Nasdaq, Inc.

Nasdaq, Inc. is an American multinational financial services corporation that owns and operates three stock exchanges in the United States: the namesake Nasdaq stock exchange, the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, and the Boston Stock Exchange, and seven European stock exchanges: Nasdaq Copenhagen, Nasdaq Helsinki, Nasdaq Iceland, Nasdaq Riga, Nasdaq Stockholm, Nasdaq Tallinn, and Nasdaq Vilnius. It is headquartered in New York City, and its president and chief executive officer is Adena Friedman.

Nasdaq, Inc.
FormerlyNasdaq Stock Market, Inc.
NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc.
TypePublic
NasdaqNDAQ
S&P 500 Component
IndustryFinancial services
FoundedFebruary 8, 1971; 51 years ago (1971-02-08)
HeadquartersOne Liberty Plaza, ,
U.S.
Area served
United States, Europe
Key people
Michael Splinter (Chairman)
Adena Friedman (CEO)
ProductsStock trading, Derivatives, equity trading platforms, futures and options markets, market data, securities exchanges, financial technology and related services
RevenueIncrease US$5.76 billion (2021)
Increase US$1.32 billion (2021)
Increase US$1.19 billion (2021)
Total assetsIncrease US$20.12 billion (2021)
Total equityDecrease US$6.40 billion (2021)
Number of employees
5,814 (December 2021)
Subsidiaries
Websitewww.nasdaq.com
Footnotes / references
[1]

Historically, the European operations have been known by the company name OMX AB (Aktiebolaget Optionsmäklarna/Helsinki Stock Exchange), which was created in 2003 upon a merger between OM AB and HEX plc. The operations have been part of Nasdaq, Inc. (formerly known as Nasdaq OMX Group) since February 2008.[2] They are now known as Nasdaq Nordic, which provides financial services and operates marketplaces for securities in the Nordic and Baltic regions of Europe.[3]

HistoryEdit

BackgroundEdit

1980–2008: European bourses merged in OMX ABEdit

OM AB (Optionsmäklarna) was a futures exchange founded by Olof Stenhammar in the 1980s to introduce trading in standardized option contracts in Sweden. OM acquired the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1998[4] and unsuccessfully attempted acquisition of the London Stock Exchange in 2001.[5] During the dot-com bubble in the early 21st century, OM, together with investment bank Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, launched a virtual European stock exchange called Jiway. The project was not successful[6] and was cancelled on October 14, 2002.[7]

On September 3, 2003, the Helsinki Stock Exchange (HEX) merged with OM, and the joint company became OMHEX.[8] On August 31, 2004, the brand name of the company was changed to OMX.[9] OMX then acquired the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in January 2005[4] for €164 million.[10] On September 19, 2006, the Iceland Stock Exchange owner Eignarhaldsfelagid Verdbrefathing (EV) announced it would be acquired by OMX in a deal valuing the company at 250 million SEK.[11] The transaction was completed by the end of the year.[4]

The company took a 10% stake in Oslo Børs Holding ASA, the owner of the Oslo Stock Exchange in October 2006. As of September 2016, Nasdaq is not a major shareholder in the Oslo Stock Exchange holding company, which following a merger is currently called Oslo Børs VPS Holding ASA. Nasdaq has, however, publicly stated its interest in eventually acquiring the Oslo Stock Exchange.[12][13][14]

In November 2007, OMX acquired the Armenian Stock Exchange and the Central Depository of Armenia.[15]

In December 2005, OMX started First North, an alternative exchange for smaller companies, in Denmark. The First North exchange expanded to Stockholm in June 2006, Iceland in January 2007 and Helsinki in April 2007.[16] The Markets Technology division of Computershare was acquired in 2006. The acquisition greatly expanded its product offerings and made its client list the largest of all trading system technology providers.

On October 2, 2006, the group launched a virtual Nordic Stock Exchange after merging the individual lists of shares traded at its three wholly owned Nordic exchanges into a combined Nordic List.[17] Companies listed on the Iceland Stock Exchange have also since been merged into the list. OMX also launched a pan-regional benchmark index known as the OMX Nordic 40 on the same date; however, the individual exchanges have also retained their own national benchmark indices.

