Council of Ministers of East Germany

(Redirected from Ministerrat)

The Council of Ministers (German: Ministerrat der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik) was the cabinet and executive branch of the German Democratic Republic from November 1950 until the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.[1] Originally formed as a body of 18 members, by 1989 the council consisted of 44 members.

Government of the Republic
Regierung der Republik (German)
Arms of GDR
Established8 November 1950
Dissolved2 October 1990
StateGerman Democratic Republic
(styled Minister President in 1949 Constitution)
Appointed byVolkskammer
Main organCouncil of Ministers
Ministriessee below
HeadquartersAltes Stadthaus, Berlin

Under the Constitution of East Germany, the Council of Ministers was formally defined as the government of East Germany. The same Constitution, however, officially confirmed the leading role of the Socialist Unity Party (SED). Hence, for most of the GDR's existence, the Council of Ministers was not the highest authority in the country, but was charged with implementing the SED's policies into practical administration. In particular, ministers were subordinate to the secretary of the Central Committee responsible for their portfolio, and, at least unofficially, to the General Secretary.

Structure edit

Group photo of Council of Ministers in 1981

The Council was led by a chairman (Vorsitzender), who was usually called "prime minister" in non-German sources. There were two first deputy chairmen and nine other deputy chairmen. Together with some key ministers they formed the presidency (Präsidium) of the Council. The Präsidium prepared all decisions in consultation with the responsible departments of the Central Committee (Zentralkomitee) of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) and especially the Politbüro of the SED Central Committee. The Präsidium managed the day-to-day affairs of the Council between its weekly meetings, which took place regularly on Wednesdays to execute the resolutions of the Politbüro’s weekly meetings (on Tuesdays). The secretaries and department managers in the Central Committee were authorized to give instructions to the ministers as necessary.

Officially, the prime minister held the highest state post in the GDR. Despite this, no SED first secretary/general secretary ever simultaneously served as prime minister.

The Altes Stadthaus in Berlin, seat of the Ministerrat der DDR from 1961 until 1990

Until the Wende in the fall of 1989, the two first deputy chairmen were Werner Krolikowski and Alfred Neumann, who were both members of the SED Politbüro. Other deputy chairmen included the leaders of the four allied parties (Blockparteien). Additional members included the chairman of the State Planning Commission, the president of the Staatsbank der DDR (State Bank of the GDR) and some state secretaries, who were usually office directors at the Council. All members of the Council were selected by the GDR Volkskammer (parliament) for a term of five years. Within the centralized state structure of the GDR, the city, county and district administrations were subordinated to the Council.

Willi Stoph and his entire cabinet resigned on 7 November 1989. Stoph was succeeded by Hans Modrow. The SED gave up its monopoly of power on 1 December. Modrow continued in office, leading a cabinet with both SED/PDS and non-communist members.[1] For much of the winter of 1989 and 1990, he was the de facto leader of East Germany. Modrow was succeeded by Lothar de Maizière after what turned out to be the only free election ever held in East Germany, in March 1990. The de Maizière cabinet presided over the transition period to the reunification of the two Germanies in October 1990.

The former Prussian state parliament (Preußischer Landtag) served as the seat of the Council from 1950 to 1953. From 1961 to 1990 the Council's offices were located in the former Old City Hall of Berlin at No. 47 Klosterstraße. The Law Gazette of the GDR (Gesetzblatt der DDR) was also published by the Council. In addition, the Council’s Press Office made official government announcements and was responsible for the accreditation of foreign journalists in the GDR.

The individual ministries had their own headquarters buildings in East Berlin, although the former Reich Air Ministry building on Leipziger Straße housed the industrially-oriented ministries.

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers edit

No. Portrait Chairman Took office Left office Time in office Party Election Cabinet
Minister-President of the German Democratic Republic
1Grotewohl, OttoOtto Grotewohl
12 October 194921 September 1964 †14 years, 345 daysSEDList of Provisional Volkskammer members (1949)
List of Volkskammer members (1st election period) (1950)
List of Volkskammer members (2nd election period) (1954)
List of Volkskammer members (3rd election period) (1958)
List of Volkskammer members (4th election period) (1963)
Grotewohl I
Grotewohl II
Grotewohl III
Grotewohl IV
Grotewohl V
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic
2Stoph, WilliWilli Stoph
21 September 19643 October 19739 years, 12 daysSEDList of Volkskammer members (4th election period) (1963)
List of Volkskammer members (5th election period) (1967)
List of Volkskammer members (6th election period) (1971)
First Stoph cabinet
Second Stoph cabinet
Third Stoph cabinet
3Sindermann, HorstHorst Sindermann
3 October 197329 October 19763 years, 26 daysSEDList of Volkskammer members (6th election period) (1971)First Sindermann cabinet
Stoph, WilliWilli Stoph
29 October 197613 November 198913 years, 15 daysSEDList of Volkskammer members (7th election period) (1976)
List of Volkskammer members (8th election period) (1981)
List of Volkskammer members (9th election period) (1986)
Fourth Stoph cabinet
Fifth Stoph cabinet
Sixth Stoph cabinet
5Modrow, HansHans Modrow
13 November 198912 April 1990150 daysSED
List of Volkskammer members (9th election period) (1986)Modrow
Minister-President of the German Democratic Republic
6Maizière, LotharLothar de Maizière
(born 1940)
12 April 19902 October 1990173 daysCDUList of Volkskammer members (10th election period) [de] (1990)de Maizière

Ministries edit

Ministries of the industries (1961-1965 in the course New Economic System were summarized the Ministries in national economy advice under his chairman Alfred Neumann):

* Renamed in 1990 as the Ministry for Disarmament and Defense.

** Renamed on 17 November 1989 as the Office for National Security (Amt für Nationale Sicherheit - AfNS); abolished on 13 January 1990.

*** Renamed in 1989 as the Ministry for Education and Youth.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b Starcevi, Nesha (8 November 1989) East German Government Resigns, Pro-Reform Marches Continue in AP News. Retrieved 30 August 2019.