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The Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant in France. France produces around three quarters of its electricity by nuclear power.[1]
The Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant in Germany. Chancellor Angela Merkel's coalition announced on 30 May 2011, that Germany's 14 nuclear power stations will be shut down by 2022, in a policy reversal following Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.[2]

Nuclear power plants currently operate in 31 countries. Most are in Europe, North America, East Asia and South Asia. The United States is the largest producer of nuclear power, while France has the largest share of electricity generated by nuclear power. In 2010, before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, it was reported that an average of about 10 nuclear reactors were expected to become operational per year, although according to the World Nuclear Association, of the 17 civilian reactors planned to become operational between 2007 and 2009, only five actually came on stream.[3] Global nuclear electricity generation in 2012 was at its lowest level since 1999.[4][5]

China has the fastest growing nuclear power program with 28 new reactors under construction,[6] and a considerable number of new reactors are also being built in India, Russia and South Korea. At the same time, at least 100 older and smaller reactors will "most probably be closed over the next 10–15 years".[3]

Some countries operated nuclear reactors in the past but have currently no operating nuclear plants. Among them, Italy closed all of its nuclear stations by 1990 and nuclear power has since been declared illegal in a referendum. Lithuania, Kazakhstan and Armenia are planning to reintroduce nuclear power in the future.

Several countries are currently operating nuclear power plants but are planning a nuclear power phase-out. These are Belgium, Germany, Spain, and Switzerland. Other countries, like Netherlands, Sweden, and Taiwan are also considering a phase-out. Austria never started to use its first nuclear plant that was completely built.

Due to financial, political and technical reasons, Cuba, Libya, North Korea, and Poland never completed the construction of their first nuclear plants, and Australia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ghana, Ireland, Kuwait, Oman, Peru, Singapore, and Venezuela never built their planned first nuclear plants.[7][8]

Contents

OverviewEdit

 
Nations based on nuclear output as a percentage of national power output.

Of the 31 countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Hungary use them as the source for a majority of the country's electricity supply. Other countries have significant amounts of nuclear power generation capacity.[9] By far the largest nuclear electricity producers are the United States with 805 647 GWh of nuclear electricity in 2017, followed by France with 381 846 GWh.[9] As of December 2017 448 reactors with

 
Nuclear power plants in Europe

net capacity of 391 721 MWe are operational and 59 reactors with net capacity of 60 460 MWe are under construction, of those 18 reactors with 19 016 MWe in China.[10]

Nuclear power by country in 2016[9]
Country Number of
operated reactors
Capacity
Net-total (MWe)
Generated
electricity (GWh)
Share of total
electricity use
  Argentina 3 1633 5716.27 4.5%
  Armenia 1 375 2411.39 32.5%
  Belgium 7 5918 40186.70 49.9%
  Brazil 2 1884 14854.33 2.7%
  Bulgaria 2 1926 14872.26 34.3%
  Canada 19 13554 95131.20 14.6%
  China 39 34514 232796.74 3.9%
  Czech Republic 6 3930 26784.68 33.1%
  Finland 4 2769 21573.97 33.2%
  France 58 63130 381846.02 71.6%
  Germany 8 10799 72162.80 11.6%
  Hungary 4 1889 15218.92 50.0%
  India 22 6255 20004.34 3.2%
  Iran 1 915 6366.21 2.2%
  Japan 42 39752 29285.05 3.6%
  Korea, Republic of 25 23070 141278.32 27.1%
  Mexico 2 1552 10571.92 6.0%
  Netherlands 1 482 3263.18 2.9%
  Pakistan 5 1318 8108.93 6.2%
  Romania 2 1300 10580.15 17.6%
  Russia 35 26142 190115.15 17.8%
  Slovakia 4 1814 14015.82 54.0%
  Slovenia 1 688 5967.83 39.1%
  South Africa 2 1860 15087.29 6.7%
  Spain 7 7121 55627.75 21.2%
  Sweden 9 9102 63062.89 39.6%
  Switzerland 5 3333 19590.70 33.4%
  Taiwan 6 5052 21560.47 9.3%
  Ukraine 15 13107 80405.85 55.1%
  United Kingdom 15 8918 63886.83 19.3%
  United States 99 99952 805647.33 20.0%
World total 451 394,054 MWe 2,488 TWh

Nuclear power policy by countryEdit

 
Global status of nuclear deployment as of 2017 (source: see file description)
  Operating reactors, building new reactors
  Operating reactors, planning new build
  No reactors, building new reactors
  No reactors, planning new build
  Operating reactors, stable
  Operating reactors, considering phase-out
  Civil nuclear power is illegal
  No reactors

History of deploymentEdit

 
Timeline of commissioned and decommissioned nuclear capacity since the 1950s.[11] Positive numbers show the commissioned capacity for each year; negative numbers show the decommissioned capacity for each year.

