The Marikana massacre, was the killing of 34 miners by the South African Police Service (SAPS). It took place on 16 August 2012, and was the most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since 1976. The massacre has been compared to the 1960 Sharpeville massacre. The incident took place on the 25th anniversary of a nationwide miners' strike.
The EPC section of Lonmin Platinum, with Bapong in the foreground
|Date||10 August 2012– 20 September 2012|
|Location||Wonderkop, near Marikana, Rustenburg municipality, South Africa|
|Participants||Independent striking miners|
National Union of Mineworkers
Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union
South African Police Service
|Deaths||14 August: 2|
12–14 August: approx. 8 (police: 2, miners: 4, security guards: 2)
16 August: 34 miners (78 miners injured)
Later before resolution: 2
After 18 September resolution: 1
The killings took place at two locations, roughly 500 metres away from each other, with 17 people fatally wounded at each of these locations. The vast majority of those killed were killed by fire from the R5 assault rifle used by the police. The official figure for strikers injured during the shooting is 78.
The strike was considered a seminal event in modern South African history, and was followed by similar strikes at other mines across South Africa, events which collectively made 2012 the most protest-filled year in the country since the end of apartheid.
The Marikana massacre occurred during a wildcat strike at a mine owned by Lonmin in the Marikana area, close to Rustenburg, in 2012. The event garnered international attention following a series of violent incidents between the police, Lonmin security, and members of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) on one side, and strikers on the other. The first incidents of violence were on 11 August, when NUM leaders opened fire on NUM members who were on strike. Two strikers were seriously wounded, but not killed, in the shooting by NUM members.
During the period from Sunday 12 August to Tuesday 14 August, 10 people were killed, including six mine workers, two Lonmin security guards, and two SAPS members. Three of the mine workers, and the two SAPS members, were killed in a clash between strikers and SAPS members on the afternoon of 13 August. The remaining five people are known to or believed to have been killed by strikers. In response to the massacre, there were a wave of wildcat strikes across the South African mining sector.
The Bench Marks Foundation argued: "The benefits of mining are not reaching the workers or the surrounding communities. Lack of employment opportunities for local youth, squalid living conditions, unemployment and growing inequalities contribute to this mess." It claimed the workers were exploited and this was a motivation for the violence. It also criticised the high profits when compared with the low wages of the workers. The International Labour Organisation criticised the condition of the miners saying they are exposed to "a variety of safety hazards: falling rocks, exposure to dust, intensive noise, fumes and high temperatures, among others." Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies described[when?] the conditions in the mines as "appalling" and said the owners who "make millions" had questions to answer about how they treat their workers. It was later reported by Al Jazeera that the conditions in the mine led to "seething tensions" as a result of "dire living conditions, union rivalry, and company disinterest."
On 10 August 2012, rock drillers initiated a wildcat strike in pursuit of a pay raise to 12,500 South African rand per month, a figure which amounted to tripling of their monthly salaries (from approx. US$280 to $840).
The strike occurred against a backdrop of antagonism and violence between the African National Congress-allied National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and its emerging rival, the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (AMCU). According to a Guardian columnist, the NUM was closely linked to the ruling ANC party but lost its organisational rights at the mine after its membership dropped from 66% to 49% and its leadership began to be seen as 'too close' to management.
Prior peaceful protests and fatal clashesEdit
At the Marikana platinum mine, operated by Lonmin at Nkaneng near Rustenburg, 3,000 workers walked off the job on 10 August after Lonmin failed to meet with workers. On 11 August, NUM leaders allegedly opened fire on striking NUM members who were marching to their offices. The killing of two miners was reported in the South African media as a central reason for the breakdown in trust within the union amongst workers. Despite earlier contradictory reports, the clashes on the 11th are now acknowledged to be the first incidents of violence during the strike.
Between 12 and 14 August, approximately nine people were killed in the area around Marikana. There are conflicting reports on who killed whom during these dates. However, at least four miners, two police officers, and two security guards seem to have been killed during this time.
Before the shootings, SAPS Captain Dennis Adriao told journalists: "We have tried over a number of days to negotiate with the leaders and with the gathering here at the mine, our objective is to get the people to surrender their weapons and to disperse peacefully." However, submissions to the Farlam Commission dispute this, accusing police of failing to negotiate with strikers and participating in revenge killings.