1971–2008: NASDAQEdit

2006-2007: Attempted acquisition of the London Stock ExchangeEdit

In December 2005, the London Stock Exchange Group (LSE) rejected a £1.6 billion takeover offer from Macquarie Bank. The LSE described the offer as "derisory". It then received a bid in March 2006 for £2.4 billion from NASDAQ, which was also rejected by the LSE. NASDAQ later pulled its bid, and less than two weeks later on April 11, 2006, struck a deal with LSE's largest shareholder, Ameriprise Financial's Threadneedle Asset Management unit, to acquire all of that firm's stake, consisting of 35.4 million shares, at £11.75 per share.[18] NASDAQ also purchased 2.69 million additional shares, resulting in a total stake of 15%. While the seller of those shares was undisclosed, it occurred simultaneously with a sale by Scottish Widows of 2.69 million shares.[19] The move was seen as an effort to force LSE to negotiate either a partnership or eventual merger, as well as to block other suitors such as NYSE Euronext, owner of the New York Stock Exchange.[20]

Subsequent purchases increased NASDAQ's stake to 29%, holding off competing bids for several months. However, only a further 0.4% of shareholders accepted the offer by the deadline and therefore the offer was rejected[21] on February 10, 2007.

2007: Acquisition of the Boston and Philadelphia exchangesEdit

On October 2, 2007, Nasdaq purchased the Boston Stock Exchange.[22] On November 7, Nasdaq announced an agreement to purchase the Philadelphia Stock Exchange.[23]

2007: CreationEdit

 
Former logo used from 1971 to 2014, with Nasdaq logo added in 2007. "OMX" was omitted from the corporate name and logo in 2015.

On May 25, 2007, NASDAQ agreed to buy OMX for US$3.7 billion.[24] In August, however, Borse Dubai offered US$4 billion, prompting speculation of a bidding war.[25] On September 20, 2007, Borse Dubai agreed to stop competing to buy OMX in return for a 20% stake and 5 percent of votes in NASDAQ as well as NASDAQ's then 28% stake in the London Stock Exchange.[26] In a complex transaction, Borse Dubai acquired 97.2% of OMX's outstanding shares before selling them on to NASDAQ.[27] The newly merged company was renamed the NASDAQ OMX Group upon completion of the deal on February 27, 2008.

On June 18, 2012, NASDAQ became a founding member of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative on the eve of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).[28]

2012: Acquisition of Thomson Reuters businessesEdit

On December 12, 2012, NASDAQ OMX announced that it would acquire Thomson Reuters' investor relations, public relations and multimedia businesses for $390 million in cash.[29] NASDAQ OMX completed the purchase on June 3, 2013.[30]

2017: Launch of Nasdaq VenturesEdit

In April 2017, Nasdaq launched Nasdaq Ventures, a venture investment program focused on companies that will help Nasdaq grow its product lines and open new market segments. The first 3 companies announced as part of the program are Chain, a blockchain technology company; Digital Reasoning, cognitive computing technology; and Hanweck, real-time risk analytics.[31]

2018: Bid for Oslo Stock ExchangeEdit

During Christmas of 2018, shareholders representing 25% of Oslo Børs VPS Holding (the Norwegian Stock Exchange and national CSD operator)[32] held a private auction of share sale. Nasdaq did not participate in the auction due to the hostile nature of the bid (held without Oslo Børs boards knowledge or approval). Euronext won the auction, and later secured another 24.6% of shareholder support, totalling 49.6%. Following this, Nasdaq acquired 32.5% shares in open market (mainly from individual shareholders/employees),[33] and submitted an official bid, with unanimous recommendations from board and some key shareholders,[34] to acquire remaining shares for 152 NOK, and later increased offer to 158 NOK (or almost 44% premium of December 17, 2018 closing price, to match Euronext offer),[35] additionally making the case to Norway's markets regulator that in cases like this, 2/3 of the share control may be necessary to comply with any applicable regulatory requirement. In the end the regulator did not side with the two-thirds requirements, and general majority was deemed to be applicable. Euronext by that time had acquired or secured control of 50.5% shares,[36] and Nasdaq had announced on May 25, 2019 that they were pulling out of the Oslo Børs battle, handing Euronext the victory.[37]