The first nuclear reactor, known as Chicago Pile-1, was built in the United States and achieved criticality on December 2, 1942. The reactor was part of the Manhattan Project to create the atomic bomb. The United Kingdom, Canada,[12] and the USSR proceeded to research and develop nuclear industries over the course of the late 1940s and early 1950s.

 
The first light bulbs ever lit by electricity generated by nuclear power at EBR-1 at Argonne National Laboratory-West, December 20, 1951.

Electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor on December 20, 1951, at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho, which initially produced about 100 kW.[13][14]

On June 27, 1954, the USSR's Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant became the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid, and produced around 5 megawatts of electric power.[15][16] Later in 1954, Lewis Strauss, then chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (U.S. AEC, forerunner of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United States Department of Energy) spoke of electricity in the future being "too cheap to meter".[17] Strauss was very likely referring to hydrogen fusion[18] —which was secretly being developed as part of Project Sherwood at the time—but Strauss's statement was interpreted as a promise of very cheap energy from nuclear fission. The U.S. AEC itself had issued far more realistic testimony regarding nuclear fission to the U.S. Congress only months before, projecting that "costs can be brought down... [to]... about the same as the cost of electricity from conventional sources..."[19]

List of nuclear power reactors by countryEdit

Only the commercial reactors registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency (as of October 2017) are listed below.

Country Operating Under
construction
References and notes
  Argentina 3 1
  Armenia 1 0 Replacement[20]
  Belarus 0 2 Under construction
  Belgium 7 0
  Brazil 2 1 [21]
  Bulgaria 2 0 Four reactors were shut down in 2004 and 2007. Belene Nuclear Power Plant construction was officially terminated in March 2012.[22]
  Canada 19 0
  China 38 19 58 GWe by 2020
  Czech Republic 6 0
  Egypt 0 0 4 reactors expected to be completed by 2024.[23]
  Finland 4 1 As of 2012, TVO is planning a new reactor to be built and operational by 2020.[24]
  France 58 1 First French EPR under construction at Flamanville
  Germany 8 0 Phase-out in place by 2022.
  Hungary 4 0 Paks2 [2*1200MW] signed with Rosatom in 2014.
  India 22 6 Six reactors with a cumulative capacity of 4300 MW are under construction as of 2016.
  Iran 1 0 The first reactor of Bushehr Plant has power generation capacity of 915 MW[25]
  Japan 42 2 After Fukushima, Japan shut down all of its 54 nuclear reactors, 12 of them permanently; 42 remain in operational condition, of which 24 have requested permission to restart, and 5 reactors have been restarted.[26]
  Mexico 2 0
  Netherlands 1 0
  Pakistan 5 2 KANUUP-II and KANUUP-III are under construction and are expected to be completed by 2020.
  Romania 2 0 20 January 2011, GDF Suez, Iberdrola and RWE pulled out of the project.
  Russia 35 7 7 new reactors expected to be completed by 2020
  Saudi Arabia 0 0 16 nuclear power reactors over the next 25 years[27]
  Slovakia 4 2
  Slovenia 1 0
  South Africa 2 0 South Africa will be building a further 9600 MW, 6-8 reactors, by 2030[28][29]
  South Korea 24 3
  Spain 7 0 Stable[30]
  Sweden 8 0
  Switzerland 5 0 Phase-out in place, first decommissioning 2029.[31]
  Taiwan 6 2 All nuclear power plants planned to be phased-out by 2025, however, the viability of this is highly uncertain.[32]
  Turkey 0 2
  Ukraine 15 2 2 new reactors by 2018.[33][34]
  United Arab Emirates 0 4 4 reactors expected to be operational 2018–2020[35][36]
  United Kingdom 15 0
  United States 99 2
World 448 57

