Norte Region, Portugal
Norte (Portuguese: Região Norte, IPA: [ʁɨʒiˈɐ̃w ˈnɔɾtɨ]; "North Region") or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal, ahead of Lisbon, and the third most extensive by area. The region has 3,689,173 inhabitants according to the 2011 census, and its area is 21,278 km² (density of 173 inhabitants per square kilometre). It is one of five regions of Mainland Portugal (NUTS II subdivisions). Its main population center is the urban area of Porto, with about one million inhabitants; it includes a larger political metropolitan region with 1.8 million, and an urban-metropolitan agglomeration with 2.99 million inhabitants, including Porto and a number of urban areas in Northwestern Portugal, ranging from Braga to Aveiro. The Commission of Regional Coordination of the North (CCDR-N) is the agency that coordinates environmental policies, land-use planning, cities and the overall development of this region, supporting local governments and associations.
|NUTS II Region (Região)|
|Name origin: norte, Portuguese for north|
|Lowest point||Sea level|
|- location||Atlantic Ocean|
|Area||21,278 km2 (8,215 sq mi)|
|Density||173.38/km2 (449/sq mi)|
|- summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
|- Total||€ 61.745 billion|
|- Per capita||€ 16,900|
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
|- Total||€ 48.148 billion>|
|- Per capita||€ 13,200|
Location of the Norte Region
|Statistics from INE (2005); geographic detail from Instituto Geográfico Português (2010)|
Northern Portugal is a culturally varied region. It is a land of dense vegetation and profound historic and cultural wealth. What is now Northern Portugal was first settled by various pre-Celtic and Celtic tribes before being explored by a number of Mediterranean civilizations, including Greek settlements in its river-mouths, trade with the Carthaginians, conquest by the Romans, invasion by Germanic peoples, and attacks by the Moors and the Vikings.
History and cultureEdit
The region has been inhabited since prehistoric times and is a key area for the understanding of both Atlantic European, Megalithic and Castro cultures. Historically, Northern Portugal, with Galicia in Spain, made up the Kingdom of Galicia. In protohistoric times, it was inhabited by Gallaeci tribes, related with the Lusitanians, and it corresponds roughly to Conventus Bracarensis of Roman Gallaecia. The historical Suebic Kingdom (5th-6th centuries AD) had its capital in the now Portuguese city of Braga and most of these migrants and invaders established themselves in Littoral Northern Portugal, when the Roman empire collapsed. After the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, a small county was established around the city of Porto, which still in the 10th century expanded and became a government, the County of Portugal. This county grew in ambition and it was where Portugal's first king, Dom Afonso Henriques, established the Portuguese kingdom and stated the southward expansion. The Portuguese language developed in this area, and has a specific modern dialect, Northern Portuguese, taken down south as the Portuguese Kingdom expanded, namely after Afonso Henriques era.
The region has a number of manor-houses and castles featuring coats of arms as an indication of a very intense medieval period. Regional cuisine is renowned and varied offering products such as light wines (vinhos verdes) and rich wines, and a variety of handicrafts that mingles the shine of filigree with the colour of the local embroideries. Northern Portugal is also very rich in folklore and traditions dating back to antiquity.
Galicia and Northern Portugal have been promoting the official candidacy for the recognition of the common intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO. The project is backed by the Galician Government, a number of Galician institutions and associations, together with local and regional governments and institutions in Northern Portugal. The official name is "Candidatura de Património Imaterial Galego-Português".
Northern Portugal is a mountainous areas. Its peaks known as serras include Serra do Gerês (1544 m), Peneda (1416 m), Marão (1415 m) and Soajo (1415 m). Some of which forms natural parks: the Peneda-Gerês National Park, Montesinho Natural Park, and the Alvão Natural Park.
The coast, known as the Costa Verde, is a flat strip of land enclosed by sandy beaches and hills, the largest of which is the coastal plain between the Cávado and the Ave rivers. The area is known for the long stretch of picturesque sand dunes which accumulated during the Little Ice Age, part of which is protected in the Northern Littoral Natural Park.
The Minho, Lima, Neiva, Cávado, Ave and the Douro are the most preeminent rivers that flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Inland, the Tâmega is a major tributary which empties in the Douro river. The Douro is the most preeminent river, and one of the most important rivers in the Iberian Peninsula. The Minho river marks the northwestern Portuguese-Spanish border and is the second most important river.
There are four World Heritage Sites: the Alto Douro Wine Region, the Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley, the Porto historical Center and the Guimarães historical Center. Throughout the region the rivers, waterfalls, vineyards and fertile plots combine with the ancestral monuments in urban centres.
