Michael Madsen (born September 25, 1958)[1] is an American actor. Alongside his frequent collaborations with Quentin TarantinoReservoir Dogs (1992), Kill Bill: Volume 2 (2004), The Hateful Eight (2015), and Once Upon a Time in Hollywood (2019)—he is known for his appearances in films such as The Natural (1984), The Doors (1991), Thelma & Louise (1991), Free Willy (1993), Species (1995), Donnie Brasco (1997), Die Another Day (2002), Sin City (2005), and Scary Movie 4 (2006). He has played voice roles in various video games, including Grand Theft Auto III (2001), Narc (2005), the Dishonored series (2012–2017), and Crime Boss: Rockay City (2023). Madsen has five children, including actor Christian Madsen.

Michael Madsen
Madsen at the 2015 San Diego Comic-Con
Born (1958-09-25) September 25, 1958 (age 65)
Other namesMaykl Madsen
OccupationActor
Years active1982–present
Spouses
  • (m. 1984; div. 1988)
  • Jeannine Bisignano
    (m. 1991; div. 1995)
  • DeAnna Madsen
    (m. 1996)
Children5, including Christian
Parent
RelativesVirginia Madsen (sister)
Websitemichaelmadsen.com Edit this at Wikidata

Early life edit

Madsen was born on September 25, 1958, in Chicago, Illinois. His mother, Elaine (née Melson), was a filmmaker and author. His father, Calvin Christian Madsen, was a World War II Navy veteran and a firefighter with the Chicago Fire Department.[2] His parents divorced in the 1960s, and his mother left the financial world to pursue a career in the arts, encouraged by film critic Roger Ebert. His siblings are Cheryl Madsen, an entrepreneur, and Academy Award nominee Virginia Madsen.[3] Madsen's paternal grandparents were Danish, while his mother is Irish and Native American.[4]

Career edit

 
Madsen as a senior in high school, 1975

Madsen began working at the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in Chicago, where he served as an apprentice under John Malkovich and appeared in a production of Of Mice and Men.[5]

His first notable film role was a small part for the science fiction film, WarGames. In Quentin Tarantino's directorial debut film Reservoir Dogs, Madsen played "Mr. Blonde", a cruel criminal. Steve Buscemi received the role of "Mr. Pink", which Madsen wanted because it had more scenes with Harvey Keitel.[5] For Pulp Fiction, Madsen declined the role of Vincent Vega, which went to John Travolta. Madsen starred in the crime film Donnie Brasco. He once said of these films: "Some of them I'm only in for 10 minutes, but they bought my name, and they bought my face to put on the DVD box with a gun. What people don't always understand is that I established a certain lifestyle for my family back in the days of Species and Mulholland Falls and The Getaway. I wasn't about to move my six kids into a trailer park. So when people offered me work, it wasn't always the best, but I had to buy groceries and I had to put gas in the car."[5]

Madsen played assassin Budd, the brother of Bill (David Carradine), in Kill Bill: Volume 2.[6] In 2004, Tarantino discussed an idea for the film to unite Madsen and Travolta, as The Vega Brothers.[7] In 2007, Tarantino said the film (which he intended to call Double V Vega) was "kind of unlikely now", because of the age of the actors and the onscreen deaths of both characters.[8]

Madsen appeared in Uwe Boll's BloodRayne, a film he described as "an abomination... It's a horrifying and preposterous movie."[9] He won Best Actor awards at the Boston Film Festival and New York International Independent Film and Video Festival for his performance in Strength and Honour. He played himself in the mockumentary Being Michael Madsen. Madsen co-starred in Coma, a Web series on Crackle.[10]

 
Madsen in 2006

He played Jim Ricker, the old friend of Jack Bauer (Kiefer Sutherland), in the eighth season of 24.[11] Madsen starred in the comedy film Let the Game Begin. On January 5, 2012, he entered the Celebrity Big Brother house, where he finished in 4th place in the final.

In February 2014, he played Las Vegas casino mogul Ted Binion in Josh Evans' film Death in the Desert.[12] The screenplay was written by John Steppling, based on the book Death in the Desert by crime writer Cathy Scott.[13]

In August 2014, he starred in the Kill Bill-themed music video for the song "Black Widow" by Iggy Azalea featuring Rita Ora.

