Municipalities of Nepal

A municipality (Nepali: नगरपालिका) in Nepal is an administrative division in the Provinces of Nepal. The urban population of Nepal refers to the inhabitants residing in the designated municipal area.[1] Population size has been taken as the principal criteria in the declaration of urban areas in Nepal since 1961. Municipalities can therefore also include rural areas.[2] It functions as a sub-unit of a district. Nepal currently has 293 municipalities, which given the 2011 population estimate of 16,656,057.

The municipalities are categorised into three categories: Metropolitan municipality (500,000+ population), Sub-metropolitan municipality (200,000+ population) and Municipality (10,000+ population). There are 6 metropolitan municipality, 11 sub-metropolitan municipality and 276 municipality.[2]


Map of Kathmandu in 1952-54

The first urban center in Nepal took place in Kathmandu Valley. The historical evidences on the existence of towns in the Kathmandu Valley are found during Licchavi period. At the same time, three major towns with urban characteristics had been developed in the Kathmandu Valley. During the Rana period, towns in the hills were also as hill stations for the purpose of administration and as an outpost against invaders.[1] Towns like Dhankuta in East Nepal, Palpa in Central Nepal and Doti in West Nepal were initially developed as cantonments. Urban areas in the Terai developed because of trade between Nepal and British India. The British had laid railway lines at the border of Nepal for the purpose of trade which gradually increased urban centers in the Terai. Although urban areas developed during Rana period or before it were not officially recorded. Kathmandu was given the status of municipality in 1930 but was only gazetted in 1953. Dharan was established in 1958 as a fourth municipality of the country

Structure and responsibilitiesEdit

As defined by Part 17 of the Constitution of Nepal, the municipalities are governed by a Municipal Executive headed by a mayor. The Municipal Executive consists of the deputy mayor, ward chairpersons elected from each ward in the municipality, and five women members elected by the Municipal Assembly among themselves and three members from the Dalit or other minority communities.[3] Part 18 of the Constitution of Nepal states that the Municipal Assembly hold all legislative powers of the municipality. It consists of the mayor, deputy mayor, ward chairpersons and four ward members elected from each of the wards in the municipality out of which at least two must be a woman. One member of the Dalit of minority communities that was elected to the Municipal Executive is also a member of the Assembly[4] Part 17 also includes provisions for a Judicial Committee which is headed by the deputy mayor and consists of two other members elected by the Municipal Assembly among themselves.[3] Schedule 8 and Schedule 9 of the constitution deals with powers that the local executive can execute either on its own or concurrently with the federal and the provincial governments.


Metropolitan MunicipalitytytyEdit

According to the Local Government Operation Act 2017 a metropolitan municipality must have following criteria to get the status of Metropolitan Municipality:[5][2]

  • Population: 500,000+
  • Annual Income (in NPR): 1,00,00,000+
  • Infrastructures: Educational institute up to the higher level, medical services, hospitals, transportation facilities, metalled road, communication services, Museum, stadium, assembly hall and exhibition area of international standard. Sufficient recreation places for children and elderly people, Basic water supply and sanitation services. Garbage treatment and management system, Shopping mall, vegetable and fruit market, hotels of international standards. Urban greenery and scenic beauty, etc as prescribed by government.

Sub-metropolitan MunicipalityEdit

A sub-metropolitan municipality must have to fulfill following criteria:[2]

  • Population: 200,000+
  • Annual Income (in NPR): 250,000,000+
  • Infrastructures: higher level education, medical services, hospitals, transportation facilities, metalled road, basic communication services, Public garden, assembly hall, stadium, gym hall and covered hall of national standard, Basic water supply and sanitation services. Garbage treatment and management system, Market place, animal slaughter houses, human corpses disposal place. Hotel, motel and resorts of tourism standards. Disable friendly and physically accessible infrastructures.


