New England Highway
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The New England Highway is an 878-kilometre (546 mi) long highway in Australia running from Hexham at Newcastle, New South Wales at its southern end to Yarraman near Toowoomba, Queensland at its northern end.
|New England Highway
Queensland–New South Wales
|Length||878 km (546 mi)|
|Major settlements||Crows Nest, Toowoomba, Warwick, Tenterfield, Glen Innes, Armidale, Tamworth, Muswellbrook, Maitland|
The New England Highway forms the major part of the 1,047-kilometre (651 mi) Sydney–Brisbane national highway route. This route follows the Pacific Motorway (part of national route 1), most of the New England and part of the Cunningham Highway (the parts forming national route 15). The New England Highway north of Warwick is not part of the national highway system.
The New England Highway is numbered as part of national route 15 between Hexham and Warwick and part of national route 42 from Warwick to Toowoomba, then Queensland state route 85 from Toowoomba to Hampton, and Queensland state route 61 from Hampton to Yarraman. The highway terminates at Yarraman.
The New England Highway has its origins in the track which developed north from Newcastle to reach the prime wool growing areas of the New England region which Europeans settled following expeditions by NSW Surveyor-General John Oxley in 1818 and botanist Allan Cunningham in 1827 and 1829. It became known as the Great Northern Road.
Improvement was limited during the 19th century, initially due to the lack of traffic and funding, then the transfer of traffic from road to the parallel railway which opened in stages between 1857 and 1888 between Newcastle and Wallangarra.
When the NSW main road system was reorganised in August 1928, the Great Northern Road was gazetted as part of state highway 9, the Great Northern Highway. State highway 9 stretched from Milsons Point on the north shore of Sydney Harbour (at that time the Sydney Harbour Bridge was still under construction) via the under-construction road from Hornsby to Gosford (completed 1930), then via Newcastle to Hexham then to Tenterfield. From Tenterfield it continued to the Queensland border near Mount Lindesay. The only major change to this route since its designation has been a re-routing between Tenterfield and the NSW/Queensland border.
In 1931, state highway 10, the North Coast Highway, which commenced at Hexham and extended to Tweed Heads, was renamed the Pacific Highway and extended south to Milsons Point, so that state highway 9 began at Hexham, as it does today. In 1933 the Great Northern Highway was renamed the New England Highway.
In 1954 main road 374, running from Tenterfield to Wallangarra, was redesignated as part of state highway 9 and named as part of the New England Highway, and the section of the New England Highway from Tenterfield to Mount Lindesay was renumbered as state highway 24 and renamed the Mount Lindesay Highway. The rerouting of the New England Highway to run from Tenterfield to Wallangarra rather than to Mount Lindesay was due to the construction of a sealed road from Boonah through Cunninghams Gap to Warwick in the early 1950s. The sealed road encouraged much more traffic to travel from Brisbane to Tenterfield via Warwick than via Mount Lindesay and the unsealed route on to Tenterfield.
At the time of the rerouting of the New England Highway to Wallangarra and the naming of the Mount Lindesay Highway, arrangements were made by the NSW Department of Main Roads with the Queensland Main Roads Department to name the onward routes from Wallangarra and Mount Lindesay to Brisbane as the New England and Mount Lindesay Highways respectively. At this time they were allocated the national route numbers of 15 for the New England Highway Hexham-Brisbane and 13 for the Mount Lindesay Highway Brisbane-Tenterfield.
National highway functionEdit
The national highway network is a subset of the national routes for which the Commonwealth, rather than the state governments, has responsibility for maintenance and upgrading. When the national highway network was established in 1974 national route 15 was designated as part of the national network. This route number covers the New England Highway, from Hexham to Warwick, which is the majority of the highway.
Between Warwick and Tamworth the New England Highway, as well as being part of the national route between Sydney and Brisbane, is also an important interstate link between Queensland and Victoria, connecting to Melbourne via the Oxley Highway to the Newell Highway (which becomes the Goulburn Valley Highway where it crosses the Murray River).
Whilst, as a national highway, the New England Highway is part of the official major route between Sydney and Brisbane, most traffic uses the parallel Pacific Highway. Rapid growth of population and tourism along the NSW North Coast since the 1970s led to the Commonwealth and NSW governments jointly funding reconstruction of the Pacific Highway to freeway standard from the early 1990s onward (see separate entry on the Pacific Highway). As a result, the New England Highway has become the only national highway in Australia with a lower intercapital traffic volume than an alternative route.
