Northern soul is a music and dance movement that emerged in Northern England and the English Midlands in the late 1960s from the British mod scene, based on a particular style of black American soul music, especially from the mid-1960s, with a heavy beat and fast tempo (100 bpm and above) or American soul music from northern cities such as Detroit, Chicago and others.
|Stylistic origins||American 1960s R&B and soul music.|
|Cultural origins||1960s, Northern England and North Midlands, Detroit, Chicago, Philadelphia|
The northern soul movement generally eschews Motown or Motown-influenced music that has had significant mainstream commercial success. The recordings most prized by enthusiasts of the genre are usually by lesser-known artists, released only in limited numbers, often by American labels such as Vee-Jay Records, Chess Records, Brunswick Records, Ric-Tic, Gordy Records, Golden World Records (Detroit), Mirwood Records (Los Angeles), Shout Records and Okeh.
Northern soul is associated with particular dance styles and fashions that grew out of the underground rhythm and soul scene of the late 1960s at venues such as the Twisted Wheel in Manchester. This scene and the associated dances and fashions quickly spread to other UK dancehalls and nightclubs like the Wigan Casino, Blackpool Mecca (the Highland Room), and Golden Torch (Stoke-on-Trent).
As the favoured beat became more uptempo and frantic in the early 1970s, northern soul dancing became more athletic, somewhat resembling the later dance styles of disco and break dancing. Featuring spins, flips, karate kicks and backdrops, club dancing styles were often inspired by the stage performances of touring American soul acts such as Little Anthony and the Imperials and Jackie Wilson.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, popular northern soul records generally dated from the mid-1960s. This meant that the movement was sustained (and "new" recordings added to playlists) by prominent DJs discovering rare and previously overlooked records. Later on, certain clubs and DJs began to move away from the 1960s Motown sound and began to play newer releases with a more contemporary sound.
The term "northern soul" emanated from the record shop Soul City in Covent Garden, London, which was run by famous soul music collector Dave Godin. It was first publicly used in Godin's weekly column in Blues & Soul magazine in June 1970. In a 2002 interview with Chris Hunt of Mojo magazine, Godin said he had first come up with the term in 1968, to help employees at Soul City differentiate the more modern funkier sounds from the smoother. Godin referred to the latter's requests as "Northern Soul":
I had started to notice that northern football fans who were in London to follow their team were coming into the store to buy records, but they weren't interested in the latest developments in the black American chart. I devised the name as a shorthand sales term. It was just to say "if you've got customers from the north, don't waste time playing them records currently in the U.S. black chart, just play them what they like – 'Northern Soul'".
The music style most associated with northern soul is the heavy, syncopated beat and fast tempo of mid-1960s Motown Records, which was usually combined with soulful vocals. These types of records, which suited the athletic dancing that was prevalent, became known on the scene as "stompers". Notable examples include Tony Clarke's "Landslide" (popularised by Ian Levine at Blackpool Mecca) and Gloria Jones’ "Tainted Love" (purchased by Richard Searling on a trip to the United States in 1973 and popularised at Va Va’s in Bolton, and later, Wigan Casino). According to northern soul DJ Ady Croadsell, viewed retrospectively, the earliest recording to possess this style was the 1965 single "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)" by the Four Tops, although that record was never popular in the northern soul scene because it was too mainstream. The venue most commonly associated with the early development of the northern soul scene was the Twisted Wheel in Manchester. The club began in the early 1950s as a beatnik coffee bar called The Left Wing, but in early 1963, the run-down premises were leased by two Manchester businessmen (Ivor and Phil Abadi) and turned into a music venue. Initially, the Twisted Wheel mainly hosted live music on the weekends and Disc Only nights during the week. DJ Roger Eagle, a collector of imported American soul, jazz and rhythm and blues, was booked around this time, and the club's reputation as a place to hear and dance to the latest American R&B music began to grow. Pubs such as the Eagle in Birmingham were frequented by young blue-eyed soul singers such as Steve Winwood, who released songs of similar style to the early U.S. soul music.
By 1968 the reputation of the Twisted Wheel and the type of music being played there had grown nationwide and soul fans were travelling from all over the United Kingdom to attend the Saturday all-nighters. Until his departure in 1968, resident 'All Niter' DJ Bob Dee compiled and supervised the playlist, utilising the newly developed slip-cueing technique to spin the vinyl. Rarer, more up-tempo imported records were added to the playlist in 1969 by the new younger DJs like Brian "45" Phillips up until the club's eventual closure in 1971. After attending one of the venue's all-nighters in November 1970, Godin wrote: "it is without doubt the highest and finest I have seen outside of the USA ... never thought I'd live to see the day where people could so relate the rhythmic content of Soul music to bodily movement to such a skilled degree!" The venue’s owners had successfully filled the vacancy left by Eagle with a growing roster of specialist soul DJs including Brian Rae, Paul Davies and Alan 'Ollie' Ollerton.
In America, after Doo wop boom was over, northern soul started. Motown, Chess, and Vee-Jay records were famous northern soul labels. By the mid-1960s, Motown got good songwriters and producers such as Robinson, A&R chief William "Mickey" Stevenson, Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Norman Whitfield.