The former union leader - Cyril Ramaphosa, from his position on the board of Lonmin, could have argued for negotiation, even for a better deal for the workers. Instead - as a chain of emails released to the Farlam inquiry disclosed - he argued for the police to move in. In a message to fellow directors, he wrote: "The terrible events that have unfolded cannot be described as a labour dispute. They are plainly dastardly criminal and must be characterised as such... There needs to be concomitant action to address this situation."
The Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union's Joseph Matunjwa said that the protests were in response to poor pay: "As long as bosses and senior management are getting fat cheques, that's good for them. And these workers are subjected to poverty for life. [After] 18 years of democracy, the mineworker is still earning 3,000 [South African Rand – approximately $360] under those harsh conditions underground."
16 August massacreEdit
On the afternoon of 16 August, members of a contingent of the South African Police Service, from an elite special unit, opened fire with assault rifles (R5 rifles), on a group of strikers. Within minutes 34 miners were killed, and at least 78 were wounded. The incident was the single most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since the Sharpeville massacre during the apartheid era.
Footage from several different angles shows that the police were pushing the strikers into a small area. Groups of strikers began singing struggle songs, and marched along police lines. The police fired teargas and rubber bullets into these groups. At least one person in one group shot a handgun at the police. Members of this group either panicked or deliberately charged at a police line which sparked off the shooting.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2014)
A year after the incident, review of the police reaction indicated:
Perhaps the most important lesson of Marikana is that the state can gun down dozens of black workers with little or no backlash from 'civil society', the judicial system or from within the institutions that supposedly form the bedrock of democracy. What we have instead is the farcical Farlam commission, an obvious attempt to clear the state's role in the massacre and prevent any sort of real investigation into the actions of the police on that day. In other words, the state can get away with mass murder, with apparent impunity in terms of institutional conceptions of justice and political accountability.
The South African Police Service said that the miners had refused a request to disarm and attacked them with various weapons including firearms taken from the two police officers killed earlier in the week. South Africa's Police Commissioner, Mangwashi Victoria Phiyega claimed that the 500 strong police force was attacked by armed strikers, stating "The militant group stormed toward the police firing shots and wielding dangerous weapons."
The day after the shooting Police Commissioner Phiyega released a statement giving a detailed account of the efforts taken by the police to avert the threat of a violent end to the stand-off. In the statement Commissioner Phiyega claims that the SAPS had on a number of occasions since the beginning of the week attempted to negotiate a peaceful end to the strike. Commissioner Phiyega also claims that the SAPS had begun receiving information that the crowd did not intend to leave peacefully and that a violent response from the miners was a likely outcome. At this point Commissioner Phiyega asserts that efforts were made to escalate defensive and crowd control measures by the deployment of concertina wire barricades and the use of water cannons, rubber bullets, stun grenades, and tear gas to break the strikers up and drive them into an area where they could better control them. It was at this point that Commissioner Phiyega claims that the efforts to gain control of the situation failed and the miners turned violent, attacking members of the SAPS. Commissioner Phiyega claims that members of the SAPS who were directly in the path of the attack had moved back in a defensive manner up until the point that it was believed that their safety was under threat, at which point they were cleared to use maximum force to halt the attack and protect themselves. Commissioner Phiyega said that the SAPS had acted well within their legislative mandate as outlined in Section 205 of the Constitution of South Africa.
Advocate Ishmael Semenya, the lawyer for the police during official inquiry described the scale of the shooting when he stated on 6 November 2012 that "No more than 100 police officers discharged their firearms on 16 August. If the commission investigates the lawfulness of police conduct, then we could have to call 100 witnesses."
Eyewitness and journalist accountsEdit
Greg Marinovich examined the scene and found that the majority of victims were shot 300 meters from police lines where the main "charge" took place. He claims that some of the victims "appear to have been shot at close range or crushed by police vehicles." Some victims were shot in a "koppie" where they were cornered and could have been arrested. Due to local geography they must have been shot at close range. Few bullets were found in the surrounding area, suggesting they did not die in a hail of bullets. Marinovich concludes that "It is becoming clear to this reporter that heavily armed police hunted down and killed the miners in cold blood."
