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Province No. 2 (proposed names: Madhesh or Mithila- Bhojpura)[2] (Nepali/Maithili: प्रदेश नं० २) is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal that was formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province,[3] and smallest province by area. It borders Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the north, and India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi) with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated province of Nepal.[4]

Province No. 2

प्रदेश नं० २
Ram Janaki Temple, Dhanusha.jpg
Kankalini Temple 5983.jpg
Shankharacharya Gate, Birgunj.jpg
Chinnamasta Temple Rajbiraj Saptari NPSAP01 (13).jpg
Gadhimai temple.jpg
Official seal of Province No. 2
Location of Province No. 2
Location of Province No. 2
Map of Province No. 2, Nepal
Country   Nepal
Formation20 September 2015
CapitalJanakpur (Temporary)
Largest cityBirgunj
 • BodyGovernment of Province No. 2
 • GovernorTilak Pariyar[1]
 • Chief MinisterMohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi (FSFN)
 • High CourtJanakpur High Court
 • Provincial AssemblyUnicameral (107 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency32
 • Total9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi)
Area rank7th
 • Total5,404,145
 • Rank2nd
 • Density560/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
 • Density rank1st
Demonym(s)Madhesi (Southern Nepali)
Time zoneUTC+5:45 (NST)
Area code(s)041
Main Official LanguageNepali (6.67%) (under Constitution of Nepal)
Other Official Language(s)1. Maithili (45.30%)
2. Bhojpuri (18.58%)
3. Bajjika (14.7%)
HDI0.485 (low)
Sex ratio101.18 /100 (2011)

The Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park (previously Wildlife Reserve) acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 3 in the west.

The province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bajjika and Nepali.[4]

The Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur, also known as Janakpurdham,[5] is a centre for religious and cultural tourism.[6] It is also thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times.[5]

The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is also the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal.[7][8] The town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, Janakpur has been declared as the interim capital of Province No. 2.[15] Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister.[16][17]


The region is surrounded by:[18]

As per Central Bureau of Statistics(CBS)[19] the province covers about 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi). of Nepal's total area of 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi). with total number of 5,404,145 inhabitants, it is the second most populous province in Nepal.[3][20]

The province is located on flat plains of Terai, and Chure (Churiya) or the Shiwalik Hills are the natural border of the province which falls in northern side. The southern side has an international border with the India. Koshi River on its eastern side acting as a natural border with Province No. 1. Province No. 2 has eight districts in a series (parallel). Koshi River, Bagmati River, Kamla River, Lakhandei River and Bishnumati River are the main rivers of the province.

Average temperatures and precipitation for selected communities in Province No. 2[21]
Location August









Precipitation (mm/in)

Gaur 91/77.9 23/9.1 73.4/48.4 32.8/25.5 1590.2/62.6
Siraha 89.6/76.3 32/24.6 72.1/47.3 22.3/8.5 1293.1/50.9
Birgunj 84.7 29.3 60.8 16 1862.2/73.3
Jaleshwar 84.4 29.1 61.2 16.2 1492.9/58.8
Malangwa 84.4 29.1 60.8 16 1817.7/71.6
Janakpur 84.2 29 60.8 16 1516.5/59.7
Rajbiraj 83.3 28.5 60.4 15.8 1223.3/48.2
Lahan 83.3 28.5 60.3 15.7 1231.4/48.5

Government and administrationEdit

The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Janakpur High Court is the head of the judiciary.[22] The present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Tilak Pariyar (governor), Mohammad Lalbabu Raut (chief minister) and Udaya Prakash Chapagain.[23][24] The province has 107 provincial assembly constituencies and 32 House of Representative constituencies.[25]

Province No. 2 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years. The Provincial Assembly of Province No. 2 is temporarily housed at the District Education Office in Janakpur.[26]

Administrative subdivisionsEdit

Province No. 2 is divided into eight districts, which are listed below. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer. The districts are further dived to municipalities or rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city, three sub-metropolitan cities and 73 municipalities. There are 59 rural municipalities in the province.[27]

# Name Nepali Headquarters Population (2011) Area Website
1 Saptari District सप्तरी जिल्ला Rajbiraj 639,284 1,363 km² [1]
2 Parsa District पर्सा जिल्ला Birgunj 601,017 1,353 km² [2]
3 Sarlahi District सर्लाही जिल्ला Malangwa 769,729 1,259 km² [3]
4 Bara District बारा जिल्ला Kalaiya 687,708 1,190 km² [4]
5 Siraha District सिराहा जिल्ला Siraha 637,328 1,188 km² [5]
6 Dhanusha District धनुषा जिल्ला Janakpur 754,777 1,180 km² [6]
7 Rautahat District रौतहट जिल्ला Gaur 686,722 1,126 km² [7]
8 Mahottari District महोत्तरी जिल्ला Jaleshwar 627,580 1,002 km² [8]

