November 1960

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06 07 08 09 10 11 12
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20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30  

The following events occurred in November 1960:

November 28, 1960: Mauritania becomes independent.
picture1
picture2
November 8, 1960: Kennedy defeats Nixon for U.S. president
November 1, 1960: Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg create Benelux Economic Union.
November 15, 1960: USS George Washington, first mobile nuclear base, departs Charleston with 16 missiles.
November 19, 1960: Hovering Hawker P.1127 takes flight

November 1, 1960 (Tuesday)Edit

November 2, 1960 (Wednesday)Edit

November 3, 1960 (Thursday)Edit

  • Explorer 8 was launched to study the Earth's ionosphere.[11] The satellite, which confirmed the existence of a helium layer in the upper atmosphere, stopped functioning later in the year but was still in orbit almost fifty years later.[12]
  • Died: Félix-Roland Moumié, 35, Cameroonian Marxist leader, was assassinated by a fatal dose of thallium, received earlier while he was visiting Geneva.[13]

November 4, 1960 (Friday)Edit

  • The Soviet news agency TASS was forced to deny that Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had been overthrown in a coup, after a rumor reported in a Vienna evening newspaper was repeated worldwide. The story began earlier in the day when a man, claiming to be an Austrian employee of the Soviet Embassy, told the Abend Presse that he had learned from an indiscreet Soviet employee that disgraced former leader Georgi Malenkov had replaced Khrushchev. The German-language paper then ran the banner headline, "Struggle For Power In Moscow: Khrushchev ousted, Malenkov Successor".[14] Western newspapers repeated the news, usually with the caveat that it was unconfirmed, before TASS debunked it.[15]
  • As John F. Kennedy arrived at the Chicago Stadium for a pre-election rally, Jaime Cruz Alejandro forced his way through the crowd to get as close as he could to Kennedy's open convertible, then fought with police after running from them. He was found to be carrying a loaded .25 caliber pistol. Moments later, Reverend Israel Dabney was caught attempting to carry a .38 revolver into the coliseum. Both men said that they were carrying the weapons for self-defense and were later released.[16]
  • Filming of The Misfits, starring Clark Gable and Marilyn Monroe, was finished. It proved to be the last film for both legendary actors. Gable, who had performed many of his own stunts, had a heart attack the next day and died on November 16. Monroe would die in 1962 during the filming of the never completed Something's Got to Give.[17]
  • Anacafé, the Asociación Naacional del Café, was founded in Guatemala City to increase the world market share of coffee grown in Guatemala.[18]

November 5, 1960 (Saturday)Edit

 
Bond
 
Silkworm missile
 
Sennett
  • The People's Republic of China successfully built and launched its first anti-ship cruise missile, basing it upon a Soviet weapon. The R-2, known popularly as the silkworm missile, had a range of 350 miles.[19]
  • Dorrence Darling II, a football player for Illinois State University, broke his leg during a game. Poor medical treatment led to an amputation, and "the Darling case" would become a benchmark in medical malpractice law, legally presuming a hospital to be responsible for the mistakes of physicians to whom it extended privileges.[20]
  • Died:
    • Ward Bond, 57, American TV actor and star of the western series Wagon Train, died of a heart attack, days after filming his ninth episode of the 1960–1961 season. His final show would be telecast on February 22, 1961.[21]
    • Mack Sennett, 80, American silent film actor, director and producer, known for the Keystone Kops[22]
    • August Gailit, 69, Estonian novelist[23]

November 6, 1960 (Sunday)Edit

  • One person was killed and 18 injured by a bomb that had been placed inside a subway car in New York City. The bomb was the fifth to have exploded in New York on a Sunday since October 2, and the first to have taken a life. The five bombings had injured a total of 58 people to that time, including the fatal injury to Sandra Breland, a 15-year-old Brooklyn resident.[24]
  • Died: Erich Raeder, 84, German naval commander during World War II[25]

