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Sary Shagan (Russian: Сары-Шаган; Kazakh: Сарышаған) is an anti-ballistic missile testing range located in Kazakhstan.

Sary Shagan
Сары-Шаган
Near Priozersk in Kazakhstan
Balkhash9-landsat.jpg
Balkhash-9 radar station at Sary Shagan
Coordinates46°23′N 72°52′E / 46.383°N 72.867°E / 46.383; 72.867Coordinates: 46°23′N 72°52′E / 46.383°N 72.867°E / 46.383; 72.867
TypeAnti-ballistic missile testing range
Site information
OperatorRussian Aerospace Forces
Statusactive
Site history
In use1958 (1958) - current

On 17 August 1956 the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union authorized plans for an experimental facility for missile defense located at Sary Shagan, on the west bank of Lake Balkhash. The first missile launched from the facility[1] was a V-1000 on 16 October 1958, but the facilities for full-scale testing were not ready until 1961.[2] Sary Shagan remains in use to this day, with the latest known launch on September 26, 2017. Sary Shagan was a closed city until 2005.[citation needed]

The length of the site is 480 km.[3]

The Sary Shagan range was the intended landing site for the sample return canister of the Russian Phobos Grunt mission.[citation needed]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The first and only one in Eurasia test site for the development and testing of anti-missile weapons. In USSR, the official name of the test site is State Research and Testing Site No. 10 USSR Ministry of Defense (USSR Ministry of Defense [4]. The landfill occupied 81,200 km² (including 49,200 km² in the Karaganda region KazSSR).

The construction of the landfill and the city began in 1956. [5] in connection with the development of a missile defense system called System A. The main criteria for selecting a site for the landfill, like when creating the Kapustin Yar and NIIP-5 rocket ranges (Baikonur), were the presence of sparsely populated lowland woodland, a large number of cloudless days, and the lack of valuable farmland. Marshal Nedelin recalled: Template:Beginning of quotation This is a very harsh desert region, uninhabited, unsuitable for grazing flocks. Stony barren and waterless desert. But the main dwelling of the missile defense ground can be tied to Lake Balkhash. It has fresh, though harsh, water, and the town will be blissful if you can apply this word to the desert. Template:Unquote

June 9 1960 and at the test site he died of a heart attack, General Designer OKB-301 S. A. Lavochkin (during the test of the air defense system “ Dal”).

March 4 1961 and for the first time in the world a ballistic missile warhead was hit by an experimental complex PRO System A at the test site.

In October 1961 and October 1962, 5 nuclear explosions at altitudes from 80 km to 300 km were carried out over the test site during [[Operation K] | Complex Testing]].

July 15 1966 and by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the landfill was awarded the Order of Lenin for successfully completing the tasks of developing, developing and mastering new military equipment.

April 20 1981 and the test site (10 GNIIP Air Defense Forces) was awarded the Order of the Red Star.

All Soviet and Russian complexes PRO and air defense long-range, many promising radar, experimental complexes based on combat laser high power (including including the program “ Terra”, “Omega”).

In total, the following was tested at the test site: 6 antimissile systems; 12 anti-aircraft missile systems; 7 types of anti-missile; 12 types of anti-aircraft guided missiles; 14 types of measuring equipment; 18 radar systems and several systems on new physical principles. Testing of 15 strategic missile systems and their modifications is provided.

In 1998, the Sary-Shagan test site was withdrawn from the troops [[[AD)] and reassigned to 4th State Central Interspecific Test Site (administered by RVSN)[6].

Current statusEdit

In the 1990s, most of the landfill facilities were decommissioned and abandoned; in subsequent years, they were looted by marauders, and the equipment was dismantled [5].

As of 2014, due to the controversial legal status of abandoned landfill sites, these territories are not reclaimed, cluttered with the remnants of buildings and structures, polluted by landfill waste. After the proclamation in 1991 of the independence of Kazakhstan, its sovereignty extends to the landfill. In 1996, a Agreement was signed between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the lease of the Sary-Shagan testing ground [7], under which Russia leased part of the landfill area. The areas to which the rent did not apply were transferred to the use of the Republic of Kazakhstan. However, no specific steps have been taken, the property has not yet been taken to the balance of the relevant departments of Kazakhstan.

In fact, the territory of the landfill is not protected. In practice, the site is open to all who wish to visit it. There are no designations of the boundaries of the landfill, no information signs and shields on which it would be explained what the risk of unauthorized visitors to the landfill and the responsibility they may incur for it. To obtain the same official permission, subject to the availability of all the necessary document s, it takes many months. Without any permits at the landfill site, the local population earns a living by collecting scrap and "mining" building materials [8]Cite error: The <ref> tag has too many names (see the help page). . The military units of the Ministry of Defense of Kazakhstan [9].

From 2005, entry into the city of Priozersk is carried out without a permit. Until 2009, the Kazakhstan Road police at KPP recorded the time of entry, the model of the car, and state number; since 2009, the data of the majority of cars entering are not recorded.

October 24 2012 and a conditional target at the test site destroyed a prototype of a new Russian ballistic missile with a mobile launcher RS-26, launched from Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan areas Russia [10].

On March 4, 2014, the RS-12M Topol intercontinental ballistic missile launched from Kapustin Yar test site in Astrakhan Region Russia struck a training target at the test site.[11]

In 2016, the Russian-Kazakh agreement was ratified, which established new boundaries of the landfill, excluding some sections [12].

At the beginning of 2017, the modernization of the experimental test base of the test site began. The ground-based optical-electronic systems "Beret-M", optical-electronic stations of the trajectory-measuring complex "OES TIK", optical-electronic stations "Sazhen-TM", receiving antenna complexes were delivered

Other notable military complexes on siteEdit

In the 1970s the Vympel OKB, Geofizika, Phazotron, MNIIRE Altair, others; built the Terra-3 laser testing centre at Sary Shagan.

Radar siteEdit

The Sary Shagan site has hosted a number of radar prototypes such as the Don-2NP. Also there is Balkhash-9 radar station a few km away which started in the 1960s and still functions as part of the Russian missile warning network.

References in FictionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica - "Sary Shagan"
  2. ^ FAS.org - "Sary Shagan General Overview"
  3. ^ James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (n.d.). "Sary-Shagan". Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  4. ^ [https: //web.archive.org/web/20080528102631/http: //www.vimpel.ru/rko5.htm# "" Vladislav Repin. The main stages of creating a rocket and space defense ""] Check |archiveurl= value (help). Archived from [http: //www.vimpel.ru/rko5.htm# the original] Check |url= value (help) on 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2009-05-15. Unknown parameter |deadlink= ignored (|dead-url= suggested) (help)
  5. ^ a b Abandoned sword of the empire (Photo report on the trip to the Sary-Shagan test site, 2008)
  6. ^ 54th OVE Error in Webarchive template: Invalid URL.
  7. ^ /DocumShow_DocumID_1816.html Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the lease of the Sary-Shagan testing ground October 18, 1996
  8. ^ Napalm nap. The strategic site of Sary-Shagan (Kazakhstan) became abandoned ...
  9. ^ 169079. Photo archive
  10. ^ A successful test launch of a new ICBM was made from the Kapustin Yar test site
  11. ^ Topol ballistic missile tested in Astrakhan region
  12. ^ 6 & 02 Automated Legislation Support System <! - Title added by bot ->

Further readingEdit