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Mein Kampf (German: [maɪ̯n kampf], My Struggle or My Fight) is a 1925 autobiographical manifesto by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926.[1] The book was edited firstly by Emil Maurice, then by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.[2][3]

Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf dust jacket.jpeg
Dust jacket of 1926–1928 edition
AuthorAdolf Hitler
CountryGermany
LanguageGerman
SubjectAutobiography
PublisherEher Verlag
Publication date
18 July 1925
Published in English
13 October 1933 (abridged)
1939 (full)
Media typePrint (Hardcover and Paperback)
Pages720
ISBN978-0395951057 (1998) trans. by Ralph Manheim
943.086092
LC ClassDD247.H5
Followed byZweites Buch 

Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial."[4][5] After slow initial sales, the book was a bestseller in Germany after Hitler's rise to power in 1933.[6]

After Hitler's death, copyright of Mein Kampf passed to the state government of Bavaria, which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. In 2016, following the expiration of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, Mein Kampf was republished in Germany for the first time since 1945, which prompted public debate and divided reactions from Jewish groups.

Contents

TitleEdit

Hitler originally wanted to call his forthcoming book Viereinhalb Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit, or Four and a Half Years (of Struggle) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice.[7] Max Amann, head of the Franz Eher Verlag and Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggested[8] the much shorter "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle".

ContentsEdit

The arrangement of chapters is as follows:

  • Volume One: A Reckoning
    • Chapter 1: In the House of My Parents
    • Chapter 2: Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna
    • Chapter 3: General Political Considerations Based on My Vienna Period
    • Chapter 4: Munich
    • Chapter 5: The World War
    • Chapter 6: War Propaganda
    • Chapter 7: The Revolution
    • Chapter 8: The Beginning of My Political Activity
    • Chapter 9: The "German Workers' Party"
    • Chapter 10: Causes of the Collapse
    • Chapter 11: Nation and Race
    • Chapter 12: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
  • Volume Two: The National Socialist Movement
    • Chapter 1: Philosophy and Party
    • Chapter 2: The State
    • Chapter 3: Subjects and Citizens
    • Chapter 4: Personality and the Conception of the Völkisch State
    • Chapter 5: Philosophy and Organization
    • Chapter 6: The Struggle of the Early Period – the Significance of the Spoken Word
    • Chapter 7: The Struggle with the Red Front
    • Chapter 8: The Strong Man Is Mightiest Alone
    • Chapter 9: Basic Ideas Regarding the Meaning and Organization of the Sturmabteilung
    • Chapter 10: Federalism as a Mask
    • Chapter 11: Propaganda and Organization
    • Chapter 12: The Trade-Union Question
    • Chapter 13: German Alliance Policy After the War
    • Chapter 14: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy
    • Chapter 15: The Right of Emergency Defense
  • Conclusion
  • Index

AnalysisEdit

In Mein Kampf, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril", which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership.[9] The narrative describes the process by which he became increasingly antisemitic and militaristic, especially during his years in Vienna. He speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant. When he first encountered the antisemitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same antisemitic views, which became crucial to his program of national reconstruction of Germany.

Mein Kampf has also been studied as a work on political theory. For example, Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's two evils: Communism and Judaism.

In the book Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliament of the Weimar Republic, the Jews, and Social Democrats, as well as Marxists, though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, and the parliament were all working for Jewish interests.[10] He announced that he wanted to completely destroy the parliamentary system, believing it to be corrupt in principle, as those who reach power are inherent opportunists.

AntisemitismEdit

While historians dispute the exact date Hitler decided to exterminate the Jewish people, few place the decision before the mid-1930s.[11] First published in 1925, Mein Kampf shows Hitler's personal grievances and his ambitions for creating a New Order.

