A mudra (IAST: Mudrā; Sanskrit for sign or symbol) is a term woven into compositions in Indian classical music, particularly Carnatic music, that indicates the identity of the composer, a patron, the raga, tala, or style. A composer might use his own name or a pseudonym.[1] Not all composers have mudras, and they do not necessarily relate to the composer's name.[2][3]

EtymologyEdit

A mudra is a pen name, nom de plume, or pseudonym adopted by a musician to serve as their sign of authorship in a musical composition. A pen name may be used to make the author's name more distinctive, to disguise their gender, to distance an author from some or all of their previous works, to protect the author from retribution for their writings, to combine more than one author into a single author, or for any of a number of reasons related to the marketing or aesthetic presentation of the work. The author's name may be known only to the publisher, or may come to be common knowledge.

List of Mudras used by MusiciansEdit

Hindustani MusiciansEdit

Mudra Musician Translation Details
Adārang () Firoz Khān of Delhi 18th-century dhrupadiya in Rangile's Court.[4]
Ālam Ālamara Begum Khāsmahal
Ahmed-piyā Alladiya Khan Founder of Jaipur-Atrauli gharana.
Akhtar-piyā Wajid Ali Shah
Amar, Amar-piyā Aman Ali Khan
Amardās, Amar-piyā Navrang Nagpurkar
Anang-rang Acharya Brihaspati
Bhāv-rang Balwantrai Bhatt
Bindā Bindadin Maharaj
Chakra-piyā Chakradhar Singh
Chānd-piyā Chand Khan Delhi Gharana.[5]
Chatur, Chatur Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande
Chit-Ānand Chidanand Nagarkar "Elated consciousness." Agra Gharana.[6]
Daras-piyā Mehboob Khān of Agra Agra Gharana.[7]
Darpan Yunus Hussain Khan "Mirror."
Dhyān-rang-piyā Mani Prasad
Dil-rang Azmat Hussain Khan "Colors of the World."
Din-rang Dinkar Kaikini "Colors of the Day."
Gauhar, Gauharpyari Gauharjan
Guna-piyā Chhota Gandharva
Guni-dās Jagganathbuwa Purohit
Guni-jan CR Vyas
Hara-rang Muhammad Ali Khan
Hara-rang Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande Musicologist.
Hinga-rang Hussain Ali Khan[8]
Ināyat Inayat Hussain Khan
Jas Pandit Jasraj
Jyoti-rang Rajaram Shukla
Kharaharapriya-dās[9] Bholanath Bhatt
Khush-rang Aslam Hussein Khan
Krishna-dās Master Krishnarao
Lalan-piyā Nandalal Sharma
Lāl-rang Chaman Lal Varma
Madhur-piyā Gokulotsav Maharaj
Manhar Murli Manohar Shukla
Manhar-piyā Prem Prakash Johri
Mana-rang Bhupat Khan
Mana-rang Mahawat Khan of Jaipur
Nād-piyā V R Athavale "Lover of naad." Agra Gharana.
Nād-rang Sandeep Ranade "Colors of naad."
Nāth-piyā Vilayat Khan Sitarist. Enayet Khan's Rajput name was "Nath Singh."
Prān-piyā Vilayat Hussain Khan Agra Gharana.[10]
Pranav-rang Omkarnath Thakur
Prem-piyā Faiyaz Khan
Prem-rang Sharafat Hussain Khan
Prem-dās Latafat Hussain Khan
Prem-rang Ratnakar Ramnathkar
Qadar-piyā Mirza Bala Qadar of Rampur Thumri composer.[11]
Rām-dās Zahoor Khan Khurja Gharana.[12]
Rām-rang Ramashrey Jha
Rangile Ramzan Khan Agra[13]
Rasa-dās Arun Kashalkar
Rasik-rang Ashok Ranade Musicologist[14]
Rasik-rang Deepak Chatterjee
Rasa-piyā Babanrao Haldankar
Razā-piya Raza Ali Khan Nawab.[15]
Saba-rang Bade Ghulam Ali Khan Patiala Gharana.
Sab-ras Ghulam Maulvi Khan Patiala Gharana.
Sadā-rang () Niyamat Khān of Delhi Descendant of Tansen. 18th-century dhrupadiya in Rangile's Court.[16]
Sagun-piyā Yashpal
Sajan-piyā Khadim Hussain Khan
Sanada-piyā Tawakkul Husain Khan of Rampur Thumri composer.[17]
Sarasa-piyā Kale Khan Father of Abdul Karim Khan of Kirana Gharana.
Sarasa-rang Dayam Khan Nauhar
Shām-rang Qayam Khan
Shok-rang, Shok Kumar Gandharva
Shori, Shori Miyān Miyan Ghulam Nabi Shori
Shubh-rang Shubhada Paradkar
Shyām-rang Jitendra Abhisheki
Subh-rang Shankarlal Mishra
Sughar-piyā Bhaiya Ganpatrao
Sujan-piyā S N Ratanjankar
Sur-rang Amir Khan
Tan-rang Vishwanath Rao Ringe
Vinod-piyā Tasadduq Hussain Khan Son of Kallan Khan, Agra Gharana.[18]
Vyakul Vyakul of Ayodhya Guru of Ramashreya Jha[18]
Yash-rang Yeshwantbua Joshi