From 1961 to 1971, Motown had 110 top 10 hits. Top artists on the Motown label during that period included the Supremes featuring Diana Ross, the Four Tops, and the Jackson 5, while Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, the Marvelettes, and the Miracles had hits on the Tamla label. The company had several labels in addition to the Tamla and Motown. A third label, which Gordy named after himself featured the Temptations, the Contours, Edwin Starr, and Martha and the Vandellas. A fourth label, V.I.P., released recordings by Detroit the Spinners, and the Monitors. A fifth label, Soul, featured Jr. Walker & the All Stars, Jimmy Ruffin, Shorty Long, the Originals, and Gladys Knight & The Pips.
Chicago label Vee-Jay Records become a major soul label with Jerry Butler, Gene Chandler, Dee Clark, and Betty Everett having hit singles on both the pop and R&B charts. Vee-Jay was also the first label to nationally issue a record by Gladys Knight & the Pips.
Vee-Jay had significant success with pop/rock acts, such as the Four Seasons (their first non-black act) and the Beatles. Vee-Jay acquired the rights to some of the early recordings by the Beatles through a licensing deal with EMI, as the American affiliate Capitol Records was initially uninterested in the group. Calvin Carter later said, "There was a number one record over in England at the time. The group turned out to be the Beatles and we got a five-year contract on the Beatles as a pickup on the Frank Ifield contract.
In America, Holland-Dozier-Holland's successful acts on 70s Invictus records were Freda Payne and Chairmen of the Board. They also released Parliament's first album, Osmium. The label was distributed by Capitol Records from 1969 to 1972 and then by Columbia Records from 1973 onwards.
In September 1970, the British music magazine NME reported that Invictus had the UK's top two singles. Freda Payne's "Band of Gold" was #1, while Chairmen of the Board's "Give Me Just a Little More Time" was at #3 in the UK Singles Chart. Both of those records were million-sellers in the US, but neither topped the pop or R&B charts. Invictus had two other gold records: Freda Payne's "Bring The Boys Home" and 8th Day's "She's Not Just Another Woman", both in 1971. Northern soul reached the peak of its popularity in the mid- to late-1970s. At this time, there were soul clubs in virtually every major town in the Midlands and the North of England. Some nightclubs regarded as the most important in this decade were the Golden Torch, and Wigan Casino (1973 to 1981).
Although Wigan Casino is now the most well known, the best attended Northern soul all-night venue at the beginning of the decade was actually the Golden Torch, where regular Friday night soul "all-nighters" began during the latter months of 1970. Chris Burton, the owner, stated that by 1972, the club had a membership of 12,500, and had hosted 62,000 separate customer visits.
In 1972, white soul group The Four Seasons released the song "The Night", from their May 1972 album Chameleon, a disco song which appealed to the northern soul scene, and as a result, it was successfully re-released in the UK in the spring of 1975.
Wigan Casino began its weekly soul all-nighters in September 1973. Wigan Casino had a much larger capacity than many competing venues and ran its events from 2.00 am until 8.00 am. There was a regular roster of DJs, including Russ Winstanley, Kev Roberts and Richard Searling. By 1976, the club had a membership of 100,000 people, and in 1978, was voted the world's number one discotheque by Billboard. This was all going during the heyday of the Studio 54 nightclub in New York City. By the late 1970s, the club had its own spin-off record label, Casino Classics.
By this time, Wigan Casino was coming under criticism from many soul fans about selling out the format and playing 'anything that came along'. Contemporary black American soul was changing with the advent of funk, disco and jazz-funk, and the supply of recordings with the fast-paced northern soul sound began to dwindle rapidly. As a result, Wigan Casino DJs resorted to playing any kind of record that matched the correct tempo. Also, the club was subjected to intense media coverage and began to attract many otherwise uninterested people of whom the soul purists did not approve.
Northern soul movement between Wigan Casino's fans and Blackpool Mecca's wider approach, which accepted the more contemporary sounds of Philly soul, early disco and funk. Ian Levine broke from the northern soul mould by playing a new release by The Carstairs ("It Really Hurts Me Girl") in the early 1970s:
Back in England I found this dealer called John Anderson who'd moved from Scotland to Kings Lynn. I told him I wanted this Carstairs record and he'd just had a shipment in from America of 100,000 demo records from radio stations. We went through this collection, me, Andy Hanley, and Bernie Golding, and we found three copies of the Carstairs record. Went back to Blackpool, played the record and changed the whole scene. Blackpool Mecca suddenly became the home of this new Northern soul sound. I would've heard this record in 1973, when it was supposedly released, but not obtained it until 1974.
Other major northern soul venues in the 1970s include the Catacombs in Wolverhampton, Va Va's in Bolton, the 'Talk of the North' all-nighters at the Pier and Winter Gardens in Cleethorpes, Tiffany's in Coalville, Samantha's in Sheffield, Neil Rushton's 'Heart of England' soul club all-dayers at the Ritz in Manchester and the Nottingham Palais. As the 1970s progressed, the northern soul scene expanded even further nationally. There was a notable scene in the east of England: Shades Northampton was one of the leading venues in this part of the country during the early 1970s until it closed in 1975. Later came the all-nighters at the St Ivo Centre in St Ives, the Phoenix Soul club at the Wirrina Stadium in Peterborough and the Howard Mallett in Cambridge. Other towns with notable northern soul venues at this time included Kettering, Coventry, Bournemouth, Southampton and Bristol.