November 7, 1960 (Monday)Edit

  • In the worst plane crash in the history of Ecuador, all 37 persons on a Companía Ecuatoriana Aérea (CEA) flight were killed when the Fairchild F-27 crashed into the side of the 14,623 foot high Atacazo volcano. The plane had been making an approach to Quito following takeoff from Guayaquil.[26]
  • DFS Group, the first major network of duty-free stores, began operations with a shop at the airport in Hong Kong. where luxury goods were sold to international travelers with the duty (normally collected upon arrival abroad by customs at the airport) pre-paid and forms filled out by the store. DFS Group now has locations around the world.[27]
  • On the day before the U.S. presidential election, Republican candidate Richard M. Nixon appeared on the first telethon in the history of presidential campaigning. From 2:00 to 6:00 pm (EDT), on ABC, CBS and NBC, Nixon answered questions called in, by viewers, to a Detroit studio.[28]
  • A transit of Mercury (the planet Mercury passing directly between the Sun and the Earth) took place from 14:34 UTC to 19:12 UTC.[29] The Sun-Mercury-Earth alignment happens 13 times in a century and had last taken place on May 5, 1957, and would not happen again until May 9, 1970 [30]
  • Died:

November 8, 1960 (Tuesday)Edit

  • In the U.S. presidential election, a record number of American voters turned out to make their choice between Democratic candidate and U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy and Republican candidate and U. S. Vice President Richard M. Nixon. With 270 electoral votes needed to win, Kennedy received 303. The popular vote was the closest in history. Kennedy (34,220,984) won slightly more than Nixon (34,108,157) by a margin of 1/6 of one percent of the total votes cast.[32]

November 9, 1960 (Wednesday)Edit

  • The day after the American presidential election, Vice President Nixon conceded defeat to Senator Kennedy at 12:47 pm EST, 17 minutes after the news came that Kennedy had won Minnesota's 11 electoral votes. With 270 needed to win, victory in Minnesota took Kennedy to at least 272.[33]
  • Nicaragua was invaded by exiles who crossed over from Costa Rica and captured the border towns of Jinotepe and Diriamba.[34] The United States Navy was directed to the area on November 17 and the rebels were defeated by December.[3][34]
  • Died:

November 10, 1960 (Thursday)Edit

  • The uncensored, Penguin Books edition of Lady Chatterley's Lover went on sale in England and Wales, eight days after a London jury had concluded that it was not obscene, and became an instant bestseller.[35][36]
  • Rumors persist that the Soviet Union covered up the deaths of cosmonauts killed in the early days of its space program. Russian journalist Yaroslav Golovanov, the Fortean Times writes, "has claimed that on 10 November 1960, a cosmonaut called Byelokonyev died on board a spaceship in orbit." No evidence has been found to corroborate Golovanov's statement.[37]

November 11, 1960 (Friday)Edit

 
RMS Britannic

November 12, 1960 (Saturday)Edit

  • Construction of the first Soviet nuclear submarine, the K-19, was completed, three days before the first American nuclear sub (the USS George Washington) would set to sea with nuclear weapons. The K-19, which would receive its nuclear arsenal later, was the first of the eight "Hotel class" nuclear-powered subs.[40]
  • A Type 3 solar flare, described by an American astronomer as "one of the largest, if not the largest, ever recorded" disrupted communications worldwide. An aurora borealis, normally visible only at far north latitudes, could be seen in the early morning hours in much of the Northern Hemisphere, including Washington, D.C.[41][42]

November 13, 1960 (Sunday)Edit

  • A fire at a movie theatre in the Kurdish village of Amuda, Syria, killed 152 children who had been watching an "educational film".[43] Some sources claim that the fire had been set by Syrian security forces.[44]
  • The Movimiento Revolucionario 13 de Noviembre, also known as MR-13, was born when leftist rebels within the Army of Guatemala, led by Lt. Marco Antonio Yon Sosa, attempted a coup against the government of President Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes. The coup was put down with American assistance, but the MR-13 group continued to fight against the Guatemalan government.[34][45]
  • Turkey's President Cemal Gursel announced that the 38 member National Unity Committee, which had governed the nation since May, had dismissed 14 of its members, leaving Gursel and 23 advisors.[3]
  • African-American singer and actor Sammy Davis, Jr. married white Swedish actress May Britt at a time when interracial marriage was uncommon, and, in some states, illegal. The resulting fallout would effectively end Britt's film career.[46] The couple would have a daughter in 1961, and would adopt two sons, before separating in 1967 and divorcing in 1968.[47]