Carnatic MusiciansEdit

Name Mudra Notes
Tallapaka Annamayya Venkata
Purandara Dasa Purandara Vitthala
Kanaka Dasa Kaginele Adi Keshava
Tyagaraja Tyagaraja
Shyama Shastri Shyama Krishna[19]
Muthuswami Dikshitar Guruguha[2] Guha is one of the many names of Murugan, the deity at Tirutani, the site of his first composition.[20]
Swati Tirunal
  • Padmanabha
  • Pankajanabha
Bhadrachala Ramadas Ramadasu
Papanasam Sivan Ramadasan
Gopalakrishna Bharathi Gopalakrishnan
Harikesanallur Muthiah Bhagavatar Harikesha
Narayana Teertha Narayana Teertha
Patnam Subramania Iyer Venkateshwara
Mysore Vasudevacharya Vasudevā
Mysore V. Ramarathnam Rāma
M. D. Ramanathan Varada dasa
M. Balamuralikrishna
  • Hari
  • Murali
Maharajapuram Santhanam Maharajan
Koteeswara Iyer Kavi Kunjara dasa
Kshetrayya Muvva Gopala
Sadashiva Brahmendra swami Paramahamsa
Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar Sri Vidya[21]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wade, Bonnie C. (1984). Khyal: Creativity Within North India's Classical Music Tradition. Cambridge University Press. p. 20.
  2. ^ a b Mudrā, The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India. Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 9780195650983. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  3. ^ "Royal Carpet: Glossary of Carnatic Terms M". karnatik.com. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Artist - Niyamat Khan 'Sadarang' (Vocal), Gharana - None". www.swarganga.org.
  5. ^ "Raga Shree: Close Encounters".
  6. ^ "Short Takes: Malkauns".
  7. ^ Bhattacharya, Ramprapanna (31 August 2018). "My Music Diary: Pen names of Great Composers of Hindustani Music".
  8. ^ "The Bandish divide - Times of India". The Times of India.
  9. ^ "HM Ragamalika! - rasikas.org".
  10. ^ "The Kanada Constellation (Part 3/3)".
  11. ^ Music, Classical (15 July 2012). "Classical Music: Thumri".
  12. ^ "Two Variants of Bihag and Thirakhwa's Tabla Solo".
  13. ^ "Artist - Ramzan Khan 'Rangile' (Vocal), Gharana - Agra". www.swarganga.org.
  14. ^ "Artist - Ashok Da Ranade (Vocal), Gharana - Gwalior". www.swarganga.org.
  15. ^ Akademi, Sangeet Natak (2006). Sangeet Natak (Volume 40 ed.). Sangeet Natak Akademi. p. 21.
  16. ^ "Artist - Firoz Khan 'Adarang' (Vocal), Gharana - None". www.swarganga.org.
  17. ^ Kumar, Kuldeep (31 October 2013). "A maestro and a master". The Hindu – via www.thehindu.com.
  18. ^ a b "Bhimpalasi Inc".
  19. ^ Śyāma Śāstri, The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India. Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 9780195650983. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  20. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical dictionary of the Tamils. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 236. ISBN 9780810864450.
  21. ^ "Navarathri - Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Compositions - Dr. PPN". www.carnatica.net.