1980s and laterEdit
When Wigan Casino closed in 1981, many believed that the northern soul scene was on the verge of disintegrating. However, late 1970s mod revival, the thriving scooterboy subculture and late 80s acid jazz movement were popular among music fans. The popularity of the music was introduced by a wave of reissues and compilation albums from minor independent record labels. Rare groove boom started in late 80s with underground DJ Barrie Sharpe and Lascelles Gordon. Both played that brand of obscure American import records, 7" and albums ("looking back retrospectively"), that they had in their collection. These were bought from such specialist import record shops such as Moondogs in East Ham, and Contempo record shop at 42 Hanway Street in the West end of London, owned by John Abbey, founder of Blues & Soul magazine. The magazine also had their own record label (also called Contempo), releasing music from the 1970s which, starting in 1984, played at a club previously known as Whisky-A-Go-Go, founded by Rene Gelston in Wardour Street.
Norman Jay's show was a collaboration with DJ Judge Jules and featured a mainly urban soundtrack from the 1970s and 1980s mixed with early house music. Tracks similar to "rare grooves" had begun to see a following in the 1970s northern soul movement, which curated a collection of rare and obscure soul. Many of these labels were set up by DJs and collectors who had been part of the original northern soul scene. The 1980s – often dismissed as a low period for Northern soul by those who had left the scene in the 1970s — featured almost 100 new venues in places such as Bradford, London, Peterborough, Leighton Buzzard, Whitchurch, Coventry and Leicester. Pre-eminent among the 1980s venues were Stafford's Top of the World and London's 100 Club.
Today there are regular northern soul events in various parts of the United Kingdom, such as the Nightshift Club all-nighters at the Bisley Pavilion in Surrey and the Prestatyn Weekender in North Wales. In an August 2008 article in The Times, broadcaster Terry Christian argued that northern soul was undergoing a distinct revival in the late 2000s. Christian cited the popularity of regular revivals of Twisted Wheel soul all-nighters at the original venue (in Whitworth Street, Manchester) plus the Beat Boutique northern soul all-nighters at the Ruby Lounge and MMUnion in Manchester. Many of those who ceased their involvement in the late 1970s have now returned to the scene and regularly participate in such events. As of 2009, Paul O'Grady has included a Northern Soul Triple in his weekly BBC Radio 2 show. He plays three Northern soul hits, often at the request of his listeners.
The northern soul movement inspired the film Soulboy (2010), directed by Shimmy Marcus, and at least one novel: Do I Love You? (2008) by Paul McDonald. In June 2010, theatre director Fiona Laird wrote and directed Keeping the Faith, a musical based on the Wigan Casino scene and featuring northern soul music. It was staged at the Central School of Speech and Drama's Webber Douglas Studio, with a revival at the same venue in September 2010.
According to Will Hermes of Rolling Stone, the 2008 Raphael Saadiq album The Way I See It is an original evocation of "classic Northern soul". The music of Yorkshire singer John Newman has also been described as 'northern soul', including his No. 1 hit "Love Me Again". One version of the video for the song features stereotypical northern soul dancing. Additionally, the track samples the famous soul drum break from James Brown's "Funky Drummer", performed by Clyde Stubblefield.
Northern soul musicEdit
In the book Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: the history of the DJ, the authors describe northern soul as "a genre built from failures", stating: "... Northern Soul was the music made by hundreds of singers and bands who were copying the Detroit sound of Motown pop. Most of the records were complete failures in their own time and place ... but in Northern England from the end of the 1960s through to its heyday in the middle 1970s, were exhumed and exalted."
Other related music styles also gained acceptance in the northern soul scene. Slower, less-danceable soul records were often played, such as Barbara Mills' "Queen of Fools" (popular in 1972 at the Golden Torch) and the Mob's "I Dig Everything About You". Every all-nighter at Wigan Casino ended with the playing of three well-known northern soul songs with a particular going home theme. These came to be known as the "3 before 8" and were: "Time Will Pass You By" by Tobi Legend, "Long After Tonight is Over" by Jimmy Radcliffe and "I'm on My Way" by Dean Parrish. Commercial pop songs that matched the up-tempo beat of the stompers were also played at some venues, including the Ron Grainer Orchestra's instrumental "Theme From Joe 90" at Wigan Casino and the Just Brothers’ surf-guitar song "Sliced Tomatoes" at Blackpool Mecca.
As the scene developed in the mid and late 1970s, the more contemporary and rhythmically sophisticated sounds of disco and Philly Soul became accepted at certain venues following its adoption at Blackpool Mecca. This style is typified musically by the O'Jays' "I Love Music" (UK No. 13, January 1976), which gained popularity before its commercial release at Blackpool Mecca in late 1975. The record that initially popularised this change is usually cited as the Carstairs, "It Really Hurts Me Girl" (Red Coach), a record initially released late in 1973 on promotional copies, but quickly withdrawn due to lack of interest from American radio stations. The hostility towards any contemporary music style from northern soul traditionalists at Wigan Casino led to the creation of the spin-off modern soul movement in the early 1980s.
Rarity of northern soul recordsEdit
Some northern soul records were so rare that only a handful of copies were known to exist, so specific DJs and clubs became associated with particular records that were almost exclusively in their own playlists. Keith Rylatt and Phil Scott wrote:
As venues such as the Twisted Wheel evolved into northern soul clubs in the late 1960s and the dancers increasingly demanded newly discovered sounds, DJs began to acquire and play rare and often deleted US releases that had not gained even a release in the UK.