November 14, 1960 (Monday)Edit

  • A collision between two trains in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia killed 118 people and injured 110 others. The government news agency did not report the accident until noon the next day.[48]
  • Four 6-year old Black girls, "first of their race to attend white public schools in New Orleans since the days of the Reconstruction", were enrolled at two elementary schools in the area. Ruby Bridges, protected by U.S. Marshals, was the lone African-American child to enroll at the William Frantz Elementary School, and her first day was depicted by artist Norman Rockwell in a famous painting, The Problem We All Live With.[49] The other three students enrolled at McDonough Elementary.

November 15, 1960 (Tuesday)Edit

  • The submarine USS George Washington, armed with 16 nuclear-tipped Polaris missiles, sailed from the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, following an undisclosed route. President Eisenhower praised history's first mobile nuclear missile base, noting that the Polaris firing submarines "possess a power and relative invulnerability which will make suicidal any attempt by an aggressor to attack the free world by surprise". The U.S. Navy said that the 16 missiles had the same destructive power as "the total of all of the bombs dropped during World War II".[3][50] The Polaris has been described as "the world's most credible deterrent system".[51]

November 16, 1960 (Wednesday)Edit

 
Gable
  • At the Moscow conference of the world's 81 Communist parties, Albania's Enver Hoxha criticized the parties of Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Poland and other Eastern European nations, in a speech entitled "Reject the Revisionist Theses of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Anti-Marxist Stand of Khrushchev's Group! Uphold Marxism-Leninism!"[52]
  • Died:
    • Clark Gable, American film star, 59, of a heart attack, a few days after completing his last film, The Misfits
    • Gilbert Harding, 53, English broadcaster, after collapsing on the steps of Broadcasting House following the recording of a radio programme

November 17, 1960 (Thursday)Edit

November 18, 1960 (Friday)Edit

  • In a major change of American policy, President Eisenhower ordered the aircraft carrier USS Shangri-La and four other United States Navy warships to patrol the coasts of Nicaragua and Guatemala, declaring that the U.S. would "use military force rather than diplomatic protests" to prevent Communism from spreading from Cuba to other nations in the Western Hemisphere.[54]
  • Born: Kim Wilde, English singer (as Kim Smith), in Chiswick, London, the first child of singers Marty Wilde and Joyce Baker.

November 19, 1960 (Saturday)Edit

November 20, 1960 (Sunday)Edit

  • In parliamentary elections for Japan, the Liberal Democratic Party, led by Hayato Ikeda, increased its majority in the 467 member House of Representatives, gaining 13 seats for a total of 296; the Japan Socialist Party gained 23 for a total of 145. Losing ground were the leftist Democratic Socialists, falling from 40 to 23. Ikeda told a news conference that the results showed that the Japanese people approved the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty that had been violently protested in the spring.[56]

November 21, 1960 (Monday)Edit

  • United Nations troops clashed with the Congolese Army, for the first time since the Congo crisis had begun. Soldiers were ordered by Colonel Joseph Mobutu to seize a diplomat at Ghana's embassy in Leopoldville. A force of 150 U.N. troops from Tunisia, supplementing Ghanaian embassy guards, fought for three hours in defending the embassy before the government troops withdrew.[57]
  • Died: Phao Sriyanond, 50, head of Thai police

November 22, 1960 (Tuesday)Edit

  • Faced with a choice of two rival delegations claiming to represent the former Belgian Congo, one led by President Joseph Kasavubu, the other by Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, the United Nations General Assembly voted 53–24 in favor of seating Kasavubu's group. Nineteen nations abstained. The vote effectively ended Lumumba's power in the Congo, and he would be arrested and killed two months later.[58]
  • The USS Ethan Allen, at 410 feet in length the largest Polaris submarine in the U.S. Navy fleet, was launched from the yards at Groton, Connecticut. Not yet equipped with missiles, the submarine would be able to fire nuclear weapons a distance of 1,500 miles.[3] On May 6, 1962, the Ethan Allen would make the only submarine launch of a live nuclear warhead, conducting an atmospheric hydrogen bomb test at a site 1,000 miles away.[51]

