Matthew 16 is the sixteenth chapter in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament section of the Christian Bible. Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem ministering through Judea. The narrative can be divided into the following subsections:

Matthew 16
Uncial 0237.PNG
Gospel of Matthew 15:15 on a piece of Uncial 0237, written in the 6th century; containing the variant of parable.
BookGospel of Matthew
CategoryGospel
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part1

TextEdit

The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 28 verses.

Textual witnessesEdit

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:

LocationsEdit

Matthew 15 ends with Jesus sending the multitude of his followers away and He and his disciples sail to Magdala (or Magadan) on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.[1] In Matthew 16:1 the Pharisees and Sadducees come to him, presumably in the same location. Theologian John Gill suggests that "these were Galilean Sadducees and Pharisees, of whom mention is made in the Misna".[2]

Matthew 16:5 refers again to travel to "the other side", and verses 16:13-20 are set "in the region of Caesarea Philippi". This location is the furthest point north referred to in Matthew's Gospel, and marks the turning point from which Jesus and his disciples will travel south to Jerusalem.

Pharisees and Sadducees (16:1–12)Edit

Verse 1Edit

The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting desired him that he would shew them a sign from heaven.[3]

The opposition to Jesus' teaching this time came from a coalition of Pharisees and Sadducees, whose theological views and policies were markedly different from each other, but who were forced to co-operate as members of Sanhedrin, the Jewish supreme court.[4] Biblical commentator Arthur Carr suggests that the formation of this coalition "can only be accounted for by the uniting influence of a strong common hostility against Jesus".[5]

Verses 2–3Edit

2 He answered and said to them,
"When it is evening you say, 'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red';
3 and in the morning, 'It will be foul weather today, for the sky is red and threatening.'
Hypocrites! You know how to discern the face of the sky, but you cannot discern the signs of the times."[6]

Peter's Confession (16:13–20)Edit

This pericope is considered the climax of the first part of the Gospel of Matthew, when Peter received a revelation from God to state the Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God.[4]

Verse 13Edit

When Jesus came into the region of Caesarea Philippi, He asked His disciples, saying, “Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am?[7]
  • "Region" (Ancient Greek: μέρη, merē, the plural form of meros, "part, portion, share"): The King James Version refers to the "coasts" of Caesarea Philippi, although Caesarea Philippi is not in the vicinity of a sea, in the sense of "borders" or "regions".[8] The regions of Caesarea Philippi are called "the northern coasts of the land of Israel",[9] marking "the most northerly point" reached by Jesus Christ in his ministry.[10]

The Textus Receptus has Greek: τινα με λεγουσιν, tina me legousin, but the με is omitted by Westcott-Hort. Hence translations vary as to whether Jesus' question is set out in the first person or third person:

Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am? - New King James Version,
Who do people say I am? - Easy-to-Read Version
Who do people say that the Son of Man is? - American Standard Version, NABRE, Revised Standard Version

Verse 16Edit

Simon Peter answered and said, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God."[11]

This answer from Peter combined a traditional Jewish title of "Messiah" (Greek: Christos, "Christ") meaning "anointed" (which is a royal title), with a Greek title "Son of ... God" for a ruler or divine leader (a favorite of the first Roman Emperor Augustus, among others), which is also another Hebrew royal title (see Psalm 2:7).[12]

Verse 18Edit

And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.[13]
  • "Shall...prevail against": or "be victorious"[14] from Greek word κατισχύσουσιν, katischysousin[15]

Verse 19Edit

"And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven."[16]
  • "Will be bound... will be loosed": or "will have been bound . . . will have been loosed".[17]

Death and Glory (16:21–28)Edit

Still at the location near Caesarea Philippi, the account follows the Peter's confession with a decisive new phase of Jesus' ministry, with Jerusalem as the next geographical focus.[18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Matthew 15:39
  2. ^ Gill's Exposition of the Bible on Matthew 16, accessed 24 January 2017
  3. ^ Matthew 16:1 KJV
  4. ^ a b France 1994, p. 925.
  5. ^ Carr, A. (1893), Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on Matthew 16, accessed 14 September 2019
  6. ^ Matthew 16:2–3 NKJV
  7. ^ Matthew 16:13 NKJV
  8. ^ Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Bible - Matthew 16. James Murphy (ed). London: Blackie & Son, 1884.
  9. ^ Bengel, Johann. Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. Matthew 16. Accessed 24 April 2019.
  10. ^ Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Matthew 16. Accessed 28 April 2019.
  11. ^ Matthew 16:16 NKJV
  12. ^ Coogan 2007, p. 32 New Testament.
  13. ^ Matthew 16:18 NKJV
  14. ^ Note [a] on Matthew 16:18 in NKJV
  15. ^ Greek Text Analysis: Matthew 16:18. Biblehub
  16. ^ Matthew 16:19 NKJV
  17. ^ Note [a] on Matthew 16:19 in NKJV
  18. ^ France 1994, p. 926.

SourcesEdit

  • Coogan, Michael David (2007). Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme (eds.). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version, Issue 48 (Augmented 3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288810.
  • France, R. T. (1994). "Matthew". In Carson, D. A.; France, R. T.; Motyer, J. A.; Wenham, G. J. (eds.). New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition (4, illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 904–945. ISBN 9780851106489.

External linksEdit


Preceded by
Matthew 15
Chapters of the New Testament
Gospel of Matthew
Succeeded by
Matthew 17