The numbering of the New England Highway is confused by the fact that route names and numbers in Australia are often not contiguous or consistent with each other. In addition, in Queensland there have been numerous name and number changes and extensions to the New England Highway since 1970.
At the time of the rerouting of the New England Highway to Wallangarra and the naming of the Mount Lindesay Highway, arrangements were made by the NSW Department of Main Roads with the Queensland Main Roads Department to name the onward routes from Wallangarra and Mount Lindesay to Brisbane as the New England and Mount Lindesay Highways respectively. At this time they were allocated the national route numbers of 15 for the New England Highway Hexham-Tenterfield-Warwick-Brisbane and 13 for the Mount Lindesay Highway Brisbane-Tenterfield.
In the 1970s, the Queensland Main Roads Department rerouted the designation of the New England Highway north of Warwick to follow the former Lockyer-Darling Downs Highway (national route 17) so that it terminated in Toowoomba. The section of the highway between Brisbane and Warwick was renamed as part of the Cunningham Highway, which until that time had extended only westward from Warwick to Goondiwindi. The rerouted section of the New England Highway from Warwick to Toowoomba was renumbered from 17 to become part of national route 42, which until then also had only extended westward from Warwick to Goondiwindi. In the 1990s, the Queensland Main Roads Department again extended the name New England Highway, north from Toowoomba to the D'Aguilar Highway at Yarraman, but this section carries state route number 85 as far as Hampton, and state route number 61 to Yarraman, rather than a national route number. However north of Toowoomba it carries little traffic and performs a regional rather than a national function.
In September 2012, NSW Roads and Maritime Services announced that it would be introducing alpha-numeric route numbering across New South Wales during early 2013. As part of this scheme the New England Highway was identified as route A15 from the New South Wales-Queensland border to the northern terminus of the Hunter Expressway at Belford, where it became route A43 to the end of the highway at Hexham. The route 15 designation was carried towards Newcastle by the Hunter Expressway (as route M15) to its southern terminus at the Pacific Motorway at Cameron Park, then by Newcastle Link Road, Thomas Street, Newcastle Road, Griffiths Road, Donald Street and Parry Street to the intersection with the Pacific Highway in Newcastle West (as route A15).
|State||LGA / LGA||Location||km||mi||Destinations||Notes|
|Queensland||Toowoomba||Yarraman||0||0.0|| D'Aguilar Highway (A3) – Nanango, Goomeri, Biloela
D'Aguilar Highway (A17) – Caboolture, Esk, Ipswich
|T intersection northern terminus; north (A3) and southeast (A17) as the D'Aguilar Highway|
|Wutul||33||21||Oakey Cooyar Road (SR68) – Oakey||T intersection; New England Highway continues southeast|
|Crows Nest Creek||74||46||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Toowoomba||Hampton||86||53||Esk Hampton Road (SR85) – Esk||Four-way intersection; northern concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway continues south|
|Toowoomba||118||73||Warrego Highway (A2) – Gatton, Ipswich||Four-way intersection; eastern concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway continues west|
|119||74||Warrego Highway (A2) – Dalby||Four-way intersection; western concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway continues south|
|Gore Highway (A39) (SR85) – Goondiwindi||Four-way intersection; southern concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway continues south|
|Cambooya||133||83||Drayton Connection Road – Drayton, Toowoomba||Y intersection; New England Highway continues south|
|137||85||Cambooya Connection Road (SR48) – Karara||T intersection; New England Highway continues south|
|Clifton||162||101||Gatton Cliftonn Road (SR80) – Gatton||T intersection; New England Highway continues south|
|Southern Downs||Glengallan||188||117||Cunningham Highway (A15) – Ipswich, Warwick||Directional T interchange; southern terminus as ; northern concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway and Cunningham Highway continues south|
|Condamine River||199||124||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Southern Downs||Warwick||202||126||Cunningham Highway (42) – Goondiwindi||4-way intersection; southern terminus as ; New England Highway continus south|
|Stanthorpe||137||85||Wallangarra Road – Stanthorpe to||Directional T interchange; New England Highway continues south|
|Queensland – New South Wales state border||299||186||Queensland – New South Wales state border|