These records were sometimes obtained through specialist importers or, in some cases, by DJs visiting the US and purchasing old warehouse stock. Many of the original singers and musicians remained unaware of their newfound popularity for many years.
As the scene increased in popularity, a network of UK record dealers emerged who could acquire further copies of the original vinyl and supply them to fans at prices commensurate with their rarity and desirability. Later on, a number of UK record labels capitalised on the booming popularity of northern soul and negotiated licences for certain popular records from the copyright holders and reissue them as new 45s or compilation LPs. Among these labels were Casino Classics, PYE Disco Demand, Inferno, Kent Modern and Goldmine.
The notoriety of DJs on the northern soul scene was enhanced by the possession of rare records, but exclusivity was not enough on its own, and the records had to conform to a certain musical style and gain acceptance on the dance floor. Northern soul collectors seek rare singles by artists such as Holly Maxwell, Gene Chandler, Barbara Acklin, the Casualeers, and Jimmy Burns. Frank Wilson's "Do I Love You (Indeed I Do)" has been rated the rarest and most valuable northern soul single. In December 2014, collectors were bidding in excess of £11,000 for a copy of the London Records version of Darrell Banks' "Open the Door to Your Heart", thought to be the only copy in circulation. It had previously been thought that all the original versions had been destroyed when rival label EMI won the rights to release the single.
Hits and favouritesEdit
The northern soul movement spawned an active market in reissuing older soul recordings in the UK, several of which became popular enough to actually make the UK charts several years after their original issue. Dave Godin is generally credited with being the first UK entrepreneur to start this trend, setting up the Soul City label in 1968, and striking a deal with EMI to license Gene Chandler's 1965 recording "Nothing Can Stop Me", which had been popular for several years at the Twisted Wheel. Issued as a 45 on Soul City, the track peaked at UK No. 41 in August 1968, becoming the first Northern Soul-derived chart hit. A few months later in January 1969, Jamo Thomas' 1966 single "I Spy (For the FBI)" was similarly licensed and reissued, hitting UK No. 44.
The trend continued into the 1970s, as many songs from the 1960s that were revived on the northern soul scene were reissued by their original labels and became UK top 40 hits. These include the Tams' 1964 recording "Hey Girl Don't Bother Me" (UK No. 1, July 1971) – which was popularised by Midlands DJ Carl Dene – the Fascinations' 1966 single "Girls Are Out to Get You" (UK No. 32, 1971), the Elgins' "Heaven Must Have Sent You" (UK No. 3 July 1971), the Newbeats' 1965 American hit "Run, Baby Run (Back Into My Arms)" (UK No. 10, October 1971), Bobby Hebb's "Love Love Love" which was originally the B-side of "A Satisfied Mind" (UK No. 32, August 1972), Robert Knight's "Love on a Mountain Top" recorded in 1968 (UK No. 10, November 1973) and R. Dean Taylor's "There's a Ghost in My House" from 1967 (UK No. 3, May 1974).
The northern soul scene also spawned many lesser chart hits, including Al Wilson's 1968 cut "The Snake" (UK No. 41 in 1975), Dobie Gray's "Out on the Floor" (UK No. 42, September 1975) and Little Anthony & the Imperials' "Better Use Your Head" (UK No. 42, July 1976).
A variety of recordings were made later in the 1970s that were specifically aimed at the northern soul scene, which also went on to become UK top 40 hits. These included: the Exciters’ "Reaching For the Best" (UK No. 31, October 1975), L. J. Johnson's "Your Magic Put a Spell on Me" (UK No. 27, February 1976), and Tommy Hunt’s "Loving On the Losing Side" (UK No. 28, August 1976). "Goodbye Nothing To Say", by the white British group the Javells, was identified by Dave McAleer of Pye's Disco Demand label as having an authentic northern soul feel. McAleer gave acetates to Wigan Casino DJ's Russ Winstanley, Kev Roberts, Richard Searling (a Wigan Casino DJ and promoter), and the tune became popular among the dancers at the venue. The song was also the subject of potential legal action against the writers of Maxine Nightingale's "Right Back Where We Started From". Disco Demand then released the song as a 45 rpm single, reaching UK No. 26 in November 1974. To promote the single on BBC's Top of the Pops, the performer was accompanied by two Wigan Casino dancers.
In at least one case, a previously obscure recording was specially remixed to appeal to northern soul fans: the 1968 recording "Footsee" by Canadian group the Chosen Few was sped up, overdubbed and remixed to emerge as the 1975 UK No. 9 hit "Footsee", now credited to Wigan's Chosen Few. In addition, the northern soul favourite "Skiing in the Snow", originally by the Invitations, was covered by local band Wigan's Ovation, and reached No. 12 in the UK Singles Chart. These versions were not well received by the northern soul community as their success brought wider awareness to the subculture.
In 2000, Wigan Casino DJ Kev Roberts compiled The Northern Soul Top 500, which was based on a survey of Northern soul fans. The top ten songs were: "Do I Love You (Indeed I Do)" by Frank Wilson, "Out on the Floor" by Dobie Gray, "You Didn't Say a Word" by Yvonne Baker, "The Snake" by Al Wilson, "Long After Tonight is Over" by Jimmy Radcliffe, "Seven Day Lover" by James Fountain, "You Don't Love Me" by Epitome of Sound, "Looking for You" by Garnet Mimms, "If That's What You Wanted" by Frankie Beverly & the Butlers and "Seven Days Too Long" by Chuck Wood.