Madsen starred in the ensemble western film The Hateful Eight. He was among a number of people rumored to have leaked the film's script before it was released, causing Tarantino to almost not make the film and eventually rewrite it. It was later revealed Madsen was not responsible for leaking the script.[14] In 2016, he played a dramatized role of former Texas Ranger Phil Ryan in Real Detective on the Investigation Discovery network.[15]

He executive produced in Vilan Trub's crime drama film The Dirty Kind, which is loosely inspired by Anthony Weiner.[16]

Personal life edit

Madsen's first wife was Georganne LaPiere, half-sister of singer and actress Cher. They met in 1983, married in 1984, and divorced in 1988.[17]

He has a daughter named Jessica with Dana Mechling. Jessica was born March 24, 1979.

He was married to Jeannine Bisignano from 1991 to 1995. They have two sons, Christian and Max, who are both actors.[18]

In 1996, he married DeAnna Morgan. The couple married in Ocho Rios, Jamaica while Madsen was on a break from shooting Donnie Brasco.[19] Together they had three sons, Luke, Kalvin and Hudson. Hudson died by suicide in January 2022.[18]

Madsen has a line of hot sauces called American Badass.[20]

Charity work edit

Madsen received the award for his work with the Shriners Hospital for Children in 2002.[21]

In September 2009, Madsen announced his participation in the 26th annual Love Ride to help raise money for local charities.[22] The charity included celebrities Malcolm Forbes, Peter Fonda, Larry Hagman, Billy Idol and Bruce Springsteen, among others. The event was scheduled for October 25, 2009, but was ultimately canceled due to poor ticket sales and a decline in sponsorship.

Madsen hosted the event An Intimate Evening with Michael Madsen to benefit Children's Pediatric Cancer in 2016.

Awards edit

  • Lifetime Achievement Award at Red Hen Press in 2006.
  • 9th Annual Malibu International Film Festival honored Madsen in April 2008 for his Achievements in the Art of Acting[23]
  • 1999 Firecracker Alternative Book Award for his book of poetry Burning In Paradise.[24]
  • 2007 Best Actor Boston Film Festival for Strength and Honour
  • 2008 Best Actor New York International Independent Film & Video Festival for Strength and Honour.
  • Madsen won Ensemble of the Year for The Hateful Eight at the Hollywood Film Awards.