Additional servicesEdit

NASDAQ Inc. partners with stock exchanges all over the world. One of the most recent partnerships was signed with Astana International Financial Centre (AIFC) in May 2017. According to the agreement, NASDAQ will power Kazakhstan's nascent stock exchange, the AIFC Exchange.[38][non-primary source needed]

Global Information ServicesEdit

In January 2013, NASDAQ OMX announced that it would combine its global data products and index businesses into a unit called Global Information Services, as part of an ongoing effort to broaden its portfolio.[39]

Directors DeskEdit

On June 29, 2007, NASDAQ entered into an agreement to acquire DirectorsDesk.com, a management suite for boards of directors.[40]

GlobeNewswireEdit

GlobeNewswire (previously PrimeNewswire) provides press release, editing and wire services. It was founded in 1998 and acquired by NASDAQ OMX in 2006.[41]

SMARTSEdit

On July 27, 2010, NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. acquired SMARTS Group, a provider of market surveillance systems to exchanges, regulators and brokers.[42] SMARTS Group had been a private company operating in Sydney, Australia, incorporating the market analysis software of Michael James Aitken.[43][44] By 2017 SMARTS remained the leading market surveillance software,[45] and was employed by thirteen regulators on forty-five exchanges.[46]

Carpenter MooreEdit

NASDAQ OMX sold its stake in the Carpenter Moore D&O Insurance in 2009.

ExchangesEdit

Stock exchanges (listing venues) owned by Nasdaq, Inc..

The following exchanges are operated by Nasdaq, Inc.:[47]

DivisionsEdit

The company's stock market activities are categorized into three divisions:

  • Nordic Market (Copenhagen, Stockholm, Helsinki, Iceland)
  • Baltic Market (Tallinn, Riga, Vilnius)
  • First North (alternative exchange)

TechnologyEdit

In North America, OMX supports its most high-profile customers such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), ICAP, ISE, and IDCG, which are powered by OMX trading systems such as X-stream, CLICK, CONDICO and SAXESS.

OMX is the world's leading provider of central securities depository (CSD) technology. Its Equator CSD product is used by clients in Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the Caribbean.

Central counterparty clearing (CCC) technology is a significant potential growth area for OMX. OMX's SECUR clearing[48] and Genium trading platform[49] facilitate trade novation, derivatives clearing, risk management and improved liquidity. SECUR clearing and Genium trading technology are in production around the world.