November 23, 1960 (Wednesday)Edit

  • TIROS-2 was launched as the second weather satellite. It had five-channel infrared radiometer equipment to make night observations and estimate thickness of precipitation, and an attitude control system that permitted it to remain almost stationary over North America.[59]
  • Born: Sam Ermolenko, American speedway rider, in Maywood, California

November 24, 1960 (Thursday)Edit

November 25, 1960 (Friday)Edit

  • In the Dominican Republic, three of the Mirabal sisters— Patria, Minerva, and Maria Teresa, outspoken opponents of dictator Rafael Trujillo, were killed along with their driver, Rufino de la Cruz, in what the government described as an "automobile accident". When it was discovered that the four had been shot to death before their car was dumped into a ravine, on orders from Trujillo himself, public opinion turned against the dictator. Trujillo was assassinated six months later. The Mirabal sisters, popularly known as "Las Mariposas", were later the subject of the Julia Alvarez novel and the film adaptation, In the Time of the Butterflies. November the 25th is observed annually as "White Ribbon Day" in recognition of the sisters and other victims of violence against women.[63]
  • The last four daytime radio dramas—Young Dr. Malone, Right to Happiness, The Second Mrs. Burton and Ma Perkins, all broadcast on the CBS Radio Network—were brought to an end. With more Americans turning from radio listeners to television viewers, the popularity of radio network programs had steadily declined since 1946.[64]
  • Born:

November 26, 1960 (Saturday)Edit

 
Holyoake
 
Nash

November 27, 1960 (Sunday)Edit

  • The ABC television network first broadcast Issues and Answers, a Sunday morning interview show to compete with NBC's Meet the Press and CBS's Face the Nation.[67]
  • Died: Donald Richberg, 79, American author and civil servant, aide to President Franklin D Roosevelt

November 28, 1960 (Monday)Edit

  • The African state of Mauritania became independent shortly after midnight, with Moktar Ould Daddah receiving the transfer of sovereignty from France's Prime Minister, Michel Debre. Daddah declared that "Mauritania ... will never forget what she owes the French people."[68]
  • A faint SOS Morse Code signal was allegedly heard from a troubled spacecraft in Earth orbit, suggesting that an unannounced manned Soviet space mission had failed.[69]
  • Born: John Galliano, British fashion designer, in Gibraltar

November 29, 1960 (Tuesday)Edit

 
An R-5, the first missile to be struck by an anti-ballistic missile
  • Seventeen high school students were killed when their bus was struck by a freight train at a railroad crossing in Lamont, Alberta.[3]
  • The University of Minnesota won the mythical championship for the 1960 NCAA University Division football season, finishing first in the final Associated Press poll and the UPI poll. With 433+13 points based on voting by 48 sportswriters, the Minnesota Gophers edged out Mississippi (411) and Iowa (407+12).[70]
  • CIA Director Allen Dulles briefed President-elect John F. Kennedy on the agency's plans to overthrow the Castro government. Kennedy told Dulles to continue with the project, which ultimately failed as the Bay of Pigs Invasion.[71]
  • The V-1000, the Soviet Union's first anti-ballistic missile, scored its first success, intercepting and destroying an incoming R-5 Pobeda missile in a test at Sary Shagan.[72]