Filmography edit

Film edit

Year Title Role Notes
1982 Against All Hope Cecil Moe
1983 Special Bulletin Jimmy Lenox TV movie
WarGames Lieutenant Steve Phelps
1984 Racing with the Moon Frank
The Natural Bartholomew "Bump" Bailey
1987 The Killing Time Stu
1988 Iguana Sebastián
Shadows in the Storm Earl
1989 Blood Red Enzio
Kill Me Again Vince Miller
1990 Montana Pierce TV movie
The End of Innocence Earl
1991 The Doors Tom Baker
Thelma & Louise Jimmy Lennox
1992 Reservoir Dogs Vic Vega/Mr. Blonde
Straight Talk Steve
Baby Snatcher Cal Hudson TV movie
Fatal Instinct Cliff Burden
Inside Edge Richard Montana
1993 Trouble Bound Harry Talbot
Beyond the Law "Blood" TV movie
Free Willy Glen Greenwood
Money for Nothing Detective Pat Laurenzi
A House in the Hills Mickey
1994 The Getaway Rudy Travis
Blue Tiger Gun Salesman
Season of Change Randy Parker
Final Combination Detective Matt Dickson
Wyatt Earp Virgil Earp
Felidae Bluebeard (voice)
1995 Species Preston "Press" Lennox
Free Willy 2: The Adventure Home Glen Greenwood
Man with a Gun John Wilbur Hardin
1996 Almost Blue Morris Poole
Mulholland Falls Detective Eddie Hall
The Winner Wolf
The Last Days of Frankie the Fly Sal
Red Line Mr. Lawrence Video
1997 Donnie Brasco Dominick "Sonny Black" Napolitano
The Maker Skarney
The Girl Gets Moe Donnelly
Executive Target Nick James
Catherine's Grove Joe Mason
1998 Rough Draft Haynes
Papertrail Brad Abraham
The Sender Dallas Grayson
Surface to Air Gunnery Sergeant Zach Massin
Species II Preston "Press" Lennox
Detour Burl Rogers Video
Fait Accompli Frank Barlow
1999 Supreme Sanction Dalton TV movie
The Florentine "Whitey"
Ballad of the Nightingale Giovanni
Flat Out Gene
2000 The Stray Ben
The Inspectors 2: A Shred of Evidence Joe TV movie
Luck of the Draw Zippo
The Alternate Agent Jack Briggs
Sacrifice Tyler Pierce TV movie
High Noon Frank Miller TV movie
The Price of Air Mr. Ball
The Thief & the Stripper Jimmie D.
Ides of March Uncle
Bad Guys Jay Peters
2001 Fall Jeremy Banes
The Ghost Dan Olinghouse
Choke Will
Pressure Point Jed Griffin
L.A.P.D.: To Protect and to Serve Lt. Alexander
42K Narrator
Extreme Honor Sparks
Outlaw Conner
2002 Tears Himself Short
Love.com Russ
Die Another Day NSA Director Damian Falco
The Real Deal Baker Jacks
2003 Pauly Shore Is Dead Himself
Where's Angelo? Producer Short
44 Minutes: The North Hollywood Shoot-Out Detective Frank McGregor TV movie
My Boss's Daughter T.J.
Kill Bill: Volume 1 Budd
Vampires Anonymous Geno
2004 Blueberry Wallace Sebastian Blount
Kill Bill: Volume 2 Budd
Frankenstein Detective Jonathan Harker TV movie
Smatyvay udochki Boss
2005 Sin City Detective Bob
L.A. Dicks Steven Miller
Muzhskoy sezon. Barkhatnaya revolyutsiya The American
Chasing Ghosts Kevin Harrison
BloodRayne Vladimir
The Chronicles of Narnia Maugrim (voice)
2006 All In Seal
Scary Movie 4 Oliver
The Last Drop Colonel J.T. Colt Video
Hoboken Hollow J.T. Goldman
The Covenant Guillermo List
UKM: The Ultimate Killing Machine Major Blevins
When the Devil Rides Out Maverick McMillian
Machine Ray
2007 Being Michael Madsen Himself
Living & Dying Agent Lind Video
Boarding Gate Miles Rennberg
Afghan Knights Cooper
Strength and Honour Sean Kelleher
Croc "Croc" Hawkins TV movie
Tooth and Nail "Jackal"
Cosmic Radio Senator Atwood
2008 Hell Ride "The Gent"
Eyes Front - Video
Crash and Burn Vincent Scaillo TV movie
Last Hour Monk Video
Vice Max Walker
Break The Associate
No Bad Days Lester
Major Baxter Major Baxter
House "Tin Man"/Officer Lawdale
Deep Winter Dean
2009 You Might as Well Live Clinton Manitoba
A Way with Murder Vic Donovan
Hired Gun Dan Moeller
Road of No Return J. Marcone
Shannon's Rainbow Dave Blair
Put Komandir Avianostsa
Outrage Farragut
Green Lantern: First Flight Kilowog (voice) Video
Serbian Scars Dreq