Fashion and imageryEdit
A large proportion of northern soul's original audience came from within the 1960s mod subculture. In the late 1960s, when some mods started to embrace freakbeat and psychedelic rock, other mods – especially those in Northern England – stuck to the original mod soundtrack of soul and Blue Beat. From the latter category, two strands emerged: skinheads and the northern soul scene.
Early Northern soul fashion included strong elements of the classic mod style, such as button-down Ben Sherman shirts, blazers with centre vents and unusual numbers of buttons, trickers and brogue shoes and shrink-to-fit Levi's jeans. Some non-mod items, such as bowling shirts, were also popular. Later, northern soul dancers started to wear light and loose-fitting clothing for reasons of practicality. This included high-waisted, baggy Oxford bags and sports vests. These were often covered with sew-on badges representing soul club memberships.
The clenched raised fist symbol that has become associated with the Northern soul movement emanates from the 1960s Black Power movement of the United States. On his visit to the Twisted Wheel in 1971, Dave Godin recalled that "...very many young fellows wore black "right on now" racing gloves ... between records one would hear the occasional cry of "right on now!" or see a clenched gloved fist rise over the tops of the heads of the dancers!"
In 2007, Andrew Wilson (lecturer in criminology at the University of Sheffield) published the extensively researched sociological study Northern Soul: Music, drugs and subcultural identity. This work details the lifestyles associated with the northern soul scene and the extensive use of amphetamines (otherwise known as speed) by many involved. Wilson argues that, although many did not use drugs, their usage was heavily ingrained in the fast-paced culture of the northern soul scene, contributing to participants' ability to stay up all night dancing. Many clubs and events were closed down or refused licences due to the concern of local authorities that soul nights attracted drug dealers and users. Roger Eagle, DJ at the Twisted Wheel club in Manchester, cited amphetamine usage among participants as his reason for quitting the club in 1967. Of the regular attendees he said, "All they wanted was fast-tempo black dance music... [but they were] too blocked on amphetamines to articulate exactly which Jackie Wilson record they wanted me to play." According to Hillegonda C. Rietveld, northern soul "dancers were fuelled by...Dexedrine tablets".
The Northern soul scene has had a notable influence on DJ culture, certain musicians, and has been portrayed in literature, theatre and cinema.
Influence on DJ cultureEdit
The Northern soul movement is cited by many as being a significant step towards the creation of contemporary club culture and of the superstar DJ culture of the 2000s. Two of the most notable DJs from the original Northern soul era are Russ Winstanley and Ian Levine. As in contemporary club culture, Northern soul DJs built up a following based on satisfying the crowd's desires for music that they could not hear anywhere else. The competitiveness between DJs to unearth 'in-demand' sounds led them to cover up the labels on their records, giving rise to the modern white label pressing. Many argue that Northern soul was instrumental in creating a network of clubs, DJs, record collectors and dealers in the UK, and was the first music scene to provide the British charts with records that sold entirely on the strength of club play.
A technique employed by northern soul DJs in common with their later counterparts was the sequencing of records to create euphoric highs and lows for the crowd. DJ, Laurence 'Larry' Proxton being known for this method. DJ personalities and their followers involved in the original Northern soul movement went on to become important figures in the house and dance music scenes. Notable among these are Mike Pickering, who introduced house music to the Haçienda in Manchester in the 1980s, the influential DJ Colin Curtis, Neil Rushton the A&R manager of the House music record label Kool Kat Music and the dance record producers Pete Waterman, Johnathan Woodliffe, Ian Dewhirst and Ian Levine.
Former Casino DJ Richard Searling presents a weekly radio show on BBC Radio Manchester, BBC Radio Stoke and SOLAR Radio (now on Sunday at 10 am UK time) dedicated to Northern Soul, whilst John Kane's Northern Soul is broadcast across various BBC local radio stations in the North of England.
Australian DJ and PBS FM radio presenter Vince Peach absorbed the Northern Soul culture at the Twisted Wheel, where he also DJed, and took it to Australia in 1982. He started a dedicated Northern soul radio programme, called Soul Time, in 1984, which continues and is believed to be the longest running Soul program in the World.
The Northern Soul Show with Stuart Blackburn has been broadcast weekly across various internet radio stations since 2010, and can also be heard on Perth's British radio station UKWA Radio on 87.8FM in Perth's North Coast.
Influence on musiciansEdit
Northern soul has influenced several notable musicians. Terry Christian — in his 2008 article about Northern soul for The Times — wrote: "There's an instant credibility for any artist or brand associated with a scene that has always been wild, free and grassroots."
- Soft Cell had chart success in the early 1980s with covers of two popular Northern soul songs, "Tainted Love" (originally recorded by Gloria Jones) and "What?" (originally recorded by Melinda Marx on VJ, 1965, Judy Street 1966 and Tina Mason 1967). Soft Cell member Dave Ball used to occasionally attend soul nights at Blackpool Mecca and Wigan Casino.
- The Fall's 1981 song "Lie Dream of a Casino Soul" is about the Northern soul scene. Writer and singer Mark E. Smith said in an interview published in the NME on 1 October 1983: "That song actually did create quite a bit of resentment in the North because people thought it was being snobby and horrible about the old soul boys, which it was never about anyway. Because I was brought up with people that were into Northern Soul five years before anybody down here [London] had even heard about it. But they've all grown out of it, which is what the song is about, but it wasn't putting them down at all. If anything, it was glorifying them, but not in the format of, where are those soul boys that used to be here?"