The Sowetan reported that striking miners appeared to have fired on the police, though the group which advanced towards the police appeared to be "peacefully gathering". The Star journalist Poloko Tau said police maintained that they had been fired on first, but Tau did not see this firsthand.
The Times reported that police did not use live ammunition until fired upon by a striking worker with a shotgun, and
Siphiwe Sibeko, a Reuters photographer who was present at the scene, stated that he saw at least one of the protesters shoot a pistol before the police opened fire.
The striking mine workers had gathered on 16 August on nearby Nkaneng Hill armed with spears, pangas (large machete-like knives) and sticks. A large group of women, not employed at the mine, some armed with knobkerries, joined them. Six guns were found at the scene, one of which belonged to a police officer "hacked to death" earlier during the strike.
The day after the shootings a group of miners' wives protested singing and chanting slogans and songs from the anti-apartheid struggle. They denied that the striking miners had shot first, insisted that the strike was about wages and demanded that the police officers responsible for the shooting be fired.
Most of the approximately 28,000 employees at the mine did not go to work on Monday, 20 August after the shooting, despite a statement that those who do not would risk being dismissed. However, a spokesperson for Lonmin said that 27% of its employees were at work. The chief financial officer for Lonmin, Simon Scott, said that "nobody will be asked to report for duty if the police consider them in danger of reprisals." On 5 September, over 1,000 striking miners again protested at the mine and reiterated their demands for increased pay. There were dozens of police at the mine, while a helicopter hovered above the protesters.
Despite an agreement between the National Union of Mineworkers and the mine, a majority of the 3,000 striking members from the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union continued to stay away from work. NUM's General-Secretary Frans Baleni said that a "high level of intimidation" had stopped other miners from returning to work. "The workers are still scared. There have been threats that those who have reported for duty would have their homes torched. Some of the workers also feel threatened by their managers. Peace has not really prevailed at this stage, which is the main reason why workers would stay away." On 11 September, as another deadline to return to work passed, workers continued to stick their ground amid mounting solidarity protests. Following President Jacob Zuma's vow to clamp down on protests at the mine on 14 September, military convoys and other armoured vehicles were seen in the area. The next day, demonstrations turned violent after the representatives of the striking miners refused to hand in their machetes, sticks and pistols. Police then fired tear gas on the protesters in a shantytown. On 17 September, another march was stopped by police. At the same time COSATU was holding its annual congress with the issue on the top of its agenda.
There was a small protest outside parliament in Cape Town the day after the shootings.[why?] Two other mines also had similar protests, after the shooting, demanding a 300% salary increase. Police were present at the sites in case there was violence and to prevent an escalation of strikes. North West Province Premier Thandi Modise warned of spreading protests if the growing inequality gap was not dealt with. The same day Jacob Zuma visited the Marikana mine.
On 4 September, the Gold Fields mine outside Johannesburg also had protests by mine workers. Neal Froneman, the CEO of Gold One International who runs the mine, said that police were called to disperse the protesters. As a result of clashes that involved the stoning of a vehicle carrying others to work and tear gas and the firing of rubber bullets four people were injured. Froneman said: "Our security had to intervene, they used rubber bullets and police used rubber bullets and tear gas. Four people were slightly wounded and all have been released from the hospital." However, Pinky Tsinyane, a police spokesman, said that one of the injured workers was in critical condition; he added that four others had been arrested for public violence. The company spokesman, Sven Lunsche, further noted that about 12,000 of Gold Fields' workers "continue to engage in an unlawful and unprotected strike" that began on 28 August and, according to him, was the result of an internal dispute between the local union leaders and members of the National Union of Mineworkers. As the solidarity protests spread to other mines, Julius Malema addressed a rally at the KDC Gold Fields mine, where a majority of the 15,000 workers were on strike. He said: "The strike at Marikana must go into all the mines. R12,500 is a reality. They must know, the mine bosses, that if they don't meet your demand, we're going to strike every month for five days, demanding R12,500." As the body of a man hacked to death was found on the same day at the Marikana mine, Malema also called for a nationwide miners' strike. On 16 September, about 1,000 miners in Rustenburg organised a solidarity march for the Marikana miners who marched the previous day. However, while this group was applying for a permit to demonstrate against police brutality the previous day, police helicopters encircled them in what was seen as intimidating leading to the miners dispersing.