|New South Wales||Tenterfield||Tenterfield||313||194||Bruxner Highway (no shield) – Boggabilla||Uncontrolled 4-way intersection; northern concurrency terminus; New England Highway continues south|
|318||198||Bruxner Highway (SR80) – Casino, Lismore, Ballina||Uncontrolled 4-way intersection; southern concurrency terminus; New England Highway continues south|
|Deepwater River||370||230||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Glen Innes Severn||Glen Innes||409||254||Gwydir Highway (B76) – Inverell, Warialda, Moree||Uncontrolled 4-way intersection; northern concurrency terminus; New England Highway continues south|
|Gwydir Highway (B76) – Grafton||Uncontrolled 4-way intersection; southern concurrency terminus; New England Highway continues south|
|Armidale||Armidale||511||318||Waterfall Road (B78) – Grafton||Roundabout; New England Highway continues south|
|Bendemeer||576||358||Oxley Highway (B56) – Walcha, Wauchope, Port Macquarie||T intersection; northern concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway continues south|
|Tamworth||Tamworth||616||383||Oxley Highway (B56) – Gunnedah, Coonabarabran to Manilla Road (B95) – Manilla, Warialda||Roundabout; southern concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway continues south|
|Peel River||613||381||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Liverpool Plains||Willow Tree||684||425||Kamilaroi Highway (B51) – Gunnedah, Narrabri, Walgett, Bourke||Directional T interchange; New England Highway continues south|
|Pages River||703||437||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Pages River||707||439||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Pages River||710||440||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Hunter River||755||469||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Muswellbrook||Muswellbrook||769||478||Denman Road – Denman||T intersection; New England Highway continues southeast|
|Hunter River||815||506||Bridge over the river (no known name)|
|Singleton||Whittingham||827||514||Golden Highway (B84) – Denman, Merriwa, Dunedoo, Dubbo||T intersection; New England Highway continues southeast|
|Belford||835||519||Hunter Expressway (M15) – West Wallsend, Newcastle||T intersection; transitions to ; incomplete access to/from the New England Highway (no shield) as it continues east|
|Branxton||838||521||Clift Street to Wine Country Drive (B82) – Rothbury, Pokolbin, Cessnock||T intersection; New England Highway (no shield) continues east|
|840||520||unnamed road (A43) to Hunter Expressway (M15) – Singleton, Newcastle||Y intersection; New England Highway transitions to and continues southeast|
|Maitland||Maitland||862||536||Cessnock Road – Kurri Kurri, Cessnock||Roundabout; New England Highway continues southeast|
|Newcastle||Tarro||875||544||John Renshaw Drive (A1) – Raymond Terrace, Taree, Kempsey, Coffs Harbour, Brisbane||Directional T interchange; incomplete northwest concurrency terminus as ; New England Highway continues southeast|
|Hexham||879||546||Pacific Highway (A1) – Newcastle, Raymond Terrace, Taree, Kempsey, Brisbane||Directional T interchange; southeast concurrency terminus as ; southeastern terminus; continues east and north as the Pacific Highway|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
The first section of the New England Highway west from Hexham to Maitland is dual carriageway, with the towns en route to Maitland bypassed. This section is partially grade separated, and carries heavy amounts of local traffic, with a large proportion of the traffic being trucks. In Maitland the highway continues via a dual carriageway CBD bypass to Telarah, from which point it reverts to single carriageway. Beyond Maitland, the only sections of dual carriageway are through Belford Forest west of Branxton (1998), the 1966 deviation necessitated by the creation of Lake Liddell near Muswellbrook, the crossing of the Liverpool Range at Nowlands Gap immediately north of Murrurundi (stage 1 1994, stage 2 1997), through South Tamworth, and the ascent of the Moonbi Range between Tamworth and Bendemeer (1982).
As far as Muswellbrook the highway carries heavy industrial traffic associated with the extensive coal mining in the Hunter Valley. Duplication of the highway and bypasses of towns as far as Muswellbrook is proposed by the Roads and Traffic Authority, but no funding has yet been allocated for these proposals, and the only bypass for which an alignment has been adopted is that of Muswellbrook. Beyond Muswellbrook traffic volumes do not justify dual carriageways on most sections of the highway. The main substandard sections of the highway are generally in the upper Hunter Valley around Parkville, Wingen and Blandford. Once the highway climbs the Liverpool Range to the Northern Tablelands, most sections provide excellent driving.