November 30, 1960 (Wednesday)Edit

 
One of the last DeSoto cars, the 1961 Fireflite [73]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ University of Kalyani website
  2. ^ Benelux website; John V. Terry, Dictionary for Business & Finance (3d. Ed., University of Arkansas Press, 1995) p28
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Chronology November 1960", The World Almanac and book of facts, 1961 (New York World-Telegram, 1960), pp185–192
  4. ^
    • Career statistics and player information from MLB
  5. ^ "British Firm Wins Right to Publish 'Lady Chatterley'", Chicago Tribune, November 3, 1960, p15
  6. ^ Jeff Kurtti, The Great Movie Musical Trivia Book (Hal Leonard Corporation, 1996) p136
  7. ^ ElvisSingles.com
  8. ^ R M Vijayakar (November 3, 2020). "Red-Letter Day: Six Celebs Who Were Born Nov. 2". India West. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
  9. ^ "In Milan Today: Mitropoulos Dies During Rehearsal". Desert Sun via UCR. 2 November 1960. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
  10. ^ "JAPAN: Assassin's Apologies". TIME Magazine. Time Inc. 14 November 1960. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  11. ^ "U.S. Satellite Eyes Space Radio Waves", Oakland Tribune, November 3, 1960, p1
  12. ^ ["Global warming prolongs life of space debris"], Reuters, December 11, 2006
  13. ^ "Swiss Hunting French Suspect in Slaying of Cameroon Leftist", New York Times, December 31, 1960, p2
  14. ^ "SOVIET COUP STORY RIDDLE", Sydney Morning Herald, November 6, 1960 p1
  15. ^ from Miami News editions of November 4, 1960: "Rumors Fly That Nik's Been Ousted" (2nd Ed.); "RUMORS FLY NIKITA'S OUT: World Buzzes, But Reds Deny It" (3rd.); "Nik Out? Just Rumor" (Final)
  16. ^ David Pietrusza, 1960--LBJ Vs. JFK Vs. Nixon: The Epic Campaign That Forged Three Presidencies (Sterling Publishing, 2008), p382; "Guards Grab Pair, Pistols", Milwaukee Journal, November 5, 1960, p2
  17. ^ Martin Gottfried, Arthur Miller: His Life and Work (Da Capo Press, 2004) p339
  18. ^ Regina Wagner, The History of Coffee in Guatemala (Villegas Asociados, 2001) p203
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  21. ^ Jon E. Lewis; Penny Stempel (1996). Cult TV: The Essential Critical Guide. Pavilion. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-85793-926-2.
  22. ^ "Mack Sennett, 76, Film Pioneer Who Developed Slapstick, Dies. Keystone Kops, Custard Pies and Bathing Beauties Were Symbols of His Movies". The New York Times. November 6, 1960.
  23. ^ Werner Habicht; Wolf-Dieter Lange (1988). Der Literatur Brockhaus (in German). F.A. Brockhaus. p. 14. ISBN 978-3-7653-0400-2.
  24. ^ "Woman Is Killed By Subway Bomb", New York Times, November 7, 1960, p1; "Broken date brings death on 'A' Train", Baltimore Afro-American, November 12, 1960, p1
  25. ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2 November 2020) [20 July 1998]. "Erich Raeder". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  26. ^ "Airliner Falls Into Volcano", The Post-Standard (Syracuse, NY), November 8, 1960, p1
  27. ^ "DFS Group: Our History"
  28. ^ "Nixon Goes Before Nation in Telethon", Oakland Tribune, November 7, 1960, p1
  29. ^ "Tiny Black Dot: Astronomers Predict Mercury Sun Transit", Victoria (TX) Advocate, November 6, 1960, p14
  30. ^ "Mercury Passage Seen Here", Battle Creek (MI) Enquirer, November 7, 1960, p3
  31. ^ Zwonitzer, Mark; Hirshberg, Charles (2004). Will You Miss Me When I'm Gone?: The Carter Family & Their Legacy in American Music. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-4382-7.
  32. ^ USAElectionAtlas.org, David Leip
  33. ^ "Nixon Concedes Kennedy Victory", Oakland Tribune, November 9, 1960, p1
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  35. ^ "Uncensored Book Sells Out – Fast", San Antonio Express, November 11, 1960, p9; BBC On This Day
  36. ^ Warren Roberts and Paul Poplawski, A Bibliography of D.H. Lawrence (3d. Ed., Cambridge University Press, 2001) p145
  37. ^ "Lost in Space" Archived 2012-12-04 at the Wayback Machine by Kris Hollington, Fortean Times, July 2008