On 19 September, the same day as the announcement of a resolution to the Marikana strike, workers at Anglo American Platinum staged a strike demanding a similar offer at its Rustenburg mine. Mametlwe Sebei, a community representative, said in response to protests that at the mine "the mood here is upbeat, very celebratory. Victory is in sight. The workers are celebrating Lonmin as a victory." The strikers carried traditional weapons such as spears and machetes, before being dispersed by police using tear gas, stun grenades and rubber bullets against the "illegal gathering", according to police spokesman Dennis Adriao. Central Methodist Church Bishop Paul Verry said that one woman who was struck by a bullet died. At the same time, an unnamed organiser for the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union of protests at Impala Platinum said: "We want management to meet us as well now. We want 9,000 rand a month as a basic wage instead of the roughly 5,000 rand we are getting." Anglo Platinum then said in a statement that: "Anglo American Platinum has communicated to its employees the requirement to return to work by the night shift on Thursday 20 September, failing which legal avenues will be pursued."
A wave of strikes occurred across the South African mining sector. As of early October analysts estimated that approximately 75,000 miners were on strike from various gold and platinum mines and companies across South Africa, most of them illegally. Citing failure of workers to attend disciplinary hearings, on 5 October 2012, Anglo American Platinum—the world's biggest platinum producer—announced that it would fire 12,000 people. It said it would do so after losing 39,000 ounces in output – or 700 million rand ($82.3 million; £51 million) in revenue. The ANC Youth League expressed anger at the company and pledged solidarity with those who had been fired:
This action demonstrates the insensibility and insensitivity of the company... which has made astronomical profits on the blood, sweat and tears of the very same workers that today the company can just fire with impunity. Amplats is a disgrace and a disappointment to the country at large, a representation of white monopoly capital out of touch and uncaring of the plight of the poor.
Reuters described the move as "a high-stakes attempt by the world's biggest platinum producer to push back at a wave of illegal stoppages sweeping through the country's mining sector and beyond". The announcement triggered the rand falling to a 3 1⁄2-year low. The events were expected to put further political pressure on President Jacob Zuma ahead of the leadership vote in December's ANC National Conference.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2012)
Of the detained miners, 150 people claimed that they were beaten while in police custody. In the middle of September, as police urged workers and five unnamed mines to return to work, they arrested 22 strikers for continued protesting.
The Ministry of Labour, Nelisiwe Oliphant, sought on 28 August to mediate an agreement to end the strike at a meeting set for the next day. However, the strikers reiterated their original demands of 12,500 rand a month, three times the current salary, saying that they had already sacrificed too much to settle for anything. Mediation efforts were deadlocked, as of 6 September. Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union President Joseph Mathunjwa later said: "When the employer is prepared to make an offer on the table, we shall make ourselves available", as he rejected an offer of mediation and vowed to continue striking till the miners' demands are met.
On 10 September, negotiations were set to continue from noon. Lonmin's executive vice-president of human resources, Barnard Mokwena, said: "If workers don't come to work, we will still pursue the peace path. That is very, very necessary for us to achieve because this level of intimidation and people fearing for their lives obviously does not help anybody. For now it is a fragile process and we need to nurture it."
On 18 September, Bishop Jo Seoka of the South African Council of Churches, who was mediating a resolution to the conflict, announced that the striking miners had accepted a 22% pay raise, a one-off payment of R2,000, and would return to work 20 September. However, the National Union of Mineworkers, the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union and the Solidarity union did not make any statements in response to this offer. While miners' representative Zolisa Bodlani said of the deal that "it's a huge achievement. No union has achieved a 22% increase before," Lonmin's Sue Vey said it would offer no comment as the agreement had not yet been signed. However, Chris Molebatsi, who was a part of the organising committee for the strike, said: "The campaign will go on. This campaign is aimed at helping workers. People died here at Marikana. Something needs to be done. This is a campaign to ensure justice for the people of Marikana. We want the culprits to be brought to book, and it is crucial that justice is seen to be done here. It is our duty and the duty of this country to ensure justice is served, so that we can make sure this country is a democracy and to stop South Africa from going down the drain." He also added that the Marikana Solidarity Campaign has more work to do in terms of supporting victims' families, offering PTSD counselling and to oversight the state-appointed judicial commission that would ensure justice after the violence; he also noted that:
During the past week people were taken from their homes and arrested by police, and people have been shot at. We need to ensure the safety of these people, and need to help stop police action against the people of Marikana. The work is enormous. Some people still need medical attention, and we also need to look at the living conditions of workers and the community at large. Then there is the problem of the unemployment of women and the high rate of illiteracy here. We need to help realise programmes to ensure people can get an income, that they can enjoy a reasonable standard of living.