In recent years the main upgrading activities in the Highway have been the deviation and duplication through Belford Forest, deviation and duplication over the Liverpool Range immediately north of Murrurundi, the Tamworth CBD bypass (an upgrading of an existing road), the Bendemeer bypass, the Armidale bypass, and deviations at Black Mountain and the Devils Pinch north of Armidale.
Long lengths of the New England Highway are subject to severe frost and snowfall, with the 350 km section from the Moonbi Ranges to Stanthorpe located at high altitudes. The highest point on the Highway is where it crosses the Ben Lomond Range halfway between Armidale and Glen Innes.
Speed cameras have been installed on the New England Highway at:
- Lochinvar – between Robert Road and Station Lane
- Scone – between Eveleigh Circuit and Forbes Street
- Blandford – between Hayles Street and Mills Street
- Ben Lomond – between Ross Road and Ben Lomond Road
- Tenterfield – between Duncan Street and George Street.
The major projects that have upgraded the New England Highway since World War II include the bypasses of Allora, Armidale, Bendemeer, Liddell, Maitland, Stanthorpe, Tamworth, and Tarro-Beresfield; duplications at Aberdeen for northbound traffic over an 1893 bridge, between Beresfield and East Maitland, at the First Moonbi Hill, between Hexham and Tarro (including the Tarro railway overpass), Liverpool Range, and at Scone; deviations at Barleyfields (near Uralla), Belford Forest, Devil's Pinch, between Guyra and Llangothlin, Halcombe Hill, over the Liverpool Range (including a dual carriageway), over the Rose Valley Creek, and at Singleton; and replacement or construction of bridges at Blandford and Glencoe.
The 40-kilometre (25 mi) Hunter Expressway created a freeway standard route between Cameron Park and Belford Forest in March 2014, with significant traffic reduction through Maitland and adjacent settlements.
As at January 2017, current, completed and future projects include:
- Belford to the Golden Highway - The concept design and environmental assessment are expected to be available for community comment in mid 2017
- Maitland roundabout improvements - The eastbound overpass near the Railway Station (Church Street) roundabout opened on 22 September 2016
- Muswellbrook bypass - At least four years' planning required before possible construction, with timing for construction to be confirmed
- New England Highway draft corridor strategy - Public comment on the draft strategy for the management of the corridor closed on 7 November 2016
- Rutherford safety improvements - Upgrade between Regiment and Racecourse Roads completed in October 2014
- Scone bypass - Environmental assessment finalised in April 2016, with detailed design is underway and construction expected to start by 2018. Options for the rail bridge are being developed.
- Singleton rail underpass – Detailed design was expected in mid-2017
- Singleton bypass - A preferred option has been announced, consultation with affected landowners and key stakeholders to occur, and the preferred route included in Singleton Council’s Local Environment Plan
- Fitzgerald Bridge at Aberdeen – The new two-lane bridge opened in June 2014, replacing the existing two single-lane bridges with the existing southbound heritage bridge to be retained for pedestrians and cyclists, and the existing northbound bridge to be demolished
- Tenterfield heavy vehicle bypass – The preferred route was announced in March 2015, although no funding has been allocated to build the preferred route
- Bolivia Hill – The preferred route was confirmed in February 2014 and detailed design commenced
Cities and townsEdit
New South WalesEdit
Maitland was the original centre of European settlement in the Hunter Valley. In the early 19th century the focus was on food rather than coal, and the rich river flats around Maitland provided food for the young colony. It was not until the late 19th century that Newcastle eclipsed Maitland as the centre of the Hunter Valley. Nonetheless, Maitland retains a major role as an industrial centre, with a population of 55,000. In 1955 the city was severely damaged by flooding of the Hunter River. To the north of Maitland are the small towns of Greta and Branxton.