Municipalities are defined by different criteria as their location as below:[2]

Higher mountainous areaEdit

Lower mountainous and hilly areaEdit

Inner TeraiEdit

Outer TeraiEdit

Inside Kathmandu valleyEdit

List of Municipalities by the date of establishmentEdit

1953 to 1997Edit

There were 58 traditional municipalities which established from 1953 to 1997. [6] (Below given population are prior to reconstruction in 2017. In 2017 more area and population added to given municipality)


Total 133 municipalities were established in 2014 in two segments but on 10 March 2017 reconstructed local level body and brought changing in some of municipalities. Some municipality completely disestablished (declined)

  • 72 municipalities were established in 18 may 2014 [7] [8]
  • 61 new Municipalities were established on 2 December 2014. [9]
  1. Gokarneshwor
  2. Dakshinkali
  3. Tarakeshwor
  4. Shankharapur
  5. Chandragiri
  6. Kageshwori
  7. Tokha
  8. Nagarjun
  9. Budhanilkantha
  10. Anantalineshowr  Declined
  11. Karyabinayak  Declined
  12. Godawari
  13. Changunarayan
  14. Maha Manjushree Nagarkot   Declined
  15. Patan
  16. Deumai
  17. Shivasatakshi
  18. Letang (renamed as Letang)
  19. Ramdhuni-Bhasi
  20. Pakhribas
  21. Shadanand
  22. Madi
  23. Saptakoshi
  24. Golbazar
  25. Dudhkunda (renamed as Solududhkunda)
  26. Badimalika
  27. Bhajani Trishakti (renamed as Bhajani)
  28. Parshuram
  29. Bardibas
  30. Garuda
  31. Pokhariya
  32. Dapcha Kashikhanda (renamed as Namobuddha)
  33. Melamchi
  34. Sundarbazar
  35. Bheriganga
  36. Musikot
  37. Palungtar
  38. Jiri
  39. Manthali
  40. Dudhauli
  41. Ghodaghodi
  42. Mahagadhimai
  43. Simraungadh
  44. Buddhabatika   Declined
  45. Ganeshman Charanath
  46. Mithila
  47. Sabaila
  48. Basgadhi
  49. Madi
  50. Narayani  Declined
  51. Lamahi
  52. Tripur  Declined
  53. Chandani Dodhara (renamed Mahakali)
  54. Jhalari Pipladi (renamed Shuklaphanta)
  55. Ramechhap
  56. Kolhabi
  57. Mahalaxmi
  58. Libang (renamed as Rolpa)
  59. Suryabinayak
  60. Banganga
  61. Sanoshree Taratal (renamed as Madhuwan later)


Total 26 municipalities were established in 19 September 2015.[10] Reconstructed on 10 March 2017 with some changing in existed municipalities.

  1. Gauradaha
  2. Laligurans
  3. Hanumannagar Yoginimai   Declined
  4. Sukhipur
  5. Dhangadhimai
  6. Bajrabarahi
  7. Kalika
  8. Rapti
  9. Barahathwa
  10. Bhanu
  11. Anbu Khaireni
  12. Madhyabindu
  13. Bhrikuti   Declined
  14. Bhirkot
  15. Rainas
  16. Karaputar   Declined
  17. Bherimalika
  18. Chaurjahari
  19. Bagchaur
  20. Subhaghat Gangamala (renamed as Gurbhakot)
  21. Kamalbazar
  22. Beldandi
  23. Bedkot
  24. Krishnapur
  25. Babai   Declined


On 10 March 2017 Government of Nepal reconstructed old local level bodies into 744 new local level units as per the new constitution of Nepal 2015. [11] [12] Later, on recommendance of Supreme court 9 more local level body added to Province No. 2, increasing from 744 to 753.[13]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "EVOLUTION OF MUNICIPALITIES IN NEPAL: CHALLENGES AND PLANNING". Gopi Krishna Pandey. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e "NEPAL URBAN RESILIENCE PROJECT (NURP)" (PDF). Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Part-17 Local Executive – Nepal Law Commission". Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  4. ^ "Part-18 Local Legislature – Nepal Law Commission". Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  5. ^ "स्थानीय-सरकार-सञ्चालन- ऐन" [Local Government Operation Act, 2017] (PDF) (in Nepali). Government of Nepal. 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  6. ^ "Population monograph Volume-3" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal. 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  7. ^ "72 new municipalities announced". My Archived from the original on 2014-06-18. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
  8. ^ "Government announces 72 new municipalities". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
  9. ^ "Government announced 61 municipalities". 3 December 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  10. ^ "Govt declares 26 new municipalities". 19 September 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  11. ^ "New local level structure comes into effect from today". The Himalayan Times. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  12. ^ "New local level units come into existence". 11 March 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  13. ^ "Govt prepares to add 9 more local levels in Province 2". KMG. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2020.