The following day, however, confirmations of the agreement came from Lonmin and unions. Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration commissioner Afzul Soobedaar said: "We have reached an agreement that we have worked tirelessly for" and that the negotiations were an arduous process but congratulated all parties for being committed to reach a solution. National Union of Mineworker's negotiator Eric Gcilitshana said that there would now be stability at Lonmin with the return to work; while President of the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Joseph Mathunjwa issued a statement that read: "This could have been done without losing lives." Lonmin spokesman in South Africa Abbey Kgotle said they were content with the resolution after difficult talks and that the agreement was dedicated to those killed. The final resolution entailed the miner working at the lowest depths earning between R9,611 from the previous R8,164, a winch operator would now earn R9,883 up from R8,931, a rock drill operator would earn R11,078 from R9,063 and a production team leader would earn R13,022 from R11,818. The return to work on 20 September coincided with the last day of the COSATU conference in Midland, Johannesburg. At the same time, it was reported that an unnamed number of strikers left the unions that had previously represented them.
The 270 arrested miners were initially charged with "public violence." However, the charge was later changed to murder, despite the police having shot them. Justice Minister Jeff Radebe said that the decision "induced a sense of shock, panic and confusion. I have requested the acting National Director of Public Prosecutions (NDPP), advocate Nomgcobo Jiba[,] to furnish me with a report explaining the rationale behind such a decision."
The basis for prosecutions was said to be the doctrine of "common purpose." Although many have mentioned that the doctrine had previously been used by the apartheid government, Professor James Grant, a senior lecturer in Criminal Law at Wits University, stated that, "...while common purpose was used and abused under apartheid, so was almost our entire legal system," and that "...it makes it exceedingly difficult to dismiss it as outdated apartheid law when it was endorsed in the Constitutional Court in 2003 in the case of S v Thebus. The Constitutional Court endorsed the requirements for common purpose set out in the case of S v Mgedezi, decided under apartheid in 1989."
The legal representatives for the arrested 270 miners said their continued incarceration was "unlawful" as a special judicial inquiry that had been formed by Zuma was conducting its investigation. The law firm Maluleke, Msimang and Associates wrote an open letter to Zuma, on 30 August, saying that it would file an urgent petition with the High Court for the release of those imprisoned if he does not order their immediate release. "It is inconceivable that the South African state, of which you are the head, and any of its various public representatives, officials and citizens, can genuinely and honestly believe or even suspect that our clients murdered their own colleagues and in some cases, their own relatives."
On 2 September, the National Prosecuting Authority announced that they would drop the murder charges against the 270 miners. This followed Magistrate Esau Bodigelo telling his court in Ga-Rankuwa of the dropping of charges. At the same time, the first batch of the 270 arrested miners were released. By 6 September, the second batch of over a 100 detainees were ordered released.
President Jacob Zuma commissioned an inquiry into the shooting to be headed by former Supreme Court of Appeals Judge Ian Farlam and tasked to "investigate matters of public, national and international concern arising out of the tragic incidents at the Lonmin Mine in Marikana." The hearings will begin at the Rustenburg Civic Centre and will question police, miners, union leaders, government employees and Lonmin employees about their conduct on the day. The commission would have four months to hear evidence and testimony.
The commission began its work on 1 October. Amongst the first tasks was a hearing from two representatives of the miners who asked for a two-week postponement, which was rejected by Farlam. He also took a personal tour of the site of the protests. On the first day, he toured the site of the shootings hearing from the forensic expert who had examined the site and sat at the koppie (hill) where the miners hid from police. On the second day, he went to see the miners' dormitories—including where families can stay and an informal settlement. Al Jazeera's Tania Page said that the site had been cleaned since the incident and that the commission's challenge would be "to see the truth and find an objective balance when all the parties involved have had time to cover their tracks."
