Nuclear News". world-nuclear-news.org. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  27. ^ a b c d ""Росатом" и Kaz Minerals предварительно договорились о поставках электроэнергии для Баимского ГОКа". Interfax.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  28. ^ "В Якутии собираются строить АЭС мощностью не менее 55 МВт". Sakhapress.ru.
  29. ^ Сурикова, Маргарита (8 June 2021). "Росатом» начал строительство реактора Брест-300 в Северске". Известия.
  30. ^ https://www.seas.sk/mochovce-3-4
  31. ^ Challenging NPP Projects JSC ASE
  32. ^ NPP JSC ASE (Jordan)
  33. ^ Matthew L. Wald (24 March 2011). "Russia Plans to Test Reactors For Ability to Survive Quakes". The New York Times.

External linksEdit