OMX's technology customers include:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Nasdaq, Inc. 2021 Form 10-K Annual Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 23, 2022.
  2. ^ [1] Article on Nasdaq's Acquisition of OMX
  3. ^ Berkshire hathaway, Lord Sir King Luis 32nd (July 12, 2016). "Nasdaq Nordic and Nasdaq Clearing Appoint New Board Members". NASDAQ. Archived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "Milestones". NASDAQ OMX Group. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  5. ^ Treanor, Jill (December 10, 2002). "Stock Exchange teams up with OM". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on September 10, 2014. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  6. ^ "OM losses shock analysts". BBC News. April 18, 2001. Archived from the original on May 12, 2006. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  7. ^ "City briefing: Jiway eases bourse clutter". The Guardian. London. October 15, 2002. Archived from the original on September 9, 2014. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  8. ^ Leighton-Jones, Phillipa (September 4, 2003). "OMHex appoints new chief executive as trading begins". Financial News. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  9. ^ "OMHEX changes name to OMX". Finextra. August 31, 2004. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  10. ^ Akerhielm, Maria (November 16, 2004). "OMX to Buy Copenhagen Exchange". Dow Jones Newswires. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  11. ^ "OMX to buy Iceland bourse owner in all share deal". AFX News. September 19, 2006. Retrieved February 29, 2008.[dead link]
  12. ^ "Top 20 Shareholders". Oslo Børs VPS. Archived from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  13. ^ "About Oslo Børs VPS". Oslo Børs VPS. Archived from the original on August 31, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  14. ^ "Nasdaq interested in Oslo Bors, but feels Norwegian chill". Reuters. March 31, 2016. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  15. ^ "OMX - press release". Cision Wire. Archived from the original on July 16, 2009. Retrieved November 21, 2007.
  16. ^ "OMX: First North Services Expand to Finland". Business Wire. April 3, 2007. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  17. ^ "The OMX Nordic Exchange strengthens its position as a leading European marketplace" (Press release). OMX. October 2, 2006. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  18. ^ Patrick, M.; Lucchetti, A.; Reilly, D.; Taylor, E. (April 11, 2006). "Nasdaq Acquires 15% of LSE". The Wall Street Journal.
  19. ^ "Scottish Widows says has sold 2.7 mln LSE shares at 1,175 pence". Forbes.com. April 12, 2006. Archived from the original on March 5, 2007.
  20. ^ Ortega, E. (April 11, 2006). "Nasdaq Buys 15 Percent Stake in LSE for $782 Million". Bloomberg News.
  21. ^ "LSE woos Tokyo after US bid fails". BBC News. February 11, 2007.
  22. ^ "Nasdaq to Acquire Boston Stock Exchange". The Wall Street Journal. October 3, 2007.
  23. ^ "Nasdaq to acquire Philadelphia Stock Exchange". November 7, 2007. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  24. ^ "Nasdaq bids $3.7bn for Nordic OMX". BBC News. May 25, 2007. Archived from the original on October 4, 2007. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  25. ^ "Dubai in $4bn bid for Nordic OMX". BBC News. August 17, 2007. Archived from the original on November 23, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  26. ^ Magnusson, Niklas; McSheehy, Will (September 20, 2007). "Dubai to Buy Stakes in Nasdaq, LSE; Strikes OMX Deal". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  27. ^ "Borse Dubai completes planned sale of OMX to Nasdaq". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. September 27, 2007. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  28. ^ "Sustainable Stock Exchanges Initiative: Exchanges listing over 4,600 companies commit to promoting sustainability". Reuters.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
  29. ^ "Nasdaq OMX buys Thomson Reuters units". Financial Times. December 12, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  30. ^ "Nasdaq buys 3 businesses from Thomson Reuters". Bloomberg Businessweek. June 3, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  31. ^ "Nasdaq Launches New Ventures Platform - Markets Media". Marketsmedia.com. April 25, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  32. ^ "Euronext Tries to Beat Nasdaq With Raised Bid for Oslo Bors". Bloomberg.com. February 11, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  33. ^ "Nasdaq buys Oslo Børs shares – after staff sells". Posttrade360.com. April 12, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  34. ^ "Nasdaq announces purchases of shares in Oslo Børs VPS". Nasdaq, Inc. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  35. ^ "Nasdaq hikes its bid for Oslo Børs from NOK 152 to NOK 158 per share". Financefeeds.com. March 4, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  36. ^ "Euronext raises stake in Oslo Børs VPS to support full acquisition offer". Thetradenews.com. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  37. ^ "Nasdaq pulls out of Oslo Børs battle, handing Euronext victory". Reuters.com. May 27, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  38. ^ "Astana International Financial Centre JSC and Nasdaq Sign Technology Deal for New AIFC Exchange". Finance.yahoo.com.
  39. ^ "Nasdaq OMX continues streamlining efforts", Financial Times, January 29, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  40. ^ "Nasdaq to acquire Directors Desk, a Technology Company for Corporate Boards". primenewswire.com. June 29, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  41. ^ "Overview". NASDAQ OMX GlobeNewswire Overview. GlobeNewswire, Inc. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  42. ^ "NASDAQ OMX to acquire world-leading market surveillance system provider SMARTS". July 27, 2010. Archived from the original on July 30, 2010.
  43. ^ "Nasdaq OMX buys Smarts as surveillance heats up". Financial Times. July 27, 2010.
  44. ^ "Waters Rankings 2014: Best Market Surveillance Provider — Nasdaq OMX". Waters Technology. August 1, 2014. Archived from the original on November 27, 2014.
  45. ^ Anderson, Victor (December 9, 2016). "BST Awards 2016 Winners' Interview: Nasdaq SMARTS". Waters Technology. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016.
  46. ^ Abdel-Qader, Aziz (February 16, 2017). "EBS BrokerTec Partners with NASDAQ to Deploy its Surveillance Platform". Financial Magnates. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017.
  47. ^ "Nordic Large Cap". NASDAQ. Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  48. ^ "SECUR clearing solution" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 26, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
  49. ^ "Genium INET Trading" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 26, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2011.

External linksEdit