Lost in the Woods Stuart Bunka
Chamaco Willie
Creepshow Raw: Insomnia Barry Short
The Bleeding Father Roy
Ligeia George
Christmas Crash Joseph Johnson Video
Clear Lake, WI The Reverend
Dead Man Running Kal McNeil Video
2010 The Killing Jar Doe
Let the Game Begin Dr. Turner
The Big I Am Martell
Krach William
Terror Trap Carter
Federal Sam Gibson
The Brazen Bull The Man
The Portal Dr. Azirra
Corruption.Gov Senator John Mordire
Now Here Leblanc
Six Days in Paradise Rich McShane
2011 Joshua Tree Lou
The 5th Execution Rik
Forest of the Living Dead Lieutenant Brandon Ross
The Lion of Judah Boss (voice)
A Cold Day in Hell U.S. Marshal Stallings
Not Another Not Another Movie Lester Storm
Amsterdam Heavy Martin Keele Video
Dirty Little Trick Vito
Loosies Lieutenant Nick Sullivan
A Matter of Justice Leo Ibiza
2012 Garbage Himself
Eldorado Ted Video
Refuge from the Storm Steve Grecco
Cole Younger & The Black Train Cole Younger
Sins Expiation Don Mancino
Piranhaconda Professor Lovegrove TV movie
Ace of Spades: Bad Destiny -
Desperate Endeavors Ed
Beyond the Trophy Cole Lambert
Terrible Angels Ben Nolan
Magic Boys Terence
Prince of the City Ben Carlton
2013 Madoff: Made Off with America Agent Kennedy
Day of Redemption Lou
Along the Roadside Jerry
Infected Louis
The Sorrow Sheriff Sawyer
ICE Agent Carlos Garcia
Gabrielle Edward Sheehan
Nomad: The Beginning Wolf
Lionhead Walter Powell
Ashley Bill
I'm in Love with a Church Girl Frank Harris
Paulie Michael TV movie
63lbs Mr. Johnston Short
2014 Skoryy 'Moskva-Rossiya' Agent
The Ninth Cloud Bob
Water Wars Bane
Death Squad Lobo
Turn Around Jake Russell O'Malley
2015 Bikini Inception Himself
Diamond Cartel Mike
A Turn in the Sun Corozco
Hope Lost Manol
The Whole World at Our Feet Mike
The Just Mitchell Short
No Deposit Peter Shay
Lady Psycho Killer Doctor Douglass
Death in the Desert Ray Easler
Skin Traffik The Boss
Lumberjack Man Dr. Peter Shirtcliff
Sacred Blood Detective Brennan
Flipped Casey
The Hateful Eight "Grouch" Douglass/Joe Gage
2016 Vigilante Diaries Moreau
The Lost Tree John Ericson
Beyond the Game Robert
Kidnapped in Romania Mihai
Last Man Club Stearman Pilot
Magi Lawrence Irlam
Back in the Day Enzo
Talons George Fitzgerald
Devil's Domain Bill
2017 Grindhouse Nightmares -
The Wrong Neighbor Coach 'Jaws' Jaworski TV movie
Unfallen General McCallister
Garlic & Gunpowder Jason
Rock, Paper, Scissors Doyle Dechert
The Broken Key Tully De Marco
A Night in Jail Captain Short
2018 Killian Jacob Short
Love Addict M. Dickinson
Papa Ivan
Dirty Dealing 3D Dean Belding
Megalodon Admiral King TV movie
Assassins Revenge Detective Frank McMillian Video
Hangover in Death Valley Ted Video
CobraGator Layton
Dead on Time Mike McGuirk
Gang Leader Gang Leader Short
God's Eye Max
2019 Trading Paint Bob Linsky Video
The Garden Left Behind Kevin
Welcome to Acapulco Hyde
Born2Race Bobby Unser
Once Upon a Time in Hollywood Sheriff Hackett
Primitiva Narrator
Red Handed Lou
Arctic Dogs Duke (voice)
2020 Angels Fallen Balthazar
Conjuring: The Book of the Dead Jefferson
2 Graves in the Desert Vince
Serpent in the Bottle Joe
Shark Season James
Unbelievable!!!!! President Ben Dover
Dirty Fears Michael
Puppy Love Wesley
Nishabdham Richard Dawkins
2021 Batman: Dying Is Easy Harvey Bullock Short
Missiya: Prorok Tyler
Burial Ground Massacre Damon
American Night Lord Samuel Morgan
Every Last One of Them Bill
Christmas Thieves Vince
The American Connection John Lebaron
2022 Damon's Revenge Damon
Until We Meet Again Det. Morrison
Incarnation Peter
Numbers Detective Casey
Grace Man (voice) Short
2023 Waking Karma Paul
The Wraith Within Sheriff Townsend
Assault on Hill 400 General Cota
The Lurking Fear Officer Hansen
Outlaw Johnny Black Dutch
2024 Dark Feathers Kensei
Spirit Riser Narrator (voice)
South of Hope Street Benjamin