- Moloko's video for "Familiar Feeling" is set against a Northern soul backdrop and was directed by Elaine Constantine, a longstanding Northern soul enthusiast. The video was choreographed by DJ Keb Darge, who rose to prominence at the Stafford Top of the World all-nighters in the 1980s.
- Fatboy Slim's 1998 big beat single "The Rockafeller Skank" samples the Just Brothers' "Sliced Tomatoes". The song reached number 6 in the UK Singles Chart and also had success in many other countries.
- The music video for Duffy's 2008 song "Mercy" features Duffy singing on a platform, accompanied by Northern soul dancers performing elaborate moves.
- Plan B's 2010 album, The Defamation of Strickland Banks displays a significant Northern soul influence. The video for "Stay Too Long" features Northern soul-style dance moves such as spins, flips and backdrops. The album sleeve features Northern soul-style sew-on patches.
- The video for John Newman's "Love Me Again" featured Northern soul dancing as a backdrop to a Romeo and Juliet-style romance.
- The video for the Courteeners' ""Are You in Love with a Notion?"" featured Northern soul dancing.
- The video for Above & Beyond's "Sun & Moon" contained Northern soul dancing.
- Paul Stuart Davies recorded Northern Soul Reimagined EP in 2015, with guidance from Russ Winstanley, presenting classic Northern soul tracks in a new light.
- Above & Beyond's 2017 release "Northern Soul" contains lyrics describing Detroit and the Northern soul scene, and also alludes to the decline of Detroit in the late 20th century.
The Northern soul subculture has spawned a number of memoirs, novels and short stories. Maxwell Murray's Crackin Up: A Tale of Sex Drugs and Northern Soul was published in 1999. Ian Snowball and Pete McKenna published In the Blood in 2012 and a volume including their All Souled Out short stories and Nightshift memoir in 2013. Both focus on the East London scene. Chris Rose's 2014 Wood, Talc and Mr J takes a more literary approach and is based on the Sheffield scene. The "Mr J" in the title is Chuck Jackson. Northern Soul also features in Nick Hornby's Juliet, Naked.
Several academic texts have been written on the topic of the Northern Soul scene, including The Northern Soul Scene (2019, Equinox) by Prof. Tim Wise (Birmingham City University), Dr. Nicola Watchman Smith (Liverpool/ Advance HE) and Dr. Sarah Raine.
Northern Soul is the title of a 2012 theatre piece by the British visual and performance artist, Victoria Melody. According to a description on the Solo Theatre website, 'Victoria, an untrained dancer, has been travelling the dance halls and living rooms of England being taught to dance by Northern Soul's ex-champions. Northern Soul draws on those investigations and explores the ‘soul of the north’ using film and original Northern Soul dance moves.'
- David Nowell The Story of Northern Soul, p. 79 Anova Books, 1999, ISBN 1907554726, accessed 11 May 2014
- Norcliffe, Josh (28 February 2014). "The Current Northern Soul scene: Is it just nostalgia?". Louder Than War. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- Stephen Catterall; Keith Gildart (January 2019). "Did Wigan Have a Northern Soul?: Volume 2". ResearchGate.
- Neil Rushton, Northern Soul Stories, Chapter 1, page 15
- Dave Godin. Later, Godin released "Deep soul treasure" series. "The Up-North Soul Groove", Blues & Soul magazine, June 1970
- "Chris Hunt | Wigan Casino". Chrishunt.biz. 23 September 1973. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Haslam, Dave, Manchester, England, chapter six, p. 147
- Sleeve notes written by Ian Levine accompanying the CD Reachin’ For the Best: The Northern Soul of the Blackpool Mecca on Sanctuary records
- Haslam, Dave, Manchester, England, chapter six, p. 172
- Paolo Hewitt. The Soul Stylists. p. 111, quote from Ady Croadsell
- Haslam, Dave, Manchester, England. 4th Estate. 1999
- David Nowell, Too Darn Soulful: The Story of Northern Soul page 35
- Bolton Evening News "Marvellous Days and Memories" Saturday 15 March 2003 page 10
- Manchester Evening News "Where is Bobby Now?" Saturday 3 January 2004 page 20
- "The Twisted Wheel - Blues and Soul - by Dave Godin". Soul-source.co.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- Chris Norby, "Vee-Jay label", Archer2000.com. Retrieved 12 June 2020
- "Osmium". Discogs. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- by Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life, Chapter four, Northern Soul. Section: "Soul Wars: Wigan Casino vs Blackpool Mecca", page 98
- Stickings, Reg. Searching For Soul
- Haslam, Dave. Adventures on the Wheels of Steel: The Rise of the Superstar DJs, Chapter six, "Leaving the Go-Go Girls at Home", page 170
- "The Night by The Four Seasons – Songfacts". Songfacts.com. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "FRANKIE VALLI | Official Charts Company". 4 April 2015. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- Russ Winstanley and David Nowell. Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story. Chapter one, page 14
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night A DJ Saved My Life. Chapter four, page 99, "Soul Wars: Wigan Casino versus Blackpool Mecca"
- Russ Winstanley and David Nowell. Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story. Chapter seven, page 101
- Ritson, Mike & Russell, Stuart. The In Crowd: The Story of the Northern & Rare Soul Scene, Chapter twenty, page 273
- Haslam, Dave. Adventures on the Wheels of Steel: The Rise of the Superstar DJs, Chapter six, "Leaving The Go-Go Girls At Home", page 180
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Hinckley Soul Club". Raresoul.org.uk. 29 July 2014. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Ritson, Mike & Russell, Stuart. The In Crowd: The Story of the Northern & Rare Soul Scene, Chapter 19, page 263
- Huffpost, Barrie Sharpe: The Man Behind 'The Masterplan'
- The Daily Telegraph, "Whatever happened to Duffer of St George?"
