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Muhammad Shaybani

Muhammad Shaybani Khan (Uzbek: Muhammad Shayboniy, also known as Abul-Fath Shaybani Khan or Shayabak Khan or Shahi Beg Khan, originally named "Shibägh", which means "wormwood" or "obsidian") (c. 1451 – 2 December 1510), was an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban (or Shayban), the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. His father was Sheikh Haidar, son of Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

Muhammad Shaybani
محمد شیبانی
Shaybani.jpg
PredecessorSheikh Haidar
SuccessorJan Wafa Mirza
Born1451
Central Asia
Died2 December 1510 (aged 58–59)
Merv, Khorasan, Turkmenistan
SpouseMihr Nigar Khanum
Khanzada Begum
Aisha Sultan Khanum
Zuhra Begi Agha
Khanzada Khanum
IssueMuhammad Temur Sultan
Khurram Shah Sultan
Muhammad Rahim Sultan
Full name
Abu 'I-Fath Muhammad
HouseShaybanids
DynastyShaybanids
FatherBudaq Sultan
MotherAq Quzi Begum
ReligionSunni Islam (Sufism)

Rise to PowerEdit

Shaybani was initially an Uzbek warrior leading a contingent of 3000 men in the army of the Timurid ruler of Samarkand, Sultan Ahmed Mirza under the Amir, Abdul Ali Tarkhan. However, when Ahmed Mirza went to war against Sultan Mahmud Khan, the Khan of Moghulistan, to reclaim Tashkent from him, Shaybani secretly met the Moghul Khan and agreed to betray and plunder Ahmed's army. This happened in the Battle of the Chirciq River in 1488 CE, resulting in a decisive victory for Moghulistan. Sultan Mahmud Khan gave Turkistan[1] to Shaybani as a reward. Here, however, Shaybani oppressed the local Kazakhs, resulting in a war between Moghulistan and the Kazakh Khanate. Moghulistan was defeated in this war, but Shaybani gained power among the Uzbeks. He decided to conquer Samarkand and Bukhara from Ahmed Mirza. Sultan Mahmud's subordinate emirs convinced him to aid Shaybani in doing so, and together they marched on Samarkand.[2]

Foundation of Shaybanid DynastyEdit

Continuing the policies of his grandfather, Abul-Khayr Khan, Shaybani ousted the Timurids from their capital Samarkand by 1500. He fought successful campaigns against the Timurid leader Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire.[3] In 1505 he recaptured Samarkand and in 1507 also took Herat, the southern capital of the Timurids. Shaybani conquered Bukhara in 1506 and established the Shaybanid Dynasty of the Khanate of Bukhara. In 1508–09, he carried out many raids northward, pillaging the land of the Kazakh Khanate. However he suffered a major defeat from Kazakhs under Kasim Khan in 1510.

FamilyEdit

Consorts

Shaybani had five consorts:

Sons

He had three sons:

DeathEdit

 
The battle between Shah Ismail I and Muhammad Shaybani in 1510.

Shah Ismail I was alarmed by Shaybani's success and moved against the Uzbeks. In the Battle of Marv (1510), Muhammad Shaybani was defeated and killed when trying to escape. At the time of Shaybani's death, the Uzbeks controlled all of Transoxiana, that is, the area between the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. After capturing Samarkand from Babur, Shaybani married Babur's sister, Khanzada Begum. Babur's liberty to leave Samarkand was made contingent upon his assent to this alliance. After Shaybani's death, Ismail I gave liberty to Khanzada Begum with her son and, at Babur's request, sent them to his court. For this reason Shaybani was succeeded not by a son but by an uncle, a cousin and a brother whose descendants would rule Bukhara until 1598 and Khwarizm (later named Khiva) until 1687.

From the accounts of Babur, i.e. the Baburnama, we came to know that the Shah of Persia Ismail beheaded Shaybani and had his skull turned into a bejeweled drinking goblet[8] which was drunk from when entertaining[3]; he later sent the cup to Babur as a goodwill gesture. The rest of Shaybani's body parts were either sent to various areas of the empire for display [3] or put on a spike at the main gate of Samarkand.[9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ This probably means Turkestan (city). Needs check and clarification.
  2. ^ Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat. Tarikh-i-Rashidi, 1546.
  3. ^ a b c Holden, Edward S. (2004). The Mogul Emperors of Hindustan (1398-1707 A.D). New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Services. pp. 74–76. ISBN 81-206-1883-1.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Begum, Gulbadan (1902). The History of Humayun (Humayun-Nama). Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 211–212, 223–24 250–251, 264, 289, 297.
  5. ^ Babur, Emperor; Beveridge, Annette Susannah (1922). The Baburnam in English (Memoirs of Babur) - Volume 1. Luzac & Co., London. pp. 329 n. 1.
  6. ^ Subtelny, Maria (August 30, 2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran. BRILL. p. 252. ISBN 978-9-047-42160-3.
  7. ^ Balabanlilar, Lisa (January 15, 2012). Imperial Identity in Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic politics in Early Modern Central Asia. I. B. Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-848-85726-1.
  8. ^ "Medieval Persia 1040-1797". Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  9. ^ Abraham Eraly (17 September 2007). Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls. Penguin Books Limited. p. 25. ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7.

External linksEdit