The region has a Mediterranean climate (Csb) on the coast and a hot Mediterranean climate (Csa) along the Douro Valley. Northwestern Portugal has temperate summers and mild winters, influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and the diurnal temperature variation rarely reaches 10 °C (50.0 °F), while inland northeastern Portugal has hot summers and cold longer winters, hence continental features, and the diurnal temperature variation can reach 20 °C (68.0 °F).
Rainfall is very irregular as topography and distance from the sea strongly influence precipitation levels, even at short distances. The inland mountainous areas in the northwest around the peaks of Peneda, Gerês and Marão have the highest rainfall in all of Portugal. The Douro valley, however, is among the driest areas in all of Portugal. Some rainy cities include Vila Real, Braga and, on the coast, Viana do Castelo. The coast tends to have balmy weather, high solar irradiance and lower rainfall in a strip from Cape Santo André to the urban area of Porto.
Politically, Northern Portugal is subdivided into 86 municipalities (municípios) and 1,426 civil parishes (freguesias). The largest urbanized localities with city status, some of which can be suburbs, are Porto (237,584), Vila Nova de Gaia (186,503), Braga (143,532), Guimarães (66,912), Rio Tinto (64,815), Matosinhos (49,486), Póvoa de Varzim (42,396), Maia (40,134), Ermesinde (38,798), and Vila Real (38,045), according to a 2004 survey. Ignoring municipal subdivisions, the region has one urban area, Greater Porto, with about one million inhabitants, this includes Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Matosinhos, Maia and some large suburbs such as Rio Tinto and Ermesinde. There are three urban areas with about 100,000 inhabitants: Braga, Póvoa de Varzim-Vila do Conde, and Guimarães. The cities rural areas are excluded. However, in Northern Portugal these tend to be well-populated with dispersed settlement between the diverse cities of the region. All these human settlements are part of the same polycentric urban-metropolitan agglomeration with 2,99 million inhabitants (2001).
Areas further north and inland tend to be the least populated, which includes some historical towns such as Viana do Castelo, Ponte de Lima, Chaves, or Bragança. The region was subdivided in supramunicipal districts in 1835. Northern Portugal includes the districts of Viana do Castelo, Braga, Porto, Vila Real, and Bragança, and partly the districts of Aveiro, Viseu, and Guarda.
Northern Portugal accounts for about 39% of the national exports and 29% of the national economy. It is highly industrialized within its densely populated western half, where well developed subregions such as Ave, Cávado, Entre Douro e Vouga, Grande Porto, and Tâmega have a notable business activity and state-of-the-art infrastructure. Textiles, footwear, food processing, mechanical, electrical, electronics and chemical industries, as well as finance and construction, are some of the main economic activities. The region was hit hard by the EU's expansion to Eastern Europe, globalization and centralization. Even if once the richest in Portugal and the largest regional economy after Lisbon, it is now the poorest of the 7 NUTS II regions of Portugal, with a GDP per capita of 13,200 euros or 64% of the European Union average in 2013. It is also the Portuguese NUTS II region with the highest unemployment rate (9.5% as of 2007).  Northern Portuguese authorities have intensely promoted tourism as a means to attract external investment and further incomes in rural areas.
Northern Portugal and Galicia form a Euroregion, based on the common historical, cultural, linguistic and economic similarities. The Euroregion has its origins in the Galicia-North Portugal Work Community, established in 1991. This Euroregion is also backed by the Eixo Atlântico ("Atlantic Axis"), a lobby of Galician and Northern Portuguese cities and municipalities.
- "EU Regions" (PDF). Eurostat. Retrieved 2016-05-10.
- "Censos 2011 Resultados Preliminares 2011". INE.
- "CCDR-N Uma instituição SMART" (PDF). CCDR-N. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- Correira Cardoso, A. A. (2005). "Padrões de ocupação do solo em áreas de risco natural: O caso do Litoral Poveiro". Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto.
- "Major Rivers Of Portugal". World Atlas. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- Araújo, Maria da Assunção. "O clima da região do Porto". Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- "Formas de Relevo e Clima - Conclusões". TERRISC - U.Porto. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- "O clima do PNPG e seu enquadramento no clima nacional". Departamento de Ciências da Terra - U. Minho. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- "Portal do Clima - Radiação Global". IPMA. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "Clima de Portugal Continental". IPMA. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- Uma população que se urbaniza, Uma avaliação recente - Cidades, 2004 Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Nuno Pires Soares, Instituto Geográfico Português (Geographic Institute of Portugal)
- Fernando Nunes da Silva (2005), Alta Velocidade em Portugal, Desenvolvimento Regional, CENSUR, IST Archived 24 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Região Norte". CCDR-N. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
- "GDP per capita in the EU in 2013: seven capital regions among the ten most prosperous" (PDF). Eurostat. Retrieved September 14, 2017.