- Red Bull Music Academy Daily The Dancers: In Their Own Words An oral history of the forgotten dancers that set London on fire in the late 1970s
- Ritson, Mike. "Northern Exposure" column in Echoes magazine. March 2009
- "The Return of Northern Soul" Article by Terry Christian in The Times, 27 August 2008
- Stickings, Reg, Searching for Soul
- David Nowell, Too Darn Soulful: The Story of Northern Soul. Chapter 12, page 319.
- "Radio 2 - Paul O'Grady - Contact Us". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Hewitt, Paolo (21 August 2010). "SoulBoy might be set in 1974 but Northern soul fans are still out on the floor". The Guardian. London.
- "Saving the hapless male". The Daily Telegraph. 20 September 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Cahir O'Doherty (14 March 2009). "Books for St. Patrick's Day season". IrishCentral.com. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Hermes, Will (30 October 2008). "Raphael Saadiq: The Way I See It". Rolling Stone. New York. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012.
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night A DJ Saved My Life. Chapter four, page 86, "A Genre Built From Failures"
- Sleeve notes written by Neil Rushton accompanying the LP Out on the Floor Tonight on Inferno Records
- Sleeve notes written by Ian Levine accompanying the CD "Reachin’ For the Best: The Northern Soul of the Blackpool Mecca"
- Sleeve notes accompanying the LP Casino Classics Chapter One on Casino Classics Records
- Russ Winstanley and David Nowell Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story. Chapter seven, page 109
- Sleeve notes written by Ian Levine accompanying the CD Reachin’ For the Best: The Northern Soul of the Blackpool Mecca
- "Northern Soul: 40 years of the sound of Wigan Casino". BBC Arts. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life Chapter four, page 106, "Fighting for the soul of soul"
- Rylatt, Keith and Phil Scott, Central 1179: The Story of Manchester's Twisted Wheel Club, chapter 8 "Bye Bye Blues"
- Keith Rylatt and Phil Scott, Central 1179: The Story of Manchester's Twisted Wheel Club, chapter 10 “The Records”
- Blackford, Andy, Disco Dancing Tonight, chapter 5 "In the beginning"
- Ritson, Mike & Russell, Stuart. The In Crowd: The Story of the Northern & Rare Soul Scene, Chapter 15, page 215
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night A DJ Saved My Life. Chapter 4, page 102, "Reissues and Commercialisation"
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life. Chapter 4, page 86, "A Genre Built From Failures"
- "THE Underground Experience Presents "The Power of Black Music & Culture Sessions" Series No. 6" Featuring Holle Thee Maxwell & Mr. Charles Reese!". Ultimateunderground.com. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- "The Casualeers". Discogs. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Classic 45s from Kev Roberts' List of the Northern Soul Top 500". Classic45s.com. Classic 45s. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life. Chapter 4, page 109, "The world's rarest record"
- "Northern Soul fans in a spin over sale of rare record". BBC News. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Russ Winstanley and David Nowell. Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story. Chapter five, page 65
- Steve Jameson, writer and lead singer on 'Goodbye Nothing To Say.[citation not found]
- Russ Winstanley and David Nowell. Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story. Chapter 2, page 37
- Russ Winstanley and David Nowell. Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story. Chapter 7, page 95
- Schildt, Axel; Detlef, Siegfried (2006). Between Marx and Coca-Cola: Youth Cultures in Changing European Societies, 1960–1980. New York: Berghahn Books. p. 318. ISBN 9780857456854. OCLC 875099006.
- "Northern Soul: Living for the Weekend". Northern Soul: Living for the Weekend. 25 July 2014. 40 minutes in. BBC. BBC Four. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
Wigan's Ovation's cover version of a rare northern Soul song became a major top 20 chart hit in 1975. I think Wigan's Ovation's Skiing In The Snow was bad for Northern Soul. Terrible cover version of The Invitations' classic. That was when it was no longer underground. Everybody knew about it. 'I was into Bay City Rollers last year. Now I'm into Northern Soul'. You'd be speaking to work colleagues, they'd be saying, 'What are you into?', you'd say, 'Northern Soul', and they'd go, 'Oh, like Wigan's Ovation?'... 'No! How many times do I have to explain, that's as far away as it can possibly be?'... It horrified the purists. None of us at the venues were very happy about it, but what it did, it put Northern Soul on the music map for the industry.
