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The Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant in France. France produces around three quarters of its electricity by nuclear power.[1]

Nuclear power plants currently operate in 31 countries. Most are in Europe, North America, East Asia and South Asia. The United States is the largest producer of nuclear power, while France has the largest share of electricity generated by nuclear power. In 2010, before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, it was reported that an average of about 10 nuclear reactors were expected to become operational per year, although according to the World Nuclear Association, of the 17 civilian reactors planned to become operational between 2007 and 2009, only five actually came on stream.[2] Global nuclear electricity generation in 2012 was at its lowest level since 1999.[3][4]

China has the fastest growing nuclear power program with 11 new reactors under construction,[5] and a considerable number of new reactors are also being built in India, Russia and South Korea. At the same time, at least 100 older and smaller reactors will "most probably be closed over the next 10–15 years".[2]

Some countries operated nuclear reactors in the past but have currently no operating nuclear plants. Among them, Italy closed all of its nuclear stations by 1990 and nuclear power has since been discontinued because of the 1987 referendums on which Italians voted. Kazakhstan and Armenia are planning to reintroduce nuclear power in the future. Belarus has its first nuclear power plant under construction and plans to have it operating from end of 2019. The project is financed by Russia.

Several countries are currently operating nuclear power plants but are planning a nuclear power phase-out. These are Belgium, Germany, Spain, and Switzerland. Other countries, like Netherlands, Sweden, and Taiwan are also considering a phase-out. Austria never started to use its first nuclear plant that was completely built.

Due to financial, political and technical reasons, Cuba, Libya, North Korea, and Poland never completed the construction of their first nuclear plants, and Australia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ghana, Ireland, Kuwait, Oman, Peru, Singapore, and Venezuela never built their planned first nuclear plants.[6][7]

OverviewEdit

 
Nations based on nuclear output as a percentage of national power output.
 
Timeline of commissioned and decommissioned nuclear capacity since the 1950s.[8] Positive numbers show the commissioned capacity for each year; negative numbers show the decommissioned capacity for each year.
 
Global status of nuclear deployment as of 2017 (source: see file description)
  Operating reactors, building new reactors
  Operating reactors, planning new build
  No reactors, building new reactors
  No reactors, planning new build
  Operating reactors, stable
  Operating reactors, considering phase-out
  Civil nuclear power is illegal
  No reactors
 
Nuclear power plants in Europe

Of the 31 countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Hungary use them as the source for a majority of the country's electricity supply as of 2018. Other countries have significant amounts of nuclear power generation capacity.[9] By far the largest nuclear electricity producers are the United States with 808,028 GWh of nuclear electricity in 2019, followed by France with 395,908 GWh.[9] As of December 2018, 457 reactors with a net capacity of 401,837 MWe are operational, and 54 reactors with net capacity of 55,364 MWe are under construction. Of the reactors under construction, 11 reactors with 10,982 MWe are in China.[10]

Nuclear power by country in 2018[9][8][1]
Country Reactors Capacity
Net-total (MWe)
Generated
electricity (GWh)
Share of total
electricity use
Notes
operational U/C
  Argentina 3 1 1633 6452.97 4.7%
  Armenia 1 0 375 1898.08 25.6%
  Bangladesh 0 2 N/A N/A N/A
  Belarus 0 2 N/A N/A N/A
  Belgium 7 0 5918 27251.38 39.0%
  Brazil 2 1 1884 14786.95 2.7%
  Bulgaria 2 0 1966 15444.71 34.7%
  Canada 19 0 13554 94449.51 14.9%
  China 46 11 42858 277055.93 4.2%
  Czech Republic 6 0 3932 28255.79 34.5%
  Finland 4 1 2784 21880.84 32.4%
  France 58 1 63130 395908.34 71.7%
  Germany 7 0 9515 71866.45 11.7% Phase-out by 2022
  Hungary 4 0 1902 14857.26 50.6%
  India 22 7 6255 35388.66 3.1%
  Iran 1 0 915 6300.12 2.1%
  Japan 42 2 39752 49330.13 6.2% Most reactors currently stopped
  Korea, Republic of 24 4 22444 127077.41 23.7%
  Mexico 2 0 1552 13200.33 5.3%
  Netherlands 1 0 482 3340.53 3.0%
  Pakistan 5 2 1318 9289.67 6.8%
  Romania 2 0 1300 10459.34 17.2%
  Russia 37 6 28177 191340.03 17.9%
  Slovakia 4 2 1814 13788.90 55.0%
  Slovenia[11] 1 0 688 5489.91 35.9%
  South Africa 2 0 1860 10587.11 4.7%
  Spain 7 0 7121 53363.83 20.4%
  Sweden 8 0 8613 65868.10 40.3%
  Switzerland 5 0 3333 24496.46 37.7% Phase-out planned
  Taiwan 6 2 5052 26656.43 11.4%
  Turkey 0 1 N/A N/A N/A
  Ukraine 15 2 13107 79532.01 53.0%
  United Arab Emirates 0 4 N/A N/A N/A
  United Kingdom 15 1 8923 59112.26 17.7%
  United States 99 2 99680 808028.33 19.3%
World total 457 54 401,837 MWe 2,563 TWh

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "World Nuclear Power Reactors & Uranium Requirements". World Nuclear Association. 1 October 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  2. ^ a b Michael Dittmar. Taking stock of nuclear renaissance that never was Sydney Morning Herald, 18 August 2010.
  3. ^ WNA (20 June 2013). "Nuclear power down in 2012". World Nuclear News.
  4. ^ "The Nuclear Renaissance".
  5. ^ "China Nuclear Power - Chinese Nuclear Energy".
  6. ^ Duroyan Fertl (5 June 2011). "Germany: Nuclear power to be phased out by 2022". Green Left.
  7. ^ James Kanter (25 May 2011). "Switzerland Decides on Nuclear Phase-Out". New York Times.
  8. ^ a b "Operational & Long-Term Shutdown Reactors". IAEA. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  9. ^ a b c "Nuclear Share of Electricity Generation in 2018". IAEA. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  10. ^ Nuclear Power Reactors in the World (PDF). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 2018. ISBN 978-92-0-101418-4.
  11. ^ https://www.nek.si/en/about-nek/production

External linksEdit