The historian Ian Kershaw points out that several passages in Mein Kampf are undeniably of a genocidal nature.[12] Hitler wrote "the nationalization of our masses will succeed only when, aside from all the positive struggle for the soul of our people, their international poisoners are exterminated",[13] and he suggested that, "If at the beginning of the war and during the war twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the nation had been subjected to poison gas, such as had to be endured in the field by hundreds of thousands of our very best German workers of all classes and professions, then the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain."[14]

The racial laws to which Hitler referred resonate directly with his ideas in Mein Kampf. In the first edition of Mein Kampf, Hitler stated that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than their protection. Apart from this allusion to humane treatment, Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the "strong".[15]

Lebensraum ("living space")Edit

In the chapter "Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy", Hitler argued that the Germans needed Lebensraum in the East, a "historic destiny" that would properly nurture the German people.[16] Hitler believed that "the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only a wonderful example of the state-forming efficacity of the German element in an inferior race."[17]

In Mein Kampf Hitler openly stated the future German expansion in the East, foreshadowing Generalplan Ost:

And so we National Socialists consciously draw a line beneath the foreign policy tendency of our pre-War period. We take up where we broke off six hundred years ago. We stop the endless German movement to the south and west, and turn our gaze toward the land in the east. At long last we break off the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-War period and shift to the soil policy of the future.

If we speak of soil in Europe today, we can primarily have in mind only Russia and her vassal border states.[18]

PopularityEdit

Although Hitler originally wrote Mein Kampf mostly for the followers of National Socialism, it grew in popularity after he rose to power. (Two other books written by party members, Gottfried Feder's Breaking The Interest Slavery and Alfred Rosenberg's The Myth of the Twentieth Century, have since lapsed into comparative literary obscurity.)[19] Hitler had made about 1.2 million Reichsmarks from the income of the book by 1933 (equivalent to €4,714,299 in 2009), when the average annual income of a teacher was about 4,800 Marks (equivalent to €18,857 in 2009).[19][20] He accumulated a tax debt of 405,500 Reichsmark (very roughly in 2015 1.1 million GBP, 1.4 million EUR, 1.5 million USD) from the sale of about 240,000 copies before he became chancellor in 1933 (at which time his debt was waived).[19][20]

Hitler began to distance himself from the book after becoming chancellor of Germany in 1933. He dismissed it as "fantasies behind bars" that were little more than a series of articles for the Völkischer Beobachter, and later told Hans Frank that "If I had had any idea in 1924 that I would have become Reich chancellor, I never would have written the book."[21] Nevertheless, Mein Kampf was a bestseller in Germany during the 1930s.[22] During Hitler's years in power, the book was in high demand in libraries and often reviewed and quoted in other publications. It was given free to every newlywed couple and every soldier fighting at the front.[19] By 1939 it had sold 5.2 million copies in eleven languages.[23] By the end of the war, about 10 million copies of the book had been sold or distributed in Germany.[citation needed]

Contemporary observationsEdit

Mein Kampf, in essence, lays out the ideological program Hitler established for the German revolution, by identifying the Jews and "Bolsheviks" as racially and ideologically inferior and threatening, and "Aryans" and National Socialists as racially superior and politically progressive. Hitler's revolutionary goals included expulsion of the Jews from Greater Germany and the unification of German peoples into one Greater Germany. Hitler desired to restore German lands to their greatest historical extent, real or imagined.

Due to its racist content and the historical effect of Nazism upon Europe during World War II and the Holocaust, it is considered a highly controversial book. Criticism has not come solely from opponents of Nazism. Italian Fascist dictator and Nazi ally Benito Mussolini was also critical of the book, saying that it was "a boring tome that I have never been able to read" and remarking that Hitler's beliefs, as expressed in the book, were "little more than commonplace clichés".[24]

The German journalist Konrad Heiden, an early critic of the Nazi Party, observed that the content of Mein Kampf is essentially a political argument with other members of the Nazi Party who had appeared to be Hitler's friends, but whom he was actually denouncing in the book's content – sometimes by not even including references to them.[citation needed]

The American literary theorist and philosopher Kenneth Burke wrote a 1939 rhetorical analysis of the work, The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle", which revealed an underlying message of aggressive intent.[25]

American journalist John Gunther said in 1940 that compared to the autobiographies of Leon Trotsky or Henry Adams Mein Kampf was "vapid, vain, rhetorical, diffuse, prolix. But it is a powerful and moving book, the product of great passionate feeling". He suggested that the book exhausted curious German readers, but its "ceaseless repetition of the argument, left impregnably in their minds, fecund and germinating".[26]