Religion in Province No. 2

  Hinduism (84.75%)
  Islam (11.55%)
  Buddhism (3.01%)
  Christianity (0.14%)
  Kirat Mundhum (0.11%)
  Prakṛti (0.09%)
  Other or not religious (0.35%)

Languages in Province No. 2

  Maithili (45.30%)
  Bhojpuri (18.58%)
  Bajjika (14.65%)
  Nepali (6.67%)
  Urdu (5.87%)
  Tharu (3.77%)
  Magahi (0.57%)
  Hindi (0.16%)
  Other languages (4.44%)



Province No. 2 has no difficult terrains still the transportation has not been well developed in the region due to lack of investments and negligence.[citation needed]


The major connecting link for the province is the Mahendra Highway (East West Highway) which runs longitudinally across the province. All major cities of the province remain disconnected from this highway. Janakpurdham, Rajbiraj , Birgunj and Gaur lie 25,10, 24 and 42 kilometres south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively.[28] The Tribhuvan Highway does not cross as much of the province as the Mahendra Highway, but it is most important link as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to the India.[29] The starting point of Tribhuvan Highway i.e. Birgunj is the most important International Gateway and trade way for this province and entire country and hence known as "The Gateway of Nepal". In terms of revenue generation, Birgunj custom point is the largest. Birendra highway which is connected to Mahendra highway from Headquarter of Rautahat district Gaur to the Chandranigahapur (largest city of Rautahat). which is 42 km in length.

  • Mahendra Highway (East West Highway) - Part
  • Postal Highway - Part
  • Tribhuvan Highway - Part
  • Birendra Highway - part


A few other railway projects are under progress in the province no. 2. All these projects are of Nepal Railways. Government of Nepal has proposed Janakpur as a Main Station for 1024 km east-west Metro Railway project and further be extended to India and China for connecting Nepal Railways with Indian Railways and China Railway for business and tourism promotion.[30]


Province No. 2 has 3 airports:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Who is who: These are new governors of Nepal's seven provinces – OnlineKhabar". Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  2. ^ Yadav, S. (2018). "Province 2 struggles to reach consensus on its name". Nepal Republic Media Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b Law, G. (2015). "Provinces of Nepal". Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  4. ^ a b "National Population and Housing Census 2011" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  5. ^ a b Burghart, R. (1978). The disappearance and reappearance of Janakpur. Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies 6 (4): 257–284.
  6. ^ Rastriya Samachar Samiti (2004). "More Indian tourists visit Janakpurdham". Himalayan Times, 17 January 2004.
  7. ^ "राजविराज नगरपालिका, नगर कार्यपालिकाकाे कार्यालय | प्रदेश नं. २, नेपाल सरकार". (in Nepali). Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Rajbiraj revisited − Nepali Times". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Birgunj Metropolitan City official Website".
  10. ^ "Biratnagar, Birgunj promoted to Metropolitan Cities". The Himalayan Times. 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  11. ^ "Possible headquarters of states".
  12. ^ "Where will Province Chief live?". Naya Patrika Nepal's National News.
  13. ^ "Possible Province headquarters". BroadNepal News Bnn.
  14. ^ "कुन प्रदेशको राजधानी कहाँ ?". Himalayan Kangaroo.
  15. ^ "Places proposed for temporary capitals of all seven provinces - News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition". News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  16. ^ "Raut appointed Chief Minister of province-2 - News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition". News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition. 14 February 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  17. ^ "Lalbabu Raut to be sworn in Province 2 CM today". The Himalayan Times. 14 February 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  18. ^ "Big 3 draw new 7-province map". Republica. 22 August 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  19. ^ "Statistical Year Book 2015 by CBS Nepal". Central Bureau of Statistics(CBS). Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  20. ^ "The population of the provinces of Nepal according to census results and latest official projections". City Population. 29 December 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  21. ^ "Nepal Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  22. ^ "High Courts get their chief judges". Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Lalbabu Raut appointed as Chief Minister of Province-2". My Republica. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  24. ^ "President of Nepal administers oath to Chiefs of seven provinces | DD News". Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  25. ^ "CDC creates 495 constituencies". The Himalayan Times. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  26. ^ "First Provincial Assembly meeting begins in 4 provinces". Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  27. ^ "स्थानिय तह". Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  28. ^ Reed, David (2002). The Rough Guide to Nepal. Rough Guides. ISBN 9781858288994.
  29. ^ Highways in Nepal Archived 26 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Nepal,India agree on five rail projects