South African judges holding an inquiry into the events were shown video and photographs of miners who lay dead with handcuffs on as well as some photographs which a lawyer for the miners claimed to show that weapons, such as a machete, were planted by police next to the dead miners after they had been shot.
Under AMCU's heads of argument, Lonmin board and Mr. Cyril Ramaphosa conceded under cross examination of the fact that deal of demand for higher wages must had been taken care under the contingency plan.
During a trip to the European Union headquarters in Belgium on 18 September, President Zuma tried to reassure investors that though "we regarded the incident of Marikana as an unfortunate one. Nobody expected such an event." He further noted South Africa's handling of the conflict. European Council President Herman van Rompuy said: "The events at the Marikana mine were a tragedy and I welcome the judicial commission of inquiry set up by President Zuma," while he noted South Africa's growing influence. He also met with the President of the European Commission Jose Manuel Barroso. Meanwhile, EU Trade Commissioner Karel De Gucht said: "I realise that this is a social conflict, this is completely within the remit of the South African legislation and the South African political system. But we are … deeply troubled by the fact of all these dead victims."
The strikes were later said to be the result of inequality within South African society.
Reactions to the shootingEdit
President Jacob Zuma, who had been attending a regional summit in Mozambique at the time of the 16 August shootings, expressed "shock and dismay" at the violence and called on the unions to work with the government to "arrest the situation before it spirals out of control". The day after the shootings, Jacob Zuma travelled to the location of the shootings and ordered a commission of inquiry to be formed, saying: "Today is not an occasion for blame, finger-pointing or recrimination." Zuma also declared a week of national mourning for the strikers who were killed.
National police commissioner Mangwashi Victoria Phiyega, a former social worker who was appointed on 13 June, stated police had acted in self-defense, saying, "This is no time for blaming, this is no time for finger-pointing. It is a time for us to mourn." Phiyega presented aerial photography of the events which she claimed demonstrated that the strikers had advanced on the 500 strong police force before they had opened fire.
The Ministry of Safety and Security issued a statement that read while protesting is legal, "these rights do not imply that people should be barbaric, intimidating and hold illegal gatherings." The ministry defended the police's actions, saying that this was a situation in which people were heavily armed and attacked.
The Independent Police Investigative Directorate of South Africa (IPID) announced an investigation into the actions of the police force in the deaths : "The investigation will seek to establish if the police action was proportional to the threat posed by the miners. It is still too early in the investigation to establish the real facts around this tragedy."
On 21 August, Defense Minister Nosiviwe Noluthando Mapisa-Nqakula became the first South African government official to apologise for the shooting and asked for forgiveness from angry miners who held up plastic packets of bullet casings to her. "We agree, as you see us standing in front of you here, that blood was shed at this place. We agree that it was not something to our liking and, as a representative of the government, I apologise...I am begging, I beg and I apologise, may you find forgiveness in your hearts."
Opposition parties and politicians outside of the governmentEdit
Julius Malema – the former leader of the youth wing of the ANC, who had been suspended from the party four months prior to the incident- visited the scene of the shootings and called for Zuma to resign, stating, "How can he call on people to mourn those he has killed? He must step down." He also said:
A responsible president says to the police you must keep order, but please act with restraint. He says to them use maximum force. He has presided over the killing of our people, and therefore he must step down. Not even [the] apartheid government killed some many people. [The government] had no right to shoot. We have to uncover the truth about what happened here. In this regard, I've decided to institute a commission of inquiry. The inquiry will enable us to get to the real cause of the incident and to derive the necessary lessons, too. It is clear there is something serious behind these happenings and that's why I have taken a decision to establish the commission because we must get to the truth. This is a shocking thing. We do not know where it comes from and we have to address it.
The South African Communist Party, which is in an alliance with the ruling ANC and COSATU, to which NUM is affiliated, called for the leaders of AMCU to be arrested. AMCU blamed the NUM and the police and insisted that, contrary to various rumours, the union was not affiliated to any political party. Frans Baleni, the general secretary of the National Union of Mineworkers, defended the police action to the Kaya FM radio station in saying: "The police were patient, but these people were extremely armed with dangerous weapons."
The Congress of South African Trade Unions, a union federation to which the strikers are opposed, supported the police account of events and said that the police had first used tear gas and water cannon on the miners, who then responded with "live ammunition".