In March 1940, British writer George Orwell reviewed a then-recently published uncensored translation of Mein Kampf for The New English Weekly. Orwell suggested that the force of Hitler's personality shone through the often "clumsy" writing, capturing the magnetic allure of Hitler for many Germans. In essence, Orwell notes, Hitler offers only visions of endless struggle and conflict in the creation of "a horrible brainless empire" that "stretch[es] to Afghanistan or thereabouts". He wrote, "Whereas Socialism, and even capitalism in a more grudging way, have said to people 'I offer you a good time,' Hitler has said to them, 'I offer you struggle, danger, and death,' and as a result a whole nation flings itself at his feet." Orwell's review was written in the aftermath of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, when Hitler made peace with USSR after more than a decade of vitriolic rhetoric and threats between the two nations; with the pact in place, Orwell believed, England was now facing a risk of Nazi attack and the UK must not underestimate the appeal of Hitler's ideas.[27]

In his 1943 book The Menace of the Herd, Austrian scholar Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn[28] described Hitler's ideas in Mein Kampf and elsewhere as "a veritable reductio ad absurdum of 'progressive' thought"[29] and betraying "a curious lack of original thought" that shows Hitler offered no innovative or original ideas but was merely "a virtuoso of commonplaces which he may or may not repeat in the guise of a 'new discovery.'"[30] Hitler's stated aim, Kuehnelt-Leddihn writes, is to quash individualism in furtherance of political goals:

When Hitler and Mussolini attack the "western democracies" they insinuate that their "democracy" is not genuine. National Socialism envisages abolishing the difference in wealth, education, intellect, taste, philosophy, and habits by a leveling process which necessitates in turn a total control over the child and the adolescent. Every personal attitude will be branded—after communist pattern—as "bourgeois," and this in spite of the fact that the bourgeois is the representative of the most herdist class in the world, and that National Socialism is a basically bourgeois movement.

Hitler in Mein Kampf repeatedly speaks of the "masses" and the "herd" referring to the people. The German people should probably, in his view, remain a mass of identical "individuals" in an enormous sand heap or ant heap, identical even to the color of their shirts, the garment nearest to the body.[31]

In his The Second World War, published in several volumes in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Winston Churchill wrote that he felt that after Hitler's ascension to power, no other book than Mein Kampf deserved more intensive scrutiny.[32]

Later analysisEdit

The critic George Steiner has suggested that Mein Kampf can be seen as one of several books that resulted from the crisis of German culture following Germany's defeat in World War I, comparable in this respect to the philosopher Ernst Bloch's The Spirit of Utopia (1918), the historian Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West (1918), the theologian Franz Rosenzweig's The Star of Redemption (1921), and the theologian Karl Barth's The Epistle to the Romans (1922).[33]

German publication historyEdit

While Hitler was in power (1933–1945), Mein Kampf came to be available in three common editions. The first, the Volksausgabe or People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the cover. The Hochzeitsausgabe, or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover was given free to marrying couples. In 1940, the Tornister-Ausgabe, or Knapsack Edition, was released. This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front. These three editions combined both volumes into the same book.

A special edition was published in 1939 in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. This edition was known as the Jubiläumsausgabe, or Anniversary Issue. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards with a gold sword on the cover. This work contained both volumes one and two. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common Volksausgabe.

The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's rule, and was available in soft cover and hardcover. The soft cover edition contained the original cover (as pictured at the top of this article). The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered boards. The cover and spine contained an image of three brown oak leaves.

English translationsEdit

Current availabilityEdit

At the time of his suicide, Hitler's official place of residence was in Munich, which led to his entire estate, including all rights to Mein Kampf, changing to the ownership of the state of Bavaria. The government of Bavaria, in agreement with the federal government of Germany, refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. It also opposed copying and printing in other countries, but with less success. As per German copyright law, the entire text entered the public domain on 1 January 2016, 70 years after the author's death.[34]

Owning and buying the book in Germany is not an offence. Trading in old copies is lawful as well, unless it is done in such a fashion as to "promote hatred or war." In particular, the unmodified edition is not covered by §86 StGB that forbids dissemination of means of propaganda of unconstitutional organisations, since it is a "pre-constitutional work" and as such cannot be opposed to the free and democratic basic order, according to a 1979 decision of the Federal Court of Justice of Germany.[35] Most German libraries carry heavily commented and excerpted versions of Mein Kampf. In 2008, Stephan Kramer, secretary-general of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, not only recommended lifting the ban, but volunteered the help of his organization in editing and annotating the text, saying that it is time for the book to be made available to all online.[36]

A variety of restrictions or special circumstances apply in other countries.

