Muhammad Shaybani Khan (Uzbek: Muhammad Shayboniy, also known as Abul-Fath Shaybani Khan or Shayabak Khan or Shahi Beg Khan, originally named "Shibägh", which means "wormwood" or "obsidian") (c. 1451 – 2 December 1510), was an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban (or Shayban), the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. His father was Sheikh Haidar, son of Abu'l-Khayr Khan.
|Successor||Jan Wafa Mirza|
|Died||2 December 1510 (aged 58–59)|
Merv, Khorasan, Turkmenistan
|Spouse||Mihr Nigar Khanum|
Aisha Sultan Khanum
Zuhra Begi Agha
|Issue||Muhammad Temur Sultan|
Khurram Shah Sultan
Muhammad Rahim Sultan
|Mother||Aq Quzi Begum|
|Religion||Sunni Islam (Sufism)|
Rise to PowerEdit
Shaybani was initially an Uzbek warrior leading a contingent of 3000 men in the army of the Timurid ruler of Samarkand, Sultan Ahmed Mirza under the Amir, Abdul Ali Tarkhan. However, when Ahmed Mirza went to war against Sultan Mahmud Khan, the Khan of Moghulistan, to reclaim Tashkent from him, Shaybani secretly met the Moghul Khan and agreed to betray and plunder Ahmed's army. This happened in the Battle of the Chirciq River in 1488 CE, resulting in a decisive victory for Moghulistan. Sultan Mahmud Khan gave Turkistan to Shaybani as a reward. Here, however, Shaybani oppressed the local Kazakhs, resulting in a war between Moghulistan and the Kazakh Khanate. Moghulistan was defeated in this war, but Shaybani gained power among the Uzbeks. He decided to conquer Samarkand and Bukhara from Ahmed Mirza. Sultan Mahmud's subordinate emirs convinced him to aid Shaybani in doing so, and together they marched on Samarkand.
Foundation of Shaybanid DynastyEdit
Continuing the policies of his grandfather, Abul-Khayr Khan, Shaybani ousted the Timurids from their capital Samarkand by 1500. He fought successful campaigns against the Timurid leader Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. In 1505 he recaptured Samarkand and in 1507 also took Herat, the southern capital of the Timurids. Shaybani conquered Bukhara in 1506 and established the Shaybanid Dynasty of the Khanate of Bukhara. In 1508–09, he carried out many raids northward, pillaging the land of the Kazakh Khanate. However he suffered a major defeat from Kazakhs under Kasim Khan in 1510.
Shaybani had five consorts:
- Zuhra Begi Agha (m. 1499-1500), an Uzbeg lady and formerly a consort of Sultan Mahmud Mirza;
- Mihr Nigar Khanum (m. 1500 - div. 1501), daughter of Yunus Khan and Aisan Daulat Begum, former wife of Sultan Ahmed Mirza;
- Khanzada Begum (m. 1501 - div.), daughter of Umar Shaikh Mirza II and Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, and mother of Khurram Shah;
- Aisha Sultan Khanum (m. 1503), daughter Mahmud Khan Chaghatai, and mother of Muhammad Rahim Sultan;
- Khanzada Khanum (m. 1507), daughter of Ahmad Khan of Haji Tarkhan and Badi-ul-Jamal Begum, and former wife of Muzaffar Husayn Mirza Bayqara;
He had three sons:
- Muhammad Temur Sultan, married firstly to Mihr Sultan Khanum, daughter of Qazaq Khan Burunduq, married secondly in 1500 to Sultanum Begum, daughter of Sultan Ahmed Mirza and Qatak Begum, married thirdly in 1503 to Daulat Sultan Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan and Shah Begum, married fourthly in 1507 to Ruqaiya Agha, former wife of Badi' al-Zaman Mirza;
- Khurram Shah Sultan - with Khanzada Begum;
- Muhammad Rahim Sultan - with Aisha Sultan Khanum;
Shah Ismail I was alarmed by Shaybani's success and moved against the Uzbeks. In the Battle of Marv (1510), Muhammad Shaybani was defeated and killed when trying to escape. At the time of Shaybani's death, the Uzbeks controlled all of Transoxiana, that is, the area between the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. After capturing Samarkand from Babur, Shaybani married Babur's sister, Khanzada Begum. Babur's liberty to leave Samarkand was made contingent upon his assent to this alliance. After Shaybani's death, Ismail I gave liberty to Khanzada Begum with her son and, at Babur's request, sent them to his court. For this reason Shaybani was succeeded not by a son but by an uncle, a cousin and a brother whose descendants would rule Bukhara until 1598 and Khwarizm (later named Khiva) until 1687.
From the accounts of Babur, i.e. the Baburnama, we came to know that the Shah of Persia Ismail beheaded Shaybani and had his skull turned into a bejeweled drinking goblet which was drunk from when entertaining; he later sent the cup to Babur as a goodwill gesture. The rest of Shaybani's body parts were either sent to various areas of the empire for display  or put on a spike at the main gate of Samarkand.
- This probably means Turkestan (city). Needs check and clarification.
- Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat. Tarikh-i-Rashidi, 1546.
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- Subtelny, Maria (August 30, 2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran. BRILL. p. 252. ISBN 978-9-047-42160-3.
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- Abraham Eraly (17 September 2007). Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls. Penguin Books Limited. p. 25. ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7.