Television edit

Year Title Role Notes
1983 St. Elsewhere Mike O'Connor Recurring Cast: Season 1
1984 Cagney & Lacey Boyd Evans Strout Episode: "Heat"
Miami Vice Sally Alvarado Episode: "Give a Little, Take a Little"
1985 The Hitchhiker John Hampton Episode: "Man at the Window"
1985–86 Our Family Honor Augie Danzig Main Cast
1986 Crime Story Johnny Fosse Recurring Cast: Season 1
1988 War and Remembrance Lieutenant "Foof" Turhall Episode: "Part I"
1989 Almost Grown Walter Zmuida Episode: "Take It Slow"
Tour of Duty Sergeant Greg Block Episode: "Sleeping Dogs"
Jake and the Fatman Chase Episode: "Snowfall"
Quantum Leap "Blue" Episode: "Jimmy – October 14, 1964"
1990 The Outsiders Mick Jenkins Episode: "The Beat Goes On"
1991 Gabriel's Fire Stan Frankel Episode: "Finger on the Trigger"
1998–99 Vengeance Unlimited Mr. Chapel Main Cast
2001 Big Apple Terry Maddock Main Cast
2001–05 Animal Precinct Himself/Narrator Main Narrator: Season 1-4
2002 Mad TV Himself Episode: "Episode #8.7"
Film Genre Himself Episode: "Heist"
2003 I Love the '70s Himself Episode: "1976"
The Bronx Bunny Show Himself Episode: "Episode #1.3"
2004 Tracks Himself Episode: "Tarantino Special"
Biography Himself Episode: "Steve McQueen: Life in the Fast Lane"
2005 MTV Cribs Himself Episode: "Episode #12.4"
Tilt Don "The Matador" Everest Main Cast
2010 Zulu Gumball Himself Episode: "Episode #1.2"
The Role That Changed My Life Himself Episode: "I Was a Smooth Crminal"
CSI: Miami Cooper "Coop" Daly Episode: "L.A."
24 Jim Ricker Recurring Cast: Season 8
2012 Celebrity Big Brother Himself Contestant: Season 9
Bob's Burgers Kevin Costner (voice) Episode: "Moody Foodie"
Blue Bloods Benjamin Walker Episode: "Family Business"
2012–13 The Mob Doctor Russell King Recurring Cast
2013 Trailblazers Himself Episode: "Michael Madsen in Malibu"
Celebrity Ghost Stories Himself Episode: "Episode #5.2"
2 Hopeful Spinsters Himself Recurring Cast
Golden Boy Walter Clark Sr. Recurring Cast: Season 1
Axe Cop Baby Man (voice) Episode: "No More Bad Guys"
2014 Hawaii Five-0 Roy Parrish Episode: "Na hala a ka makua"
2015 Big Time in Hollywood, FL Harvey Scoles Recurring Cast
2016 The Boonies Himself/Narrator Main Narrator
Emigratis Himself Episode: "Sacramento e Los Angeles"
Master of Photography Himself Episode: "Celebrity Portrait"
Real Detective Ranger Phil Ryan Episode: "Damage"
Those Who Can't Officer Callahan Episode: "Wet Dreams May Come"
Powers Patrick/Supershock Main Cast: Season 2
2017 Real Rob Michael Episode: "Authentic Self"
2021 Clint Eastwood: A Cinematic Legacy Himself Episode: "Fighting for Justice"

Music Videos edit

Year Title Artist Role
2001 "You Rock My World" Michael Jackson Thug
2010 "Obsession" Sky Ferreira Himself
2012 "As Long as You Love Me" Justin Bieber Father of Girlfriend
2014 "Black Widow" Iggy Azalea and Rita Ora Boyfriend / Target
2019 "Dancing on your Grave" Nick Le Juge Priest

Video games edit

Year Title Voice role Ref
2001 Grand Theft Auto III Toni Cipriani [25]
2003 True Crime: Streets of LA Don Rafferty
2004 Driver 3 John Tanner
2005 Narc Jack Forzenski [26]
Yakuza Futoshi Shimano
2006 Reservoir Dogs Vic Vega/Mr. Blonde
2012 Dishonored Daud
2013 Mob of the Dead Michael 'Finn' O'Leary [27]
2014 The Walking Dead: Season Two William Carver
2016 Dishonored 2 Daud
2017 Dishonored: Death of the Outsider Daud
2021 Grand Theft Auto: The Trilogy – The Definitive Edition Toni Cipriani Remaster of Grand Theft Auto III
2023 Crime Boss: Rockay City Travis Baker