FranceEdit

In 1934, the French government unofficially sponsored the publication of an unauthorized translation. It was meant as a warning and included a critical introduction by Marshal Lyautey ("Every Frenchman must read this book"). It was published by far-right publisher Fernand Sorlot in an agreement with the activists of LICRA who bought 5000 copies to be offered to "influencial people"; however, most of them treated the book as a casual gift and did not read it.[37] The Nazi regime unsuccessfully tried to have it forbidden. Hitler, as the author, and Eher-Verlag, his German publisher, had to sue for copyright infringement in the Commercial Court of France. Hitler's lawsuit succeeded in having all copies seized, the print broken up, and having an injunction against booksellers offering any copies. However, a large quantity of books had already been shipped and stayed available undercover by Sorlot.[38]

In 1938, Hitler licensed for France an authorised edition by Fayard, translated by François Dauture and Georges Blond, lacking the threatening tone against France of the original. The French edition was 347 pages long, while the original title was 687 pages, and it was titled Ma doctrine ("My doctrine").[39]

After the war, Fernand Sorlot re-edited, re-issued, and continue to sell the work, without permission from the state of Bavaria on which the author's rights had defaulted.

In the 1970s, the rise of the extreme right in France along with the growing of Holocaust denial works, placed the Mein Kampf under judicial watch and in 1978, LICRA entered a complaint in the courts against the publisher for inciting antisemitism. Sorlot received a "substantial fine" but the court also granted him the right to continue publishing the work, provided certain warnings and qualifiers accompany the text.[38]

On 1 January 2016, seventy years after the author's death, Mein Kampf entered the public domain in France.[38]

A new edition was published in 2017 by Fayard, now part of the Groupe Hachette, with a critical introduction, just as the edition published in 2018 in Germany by the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, the Institute of Contemporary History based in Munich.[38]

IndiaEdit

Since its first publication in India in 1928, Mein Kampf has gone through hundreds of editions and sold over 100,000 copies.[40][41]

NetherlandsEdit

In the Netherlands the sale of Mein Kampf had been forbidden since World War II.[42][43] In September 2018, however, Dutch publisher Prometheus officially released an academic edition of the 2016 German translation with comprehensive introductions and annotations by Dutch historians.[44] It marks the first time the book is widely available to the general public in the Netherlands since World War II.

RussiaEdit

In the Russian Federation, Mein Kampf has been published at least three times since 1992; the Russian text is also available on websites. In 2006 the Public Chamber of Russia proposed banning the book. In 2009 St. Petersburg's branch of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs requested to remove an annotated and hyper-linked Russian translation of the book from a historiography website.[45][46][47] On 13 April 2010, it was announced that Mein Kampf is outlawed on grounds of extremism promotion.[48]

SwedenEdit

Mein Kampf has been reprinted several times since 1945; in 1970, 1992, 2002 and 2010. In 1992 the Government of Bavaria tried to stop the publication of the book, and the case went to the Supreme Court of Sweden which ruled in favour of the publisher, stating that the book is protected by copyright, but that the copyright holder is unidentified (and not the State of Bavaria) and that the original Swedish publisher from 1934 had gone out of business. It therefore refused the Government of Bavaria's claim.[49] The only translation changes came in the 1970 edition, but they were only linguistic, based on a new Swedish standard.[citation needed]

TurkeyEdit

Mein Kampf was widely available and growing in popularity in Turkey, even to the point where it became a bestseller, selling up to 100,000 copies in just two months in 2005. Analysts and commentators believe the popularity of the book to be related to a rise in nationalism and anti-U.S. sentiment. A columnist in Shalom stated this was a result of "what is happening in the Middle East, the Israeli-Palestinian problem and the war in Iraq."[50] Doğu Ergil, a political scientist at Ankara University, said both far-right ultranationalists and extremist Islamists had found common ground - "not on a common agenda for the future, but on their anxieties, fears and hate".[51]