  38. ^ "50 Slain in Coup By Viet Nam Army", Oakland Tribune, November 11, 1960, p1
  39. ^ "TheGreatOceanLiners.com". Archived from the original on 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  40. ^ "Weapons of Mass Destruction", American Federation of Scientists
  41. ^ "Space Weather" "Aurora Borealis Lights Up D.C. Area; Resultant Calls Light Switchboards", Washington Post, November 14, 1960, pA3
  42. ^ Masley, AJ; Goedeke, AD (1963). "Complete dose analysis of the November 12, 1960 solar cosmic ray event". Life Sci Space Res. 1: 95–109. PMID 12056429.
  43. ^ "152 Children Die in Roaring Fire", San Antonio Express, November 15, 1960, p1
  44. ^ "On Peaceful Expression of Kurdish Linguistic Identity by Children in Syria", by Dr. Zurab Aloian
  45. ^ Susanne Jonas, The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power (5th Ed., Westview Press, 1991), p63
  46. ^ Gary Fishgall, Gonna Do Great Things: The Life of Sammy Davis, Jr (Simon & Schuster, 2003) p178
  47. ^ "May Britt Asks Divorce From Davis", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 21, 1968, p2
  48. ^ "110 Dead in Crash of 2 Czech Trains", New York Times, November 16, 1960, p9
  49. ^ "New Orleans Grade Schools Integrated", Oakland Tribune, November 14, 1960, p1
  50. ^ "Weapons of Mass Destruction", Security.org
  51. ^ a b John Piña Craven, The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea (Simon & Schuster, 2002), p74
  52. ^ The Party of Labor of Albania in Battle with Modern Revisionism
  53. ^ Gianoulis, Tina (August 16, 2005). "RuPaul (RuPaul Andre Charles)" (PDF). GLBTQ: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. GLBTQ, Inc. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 12, 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
  54. ^ "Ike Launches Show of Force Policy in Caribbean to Warn Castro Not to Export Revolt", Toledo (OH) Blade, November 18, 1960, p1
  55. ^ Francis K. Mason, Hawker aircraft since 1920 (Naval Institute Press, 1991) p84
  56. ^ "Japan Voter No Neutral, Victor Says", Spokesman-Review (Spokane WA), November 22, 1960, p3
  57. ^ "Congolese Clash With U.N. Troops", Daytona Beach (FL) Morning Journal, November 22, 1960, p1
  58. ^ Frederick H. Gareau, The United Nations and other international institutions: a critical analysis (Rowman & Littlefield, 2002) p178
  59. ^ Mark Monmonier, Air Apparent: How Meteorologists Learned to Map, Predict, and Dramatize Weather (University of Chicago Press, 2000) pp123–124
  60. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-05. Retrieved 2010-03-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  61. ^ "Wilt Goes On Rebound Rampage", Miami News, November 25, 1960, p5C
  62. ^ Association for Professional Basketball Research
  63. ^ Serafín Méndez Méndez, et al., Notable Caribbeans and Caribbean Americans: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003) pp312–313; "Celebrate 25 November: White Ribbon Day", Amnesty International website
  64. ^ Michael C. Keith, Talking Radio: An Oral History of American Radio in the Television Age (M.E. Sharpe, 2000) p46
  65. ^ Martin Torgoff, Can't Find My Way Home: America in the Great Stoned Age, 1945–2000 (Simon & Schuster, 2004) p74; Allen Ginsberg and Edmund White, Spontaneous Mind: Selected Interviews 1958–1996 (Harper Collins, 2002) p9
  66. ^ Aviation Safety Database
  67. ^ Edward Bliss, Now the News: The Story of Broadcast Journalism p375
  68. ^ "French Mauritania Gains Independence", Pacific Stars and Stripes, November 29, 1960, p1;The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  69. ^ Dark Matters: Twisted But True - Missing Cosmonaut Episode, 2011, television show, Science Channel, aired December 14, 2011 8-9am MST
  70. ^ "Minnesota Scales Grid World Peak", Wisconsin State Journal (Madison WI), November 30, 1960, p3-1
  71. ^ Arthur M. Schlesinger and David Sobel, A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (Houghton Mifflin, 1965) p88
  72. ^ Astronautix.com Archived 2010-01-07 at the Wayback Machine, Mark Wade
  73. ^ attribution: Stephen J. Brown
  74. ^ "Last DeSoto Car Built Wednesday", Anderson (IN) Daily Bulletin, December 1, 1960, p12