References:[11][1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "World Nuclear Power Reactors & Uranium Requirements". World Nuclear Association. 1 October 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  2. ^ Annika Breidthardt (30 May 2011). "German government wants nuclear exit by 2022 at latest". Reuters. 
  3. ^ a b Michael Dittmar. Taking stock of nuclear renaissance that never was Sydney Morning Herald, 18 August 2010.
  4. ^ WNA (20 June 2013). "Nuclear power down in 2012". World Nuclear News. 
  5. ^ "The Nuclear Renaissance". 
  6. ^ "China Nuclear Power - Chinese Nuclear Energy". 
  7. ^ Duroyan Fertl (5 June 2011). "Germany: Nuclear power to be phased out by 2022". Green Left. 
  8. ^ James Kanter (25 May 2011). "Switzerland Decides on Nuclear Phase-Out". New York Times. 
  9. ^ a b c "Nuclear Share of Electricity Generation in 2017". IAEA. 24 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018. 
  10. ^ Nuclear Power Reactors in the World (PDF). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 2018. ISBN 978-92-0-101418-4. 
  11. ^ a b "Operational & Long-Term Shutdown Reactors". IAEA. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  12. ^ Bain, Alastair S.; et al. (1997). Canada enters the nuclear age: a technical history of Atomic Energy of Canada. Magill-Queen's University Press. p. ix. ISBN 0-7735-1601-8. 
  13. ^ "Reactors Designed by Argonne National Laboratory: Fast Reactor Technology". U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory. 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 
  14. ^ "Reactor Makes Electricity." Popular Mechanics, March 1952, p. 105.
  15. ^ "From Obninsk Beyond: Nuclear Power Conference Looks to Future". International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 2006-06-27. 
  16. ^ "Nuclear Power in Russia". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 2006-06-27. 
  17. ^ "This Day in Quotes: SEPTEMBER 16 – Too cheap to meter: the great nuclear quote debate". This day in quotes. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  18. ^ Pfau, Richard (1984) No Sacrifice Too Great: The Life of Lewis L. Strauss University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, p. 187 ISBN 978-0-8139-1038-3
  19. ^ David Bodansky (2004). Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects. Springer. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-387-20778-0. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  20. ^ "USA supports new nuclear build in Armenia". World Nuclear News. 23 November 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2007. 
  21. ^ Agência Estado (12 September 2008). "Lobão diz que país fará uma usina nuclear por ano em 50 anos" (in Portuguese). G1.globo.com. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  22. ^ Bulgaria quits Belene Nuclear Power Plant project, Novinite, 28 March 2012
  23. ^ "Egypt, Russia sign deal to build a nuclear power plant". reuters.com. 
  24. ^ "Kolme uutta reaktoria, Jees!". Tekniikka ja talous. 15 October 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2009. 
  25. ^ F_405. "Iran's Bushehr nuke power plant at full capacity from May 23: Russian contractor - People's Daily Online". English.peopledaily.com.cn. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  26. ^ "Nuclear Power in Japan | Japanese Nuclear Energy - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  27. ^ http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/saudi-arabia.aspx
  28. ^ "Nuclear Power in South Africa". Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  29. ^ "S.Africa wants nuclear contracts to stay at home". Reuters. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  30. ^ Nuclear power in Spain Archived 28 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine., World Nuclear Association, URL accessed 13 June 2006
  31. ^ Associated Press (28 September 2011). "Swiss Nuclear Power Plan Moves Toward Phase-Out Of Reactors". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  32. ^ "Taiwan to end nuclear power generation in 2025:The Asahi Shimbun". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 2017-06-12. 
  33. ^ "BBC NEWS | Politics | New nuclear plants get go-ahead". News.bbc.co.uk. 10 January 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  34. ^ "Nuclear Power in Ukraine". World Nuclear Association. August 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2008. 
  35. ^ "Nuclear Power United Arab Emirates | UAE Nuclear Energy | Abu Dhabi | Dubai". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  36. ^ "UAE's fourth power reactor under construction - EE Publishers". EE Publishers. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 

External linksEdit