United StatesEdit

In the United States, Mein Kampf can be found at many community libraries and can be bought, sold and traded in bookshops.[52] The U.S. government seized the copyright in September 1942[53] during the Second World War under the Trading with the Enemy Act and in 1979, Houghton Mifflin, the U.S. publisher of the book, bought the rights from the government pursuant to 28 C.F.R. 0.47. More than 15,000 copies are sold a year.[52] In 2016, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt reported that it was having difficulty finding a charity that would accept profits from the sales of its version of Mein Kampf, which it had promised to donate.[54]

Online availabilityEdit

In 1999, the Simon Wiesenthal Center documented that major Internet booksellers such as Amazon.com and Barnesandnoble.com sell Mein Kampf to Germany. After a public outcry, both companies agreed to stop those sales to addresses in Germany.[55] The book is currently available through both companies online.[56][57] It is also available in various languages, including German, at the Internet Archive.[58] The Murphy translation of the book is freely available on Project Gutenberg Australia.[59] Since the January 2016 republication of the book in Germany, the book can be ordered at Amazon's German website.[60]

2016 republication in GermanyEdit

On 3 February 2010, the Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) in Munich announced plans to republish an annotated version of the text, for educational purposes in schools and universities, in 2015. The book had last been published in Germany in 1945.[61] The IfZ argued that a republication was necessary to get an authoritative annotated edition by the time the copyright ran out, which might open the way for neo-Nazi groups to publish their own versions.[62] The Bavarian Finance Ministry opposed the plan, citing respect for victims of the Holocaust. It stated that permits for reprints would not be issued, at home or abroad. This would also apply to a new annotated edition. There was disagreement about the issue of whether the republished book might be banned as Nazi propaganda. The Bavarian government emphasized that even after expiration of the copyright, "the dissemination of Nazi ideologies will remain prohibited in Germany and is punishable under the penal code".[63] However, the Bavarian Science Minister Wolfgang Heubisch supported a critical edition, stating in 2010 that, "Once Bavaria's copyright expires, there is the danger of charlatans and neo-Nazis appropriating this infamous book for themselves".[62]

On 12 December 2013 the Bavarian government cancelled its financial support for an annotated edition. IfZ, which was preparing the translation, announced that it intended to proceed with publication after the copyright expired.[64] The IfZ scheduled an edition of Mein Kampf for release in 2016.[65][66]

Richard Verber, vice-president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, stated in 2015 that the board trusted the academic and educational value of republishing. “We would, of course, be very wary of any attempt to glorify Hitler or to belittle the Holocaust in any way,” Verber declared to The Observer. “But this is not that. I do understand how some Jewish groups could be upset and nervous, but it seems it is being done from a historical point of view and to put it in context.”[67]

An annotated edition of Mein Kampf was published in Germany in January 2016 and sold out within hours on Amazon's German site.[60] The book's publication led to public debate in Germany, and divided reactions from Jewish groups, with some supporting, and others opposing, the decision to publish.[22] German officials had previously said they would limit public access to the text amid fears that its republication could stir neo-Nazi sentiment.[68] Some bookstores stated that they would not stock the book. Dussmann, a Berlin bookstore, stated that one copy was available on the shelves in the history section, but that it would not be advertised and more copies would be available only on order.[69] By January 2017, the German annotated edition had sold over 85,000 copies.[70]

SequelEdit

After the party's poor showing in the 1928 elections, Hitler believed that the reason for his loss was the public's misunderstanding of his ideas. He then retired to Munich to dictate a sequel to Mein Kampf to expand on its ideas, with more focus on foreign policy.

Only two copies of the 200-page manuscript were originally made, and only one of these was ever made public. The document was neither edited nor published during the Nazi era and remains known as Zweites Buch, or "Second Book". To keep the document strictly secret, in 1935 Hitler ordered that it be placed in a safe in an air raid shelter. It remained there until being discovered by an American officer in 1945.

The authenticity of the document found in 1945 has been verified by Josef Berg, a former employee of the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag, and Telford Taylor, a former brigadier general of the United States Army Reserve and Chief Counsel at the Nuremberg war-crimes trials.