National Education, Health, and Allied Workers' Union spokesman Sizwe Pamla said after the tragedy "This atrocious and senseless killing of workers is deplorable and unnecessary. Our union feels Lonmin should be made to account for this tragedy. We also demand an investigation on the role of labor brokers in this whole [incident]. The remuneration and working conditions of miners also needed to be addressed, as these mining companies have been allowed to get away with murder for far too long. Our police service has adopted and perfected the apartheid tactics and the militarisation of the service, and encouraged the use of force to resolve disputes and conflicts. Police tactics and training needed to be reviewed in light of Thursday's shooting. The union demands that all police officers who deal with protests be taught disciplined ways of controlling protesters. We cannot afford to have a police force that is slaughtering protesters in the new dispensation."
Speaking at a press briefing in Sandton after the confrontation, AMCU president Joseph Mathunjwa said management had reneged on commitments it had made to miners earlier in the week, claiming the shootings could have been avoided if management made good on their commitments to workers. Mthunjwa presented two documents in evidence mine management had indeed made commitments to the miners their grievances would be dealt with, but reneged, causing the violence. "Management could have stuck with their commitment. The commitment was once you're there peacefully at work, management will address your grievances through union structures," stated Mathunjwa, who noted he tried to help even though the confrontation did not involve his ACMU union. "This was an in-fight of the members of NUM with their offices. It's got nothing to do with AMCU.". Mathunjwa explained Amcu's leaders had been called to the site to intervene in the standoff between workers and the mine as a peaceful intermediary, even though the ACMU did not represent those involved in the dispute. "I pleaded with them. I said leave this place, they're going to kill you," said Mathunjwa, who later broke down in tears.
Mine owners Lonmin issued a statement following the shootings expressing regret for the loss of life, stressing the responsibility of the police for security during the strike and disassociating the violence from the industrial dispute. Lonmin also said that the strikers must return to work on 20 August or possibly be dismissed. Simon Scott, Lonmin's acting chief executive, following the incident said that the company needed to "rebuild the Lonmin brand and rebuild the platinum brand". Workers rejected the company ultimatum to return to work and vowed to go ahead with their protests till their demands for wage increases were, as it would be an "insult" to the dead otherwise. Lonmin then extended the deadline by 24 hours, as Zuma called for a mourning period.
When the strike began, Lonmin halted production and said that it was unlikely to fulfill its full-year guidance of 750,000 ounces (approx 21.25 metric tonnes) of platinum. Lonmin said it will have to monitor its bank debt levels due to the disruption. Lonmin's capacity to refinance its debt was also questioned.
Miners' families criticised the government's failure to produce a list of the dead two days after the incident, leaving many to worry whether missing members of their families were amongst those killed, wounded, or arrested during 16 August incident.
A delegation from the National Inter-faith Council of South Africa (NIFC-SA) visited Marikana on 21 August to offer condolences and support to the community. The delegation included Rhema Church head, Pastor Ray McCauley and Catholic Archbishop of Johannesburg, Buti Tlhagale, and Chief Rabbi of South Africa, Warren Goldstein.
The director of the Institute for Democracy in Africa, Paul Graham, asked "Why did South African policemen use live ammunition and interfere with a crime scene?" The director also criticised the independent commission of inquiry, stating, "It is very disappointing that those appointed to the commission of inquiry include cabinet ministers. They cannot be independent and will not be trusted."
Oxford University lecturer in African Studies, and South African citizen, Jonny Steinberg, believes that the level of repression shown by the police could be a sign that President Jacob Zuma is attempting to appear strong and project authority over an increasingly fractured country and government prior to the ANC's internal party elections in December.
South African news media showed graphic footage and photos of the shootings, while the headlines included "Killing Field", "Mine Slaughter", and "Bloodbath". The newspaper Sowetan issued a front-page editorial, questioning what changed in South Africa since the fall of apartheid in the early 1990s, saying that this has happened in South Africa before under apartheid when blacks were treated cruelly, and "it is continuing in a different guise now."