Documentary edit

Year Title
1998 Steve McQueen: The King of Cool
2002 Thelma & Louise: The Last Journey
2004 Sam Peckinpah's West: Legacy of a Hollywood Renegade
2005 Bullets Over Hollywood
2019 QT8: The First Eight

References edit

  1. ^ "Celebrity birthdays for the week of Sept. 19-24". AP News. The Associated Press. September 13, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2023. Sept. 25...Actor Michael Madsen is 63.
  2. ^ Bell, Mark (February 23, 2007). "Method Fest to Present the 2007 Maverick Award to Michael Madsen". FilmThreat.com. Archived from the original on August 9, 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2007.
  3. ^ Kennedy, Lisa (February 21, 2007). "A strong role, an equal partner". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2007.
  4. ^ Bray, Tony (April 2004). "Virginia Madsen". TV Now. Archived from the original on June 3, 2004. Retrieved May 31, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c "Michael Madsen interview: How The Hateful Eight star ducked and dived his way through Hollywood". The Independent. December 30, 2015. Archived from the original on May 14, 2022.
  6. ^ "Michael Madsen: Mr. Blonde's ambition". The Guardian. April 17, 2004.
  7. ^ Haddon, Cole (August 7, 2008). "Michael Madsen Talks Hell Ride, Inglorious Bastards, and Sin City 2". Film.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  8. ^ Sciretta, Peter (April 7, 2007). "Quentin Tarantino talks Vega Brothers, the Pulp Fiction & Reservoir Dogs sequel/prequel". Slashfilm.
  9. ^ "Madsen still scarred by BloodRayne movie". contactmusic.com. August 30, 2008.
  10. ^ "Michael Madsen, George Hamilton and Paul Ben-Victor Star in Coma, an Original Web Series Premiering On Crackle.com". August 22, 2008. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
  11. ^ "24 Season 8 Episode 19 Press Release (10:00AM – 11:00AM)". 24 Spoilers. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  12. ^ "Photographer helped Madsen meet Sinatra". February 24, 2014.
  13. ^ Harmon, Jessica (October 11, 2015). "Death in the Desert rolls up new trailer". moviepilot.com.[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ "Quentin Tarantino Shelves 'The Hateful Eight' After Betrayal Results In Script Leak". Deadline. January 22, 2014.
  15. ^ "Michael Madsen-Real Detective". Starburst Magazine. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  16. ^ "Indie filmmaker uses disgraced Rep. Weiner's sexcapades for inspiration in new film". New York Daily News. April 28, 2019.
  17. ^ Mr Blonde's ambition
  18. ^ a b "Michael Madsen's son Hudson has died aged 26". NME. January 25, 2022.
  19. ^ "Michael Madsen: Mr Blonde's ambition". TheGuardian.com. April 17, 2004.
  20. ^ Frauenfelder, Mark (April 12, 2013). "Michael Madsen talks to Boing Boing about his hot sauce". Boing Boing.
  21. ^ Player, The (April 30, 2010). "The Player Bookazine Issue 14". The Player – via Google Books.
  22. ^ "LOVERIDE®". Archived from the original on August 28, 2009.
  23. ^ "Malibu International Film Festival honors Michael Madsen". Malibu Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  24. ^ Waldo, Thea (July 16, 2006). Celebrities and Their Culinary Creations: Autographed Photos, Biographies, Trivia, & Recipes. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-39753-2 – via Google Books.
  25. ^ "Michael Madsen (visual voices guide)". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved April 28, 2021. A green check mark indicates that a role has been confirmed using a screenshot (or collage of screenshots) of a title's list of voice actors and their respective characters found in its opening and/or closing credits and/or other reliable sources of information.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  26. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0411688/ [user-generated source]
  27. ^ Lehmkuhl, Corky (April 16, 2013), Mob of the Dead (Action, Horror, Thriller), Craig Houston, Ray Liotta, Michael Madsen, Nolan North, Activision, Treyarch Invention, retrieved November 1, 2020

External links edit