In 1958, the Zweites Buch was found in the archives of the United States by American historian Gerhard Weinberg. Unable to find an American publisher, Weinberg turned to his mentor – Hans Rothfels at the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, and his associate Martin Broszat – who published Zweites Buch in 1961. A pirated edition was published in English in New York in 1962. The first authoritative English edition was not published until 2003 (Hitler's Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf, ISBN 1-929631-16-2).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mein Kampf ("My Fight"), Adolf Hitler (originally 1925–1926), Reissue edition (15 September 1998), Publisher: Mariner Books, Language: English, paperback, 720 pages, ISBN 978-1495333347
  2. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 85.
  3. ^ Robert G.L. Waite, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Basic Books, 1977, pp.237–243
  4. ^ Heinz, Heinz (1934). Germany's Hitler. Hurst & Blackett. p. 191.
  5. ^ Payne, Robert (1973). The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Popular Library. p. 203.
  6. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 80–81.
  7. ^ Bullock 1999, p. 121.
  8. ^ Richard Cohen."Guess Who's on the Backlist". The New York Times. 28 June 1998. Retrieved on 24 April 2008.
  9. ^ Mein Kampf – The Text, its Themes and Hitler's Vision, History Today
  10. ^ "Mein Kampf". Internet Archive.
  11. ^ Browning, Christopher R. (2003). Initiating the Final Solution: The Fateful Months of September–October 1941. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies. p. 12. OCLC 53343660.
  12. ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889-1936 Hubris (1999), p.258
  13. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume One - A Reckoning, Chapter XII: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
  14. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume Two - A Reckoning, Chapter XV: The Right of Emergency Defense, p. 984, quoted in Yahlil, Leni (1991). "2. Hitler Implements Twentieth-Century Anti-Semitism". The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-504523-9. OCLC 20169748. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  15. ^ A. Hitler. Mein Kampf (Munich: Franz Eher Nachfolger, 1930), pg 478
  16. ^ "Hitler's expansionist aims > Professor Sir Ian Kershaw > WW2History.com". ww2history.com.
  17. ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Eastern Orientation or Eastern policy
  18. ^ Joachim C. Fest (1 February 2013). Hitler. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 216. ISBN 0-544-19554-X.
  19. ^ a b c d Mythos Ladenhüter Spiegel Online
  20. ^ a b Hitler dodged taxes, expert finds BBC News
  21. ^ Timothy W. Ryback (6 July 2010). Hitler's Private Library: The Books that Shaped his Life. Random House. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-1-4090-7578-3.
  22. ^ a b "High demand for reprint of Hitler's Mein Kampf takes publisher by surprise". The Guardian. 8 January 2016.
  23. ^ Mein Kampf work by Hitler. Encyclopædia Britannica. Last updated 19 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2015 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/373362/Mein-Kampf
  24. ^ Smith, Denis Mack. 1983. Mussolini: A Biography. New York: Vintage Books. p. 172 / London: Paladin, p. 200
  25. ^ Uregina.ca Archived 25 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 31.
  27. ^ Orwell, George. "Mein Kampf" review, reprinted in The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, Vol 2., Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, eds., Harourt Brace Jovanovich 1968
  28. ^ Francis Stuart Campbell, pen name of Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn (1943), Menace of the Herd, or, Procrustes at Large, Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Publishing Company
  29. ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 159
  30. ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 201
  31. ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, pp. 202–203
  32. ^ Winston Churchill: The Second World War. Volume 1, Houghton Mifflin Books 1986, S. 50. "Here was the new Koran of faith and war: turgid, verbose, shapeless, but pregnant with its message."
  33. ^ Steiner, George (1991). Martin Heidegger. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. vii–viii. ISBN 0-226-77232-2.
  34. ^ § 64 Allgemeines, German Copyright Law. The copyright has been relinquished for the Dutch and Swedish editions and some English ones (though not in the U.S., see below).
  35. ^ Judgement of 25 July 1979 – 3 StR 182/79 (S); BGHSt 29, 73 ff.
  36. ^ "Jewish Leader Urges Book Ban End", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, July/August 2008.
  37. ^ Bleustein-Blanchet, Marcel (1990). Les mots de ma vie [The words of my life] (in French). Paris: Robert Laffont. p. 271. ISBN 2221067959..
  38. ^ a b c d Braganca, Manu (10 June 2016). "La curieuse histoire de Mein Kampf en version française" [The curious history of Mein Kampf in the french version]. Le Point (in French). Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  39. ^ Barnes, James J.; Barnes, Patience P. (September 2008). Hitler's Mein Kampf in Britain and America: A Publishing History 1930–39. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 271. ISBN 9780521072670..
  40. ^ "Archiv – 33/2013 – Dschungel – Über die Wahrnehmung von Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus in Indien". Jungle-world.com.
  41. ^ "Hitler's "Mein Kampf" on India's best sellers list". RT.com.
  42. ^ "Shop owner cleared of spreading hatred for selling Mein Kampf - DutchNews.nl". 14 February 2017.
  43. ^ "metronieuws.nl cookie consent". tmgonlinemedia.nl.
  44. ^ "De wetenschappelijke editie van Mein Kampf - Uitgeverij Prometheus". Uitgeverij Prometheus (in Dutch). 23 August 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  45. ^ A well-known historiography web site shut down over publishing Hitler's book, Newsru.com, 8 July 2009.
  46. ^ "Моя борьба". 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  47. ^ Adolf Hitler, annotated and hyper-linked ed. by Vyacheslav Rumyantsev, archived from the original 12 February 2008; an abridged version remained intact.
  48. ^ "Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
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SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