- James Ellis. "Biddu". Metro. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Northern Soul Top 500". Rocklistmusic.co.uk. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Keith Rylatt and Phil Scott. Central 1179: The Story of Manchester's Twisted Wheel Club. BeeCool Publishing. 2001
- Andy Wilson. Northern Soul: Music, Drugs and Subcultural Identity. Chapter 2, Page 78
- Andy Wilson. Northern Soul: Music, Drugs and Subcultural Identity. Chapter 3, page 82
- Keith Rylatt and Phil Scott, Central 1179: The Story of Manchester's Twisted Wheel Club, BeeCool Publishing. 2001
- Rietveld, Hillegonda C. is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies. Routledge, Jan. 4, 2019
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life, Chapter 4, "Northern Soul: The First Rave Culture", page 85
- "From "The In Crowd" to the "Happy People" | Uppers Culture Lifestyle". Uppers.org. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton. Last Night a DJ Saved My Life, Chapter 4, "From Northern Soul to Nu-NRG", page 113
- "Richard Searling BBC Radio Manchester". BBC. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "John Kane's Northern Soul - BBC Local Radio". BBC. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Northern Soul with Tony Dellar". Cambridge 105. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- MOD: A Very British Style (Google eBook) Richard Weight Random House, 28 March 2013 p.182
- Too darn soulful: the story of Northern soul David Nowell Robson, 1999, p.299
- "Soul-A-Go-Go Live celebrating 30 years of Vince Peach! &No. 124; PBS 106.7FM". Pbsfm.org.au. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Soul Time &No. 124; PBS 106.7FM". Pbsfm.org.au. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "The Northern Soul Show | Every Sunday on Affinity Radio, Remarkable Radio & UKWA 87-88FM". northernsoulshow.co.uk. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Winstanley, Russ and David Nowell, Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story, Part V, p. 207
- "Lie Dream of a Casino Soul". Annotatedfall.doomby.com. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- Watson, Don (1 October 1983). "Looking At The Fall Guise". New Musical Express. Time Inc.
- "Moloko "Familiar Feeling" - YouTube". YouTube. 8 April 2006. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Knight, David (22 January 2008). "Duffy's Mercy by Daniel Wolfe". PromoNews. promonews.tv. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
-  Archived 27 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "PLAN B: The Defamation of Strickland Banks – 2010 – Album review". Monkeyboxing. 18 April 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "PLAN B: From A to B". Bluesandsoul.com. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Megan Armstrong (3 November 2017). "Above & Beyond Releases 'Ode to Detroit' With Emotional 'Northern Soul' Featuring Richard Bedford". Billboard. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "Crackin' Up: A Tale of Sex, and Drugs, and Northern Soul: Amazon.co.uk: Maxwell Murray: 9780953644001: Books". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "In the Blood: Amazon.co.uk: Ian Snowball, Pete McKenna: 9781849631600: Books". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Nightshift / All Souled Out". Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "Wood, Talc and Mr. J eBook: Chris Rose, Virginie Gervais". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "STEP IN AND WRITE… OR JUST DO WHAT YOU DO BEST! A Blog for Souls of the Underground: the lesser known talents, writers… and artists". Woodtalcandmrj.com. 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Victoria Melody: Northern Soul". Sohotheatre.com. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Neil Rushton (2009). Northern Soul Stories: Angst and Acetates. Soulvation. ISBN 978-0-9564569-1-5.
- Mike Ritson and Stuart Russell (1999). The In Crowd: The Story of the Northern & Rare Soul Scene, Volume 1. Bee Cool. ISBN 0-9536626-1-6.
- David Nowell (2001). Too Darn Soulful: The Story of Northern Soul. Robson Books. ISBN 1-86105-431-9.
- Andy Wilson (2007). Northern Soul: Music, Drugs and Subcultural Identity. Willan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84392-208-7.
- Keith Rylatt and Phil Scott (2001). CENtral 1179: The Story of Manchester's Twisted Wheel Club. Bee Cool. ISBN 0-9536626-3-2.
- Russ Winstanley and David Nowell (1996). Soul Survivors: The Wigan Casino Story. Robson Books. ISBN 1-86105-126-3.
- Kev Roberts (2000). The Northern Soul Top 500. ISBN 0-9539291-0-8.
- Nicola Smith (2012). 'Parenthood and the Transfer of Subcultural Capital in the Northern Soul Scene' in Ageing and Youth Culture. SAGE Publishing. ISBN 9781847888358.
- Reg Stickings (2008). Searching For Soul. SAF Publishing. ISBN 978-0-946719-87-7.
- Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton (2000) . Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3688-5.
- Dave Haslam (2002) . Adventures on the Wheels of Steel: the rise of the superstar DJs. London: 4th Estate. ISBN 1-84115-433-4.
- Paolo Hewitt (2000). The Soul Stylists: Forty Years of Modernism. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-84018-228-8.
- Andy Blackford (1979). Disco Dancing Tonight. Octopus Books Ltd. ISBN 9780706410198.
- Tim Wall, Nicola Watchman Smith and Sarah Raine (2019). The Northern Soul Scene. EquinoxPublishing. ISBN 9781781795576.
- Soul Or Nothing – paper given at Manchester University in 2006
- Land of a Thousand Dances – by Dave Godin, published in Blues & Soul, issue 50, January 1971
- For Dancers Only: The story of Wigan Casino by Chris Hunt, published in Mojo, Spring 2002
- The Northern Soul Top 500 Copy of the lists from Kev Roberts' book 'The Northern Soul Top 500'.
-  The Northern Soul Scene, Wall, Watchman Smith, Raine.
- The Manchester Wheelers – book about the Twisted Wheel club