Singleton is the major centre for the mid-Hunter Region, with 13,000 residents. Although the Singleton district is dotted with vineyards and the town has grown in the past three decades, unlike many other country towns, this was due to employment in the coalmining industry and as a dormitory for Newcastle. A major army base is located nearby. The scenic but isolated Putty Road (state route 69) connects Singleton with Windsor and Sydney's northwestern suburbs.
Muswellbrook is the major centre of the Upper Hunter Valley, with a population of over 12,000. Nearby are two of NSW's two major power stations – Liddell (built 1968) and Bayswater (built 1981), which together account for over 40% of the electricity produced in NSW. The town has wide streets set in a sweeping pastoral landscape, and St Alban's Anglican church in the town was designed by famous English architect Giles Gilbert Scott. Muswellbrook is the centre of major coal mining and wine producing areas, as well as thoroughbred horse breeding and agriculture.
Scone and the nearby town of Aberdeen are renowned for their thoroughbred stud farms, with Scone regarded as the horse capital of Australia. Around Scone the Hunter Valley narrows and the sandstone escarpments enclosing the valley provide a stunning backdrop to the rolling green hills of the valley floor. North of Scone and adjacent to the Highway is Mount Wingen – the Burning Mountain – where a light but constant plume of smoke issues from fissures in the ground, caused by lightning setting fire to coal seams close to the surface tens of thousands of years ago. A little further north is the town of Murrurundi.
Set on the Peel River, Tamworth is one of the largest cities in inland northern NSW with 50,000 inhabitants, and is the centre of a rich agricultural district. It is also a thriving industrial and commercial centre. Famous as the 'Country Music Capital' of Australia and its annual Tamworth Country Music Festival. The Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre (AELEC) is located on the New England Highway on the southern outskirts of the city. In 1888 it became the first town in Australia to install electric street lighting. The small settlements of Bendemeer and Uralla are located north of Tamworth on the highway.
Located on the Northern Tablelands, Armidale's high altitude of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) gives it four pronounced seasons. It is also the hub of a thriving pastoral area famous for its high quality wool. The University of New England, established in 1954, and is the main seat of learning in inland northern NSW and is a major employer. The student population makes up a significant proportion of the city's population of 22,000. Armidale features beautiful landscapes, parks and historic buildings. Also of note is the Hinton Art Gallery, which houses the Felton Bequest, a significant collection of work by Australian artists. Guyra is a small town located further north.
Glen Innes is a Celtic-flavoured town that owes much to the Scottish settlers who came to the district in the 1830s. A monument commemorates the part they played. 40 km east of Glen Innes along the Gwydir Highway are the world heritage areas of the Washpool rainforests.
Tenterfield is known as the Birthplace of Federation, being the town where NSW Premier Henry Parkes delivered his Tenterfield Oration, making the case for federation of the colonies into the Commonwealth of Australia. The architecture of the 1886 railway station is of note for its ornateness and excellent state of preservation. It is also the hometown of the entertainer Peter Allen.
From Tenterfield to the Queensland border, the highway runs adjacent to the New South Wales' main northern railway line. The line is no longer used and the Sunnyside railway bridge's disrepair is clearly visible from the highway.
The New England Highway crosses the State border into Queensland at Wallangarra, famous for the railway break of gauge on the only rail link between Sydney and Brisbane from 1888 until the coastal standard gauge line was completed in 1930. Much of the railway yards needed for transhipping passengers and goods between the trains on the two different gauges remains.
Stanthorpe is located just off the New England Highway, set at a high altitude in granite country and famous for its wineries and orchards. The outstanding Girraween National Park to the south of Stanthorpe has excellent bushwalking and rockclimbing.
A major centre of the Southern Downs with a population of 11,000, Warwick is set in rolling pastoral country on the banks of the Condamine River. Famous for its rose gardens and rodeo. From 15 km north of Warwick, national route 15 turns east to Cunninghams Gap and down into the Brisbane Valley via the Cunningham Highway to reach Ipswich. From here Brisbane is only another 30 km.
With a population of 160,000, Toowoomba is one of Australia's major regional cities, as well as the second largest inland city in Australia . Noted for its beautiful gardens as result of rich volcanic soils, it is home to the University of Southern Queensland and is the commercial and administrative centre of the Darling Downs region.
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- "Sunnyside rail bridge over Tenterfield Creek". Office of Environment and Heritage. New South Wales Government. Retrieved 6 June 2015.