HitlerEdit

  • Hitler, A. (1925). Mein Kampf, Band 1, Verlag Franz Eher Nachfahren, München. (Volume 1, publishing company Fritz Eher and descendants, Munich).
  • Hitler, A. (1927). Mein Kampf, Band 2, Verlag Franz Eher Nachfahren, München. (Volume 2, after 1930 both volumes were only published in one book).
  • Hitler, A. (1935). Zweites Buch (trans.) Hitler's Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler. Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1-929631-61-2.
  • Hitler, A. (1945). My Political Testament. Wikisource Version.
  • Hitler, A. (1945). My Private Will and Testament. Wikisource Version.
  • Hitler, A., et al. (1971). Unmasked: two confidential interviews with Hitler in 1931. Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-1642-0.
  • Hitler, A., et al. (1974). Hitler's Letters and Notes. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-012832-1.
  • Hitler, A., et al. (2008). Hitler's Table Talk. Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1-929631-66-7.
  • A. Hitler. Mein Kampf, Munich: Franz Eher Nachfolger, 1930
  • A. Hitler, Außenpolitische Standortbestimmung nach der Reichtagswahl Juni–Juli 1928 (1929; first published as Hitlers Zweites Buch, 1961), in Hitler: Reden, Schriften, Anordnungen, Februar 1925 bis Januar 1933, Vol IIA, with an introduction by G. L. Weinberg; G. L. Weinberg, C. Hartmann and K. A. Lankheit, eds (Munich: K. G. Saur, 1995)
  • Christopher Browning, Initiating the Final Solution: The Fateful Months of September–October 1941, Miles Lerman Center for the Study of Jewish Resistance, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum (Washington, D.C.: USHMM, 2003).
  • Gunnar Heinsohn, "What Makes the Holocaust a Uniquely Unique Genocide", Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 2, no. 3 (2000): 411–430.

OthersEdit

  • Barnes, James J.; Barnes, Patience P. (1980). Hitler Mein Kampf in Britain and America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Jäckel, Eberhard (1972). Hitler's Weltanschauung: A Blueprint For Power. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-4042-0.
  • Hauner, Milan (1978). "Did Hitler Want World Domination?". Journal of Contemporary History. Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 13, No. 1. 13 (1): 15–32. doi:10.1177/002200947801300102. JSTOR 260090.
  • Hillgruber, Andreas (1981). Germany and the Two World Wars. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-35321-8.
  • Littauer-Apt, Rudolf M. (1939–1940). "The Copyright in Hitler's 'Mein Kampf'". Copyright. 5: 57 et seq.
  • Michaelis, Meir (1972). "World Power Status or World Dominion? A Survey of the Literature on Hitler's 'Plan of World Dominion' (1937–1970)". Historical Journal. The Historical Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2. 15 (2): 331–360. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00002624. JSTOR 2638127.
  • Rich, Norman (1973). Hitler's War Aims. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-05454-3.
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1960). "Hitlers Kriegsziele". Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. 8: 121–133. ISSN 0042-5702.
  • Zusak, Markus (2006). The Book Thief. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-375-83100-2.

External linksEdit

Online versions of Mein KampfEdit

GermanEdit

EnglishEdit