Reuters described the incident as causing South Africa to question "its post-apartheid soul". Mining Weekly.com said that the Lonmin killing would hurt South Africa as a destination for investment. Bloomberg said that the clashes reflected unease over a growing wealth gap between the country's elite and workers such as those were protesting. Al Jazeera asked if Zuma can withstand the controversy; if the mine's links to the ruling ANC constituted an "economic apartheid;" and whether the controversy over the shooting could resurrect the political career of Julius Malema, following his suspension from the ANC.
Rehad Desai made an awarded documentary about the events titled Miners Shot Down. Desai was in a unique position to make the documentary as he was on site as the events took place. The 52 minute film contains live video of the shootings and the events leading to the situation starting one week prior and the immediate aftermath. Desai states that this incident is corrosive to democracy and that he fears nobody will be held accountable.
In a controversial series of standup comedy shows, comedian Trevor Noah made light of the situation and siding with police saying that they “used teargas all week” but “couldn’t control people” and “had to use ammunition because the strikers had weapons.” He also joked that “teargas is a waste of time” and ineffective against protesters, asking “Which strike has ever ended because of teargas?”, along with numerous other controversial statements. The jokes came into further question as he did not address the issues even after new evidence had come out regarding the massacre. This came as a shock to many following his brutal critique of the American police response to George Floyd Protests and was seen as "The best example of this South African middle class hypocrisy" 
- Platinum financial market
- Political reactions
US Presidential Deputy Press Secretary Josh Earnest told reporters: "The American people are saddened at the tragic loss of life [at the Lonmin mines] and express our condolences to the families of those who have lost loved ones in this incident." In Auckland, protesters attacked the South African High Commission with paint bombs.
Reactions to the resolutionEdit
Following the resolution of the Marikana strike, President Jacob Zuma expressed his relief following criticism from opposition parties and the media at his government's handling of the crisis. Union rivalry also widened as the resolution was touted as a victory for the AMCU over the bigger NUM. In financial markets, Lonmin's share prices initially rose by over 9%, but later receded as investors were made aware of the extra costs now incurred in wages while the company was already in the midst of struggling with its balance sheet and the unprofitable mine shafts. Platinum prices rose after falling 2.6% on 18 September on news of the deal.
|Locations of events on 16th near Wonderkop, Marikana|
|Position of over 30 SAPS vehicles and 500 SAPS members before intervention|
|'Thaba'-koppie ("koppie 1"), site of 5-day standoff by some 3,000 strikers, many armed with sharp-edged weapons, and some staying overnight|
|"Koppie 2", a second koppie occupied by strikers|
|Open area to which police intended to drive militant element of strikers, to be disarmed and arrested|
|"Scene 1" (16h00): 17 strikers killed during 12-second-long barrage of live ammunition at cattle kraal|
|"Scene 2" (16h15-16h26): 17 strikers killed at small koppie|
- The Marikana Massacre: Through The Lens, eNCA, (2013).
- Miners Shot Down, Rehad Desai, (2014).
- Night is Coming: A Threnody for the Victims of Marikana, Aryan Kaganof, (2014).
- The Mining Industry Strikewave, by Gavin Hartford, Engineering News, 2012
- Revenge of the Commons: The Crisis in the South African Mining Industry, by Keith Breckenridge, History Workshop Online, 2012
- Managing public feeling: Temporality, mourning and the Marikana Massacre in Rehad Desai’s Miners Shot Down, by Helene Strauss, Critical Arts, 2016
- Marikana: What really happened? We may never know, by Mandy de Waal, Daily Maverick, 2012
- Legal Resources Centre also pulls out of Marikana commission, Mail & Guardian, 2013
- Marikana, one year later: the hell above and below ground, by Greg Marinovich, Daily Maverick, 2013
- Marikana: One year after the Massacre, by Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 2013
- Six years on, there is no accountability for the elite police unit shootings at Marikana Scene 2, by David Bruce, Daily Maverick, 16 August 2018
- "Marikana Prequel: NUM and the murders that started it all", Daily Maverick, retrieved 23 October 2012
- Marikana Inquiry updates 23 October, Times Live, retrieved 23 October 2012
- "S Africa's Lonmin miners return to work – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "South Africa's ANC to discuss mine shootings row". BBC News. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- "South African police open fire as striking miners charge, killing and wounding workers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Richard Stupart (16 August 2012). "The Night Before Lonmin's Explanation". African Scene. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Monde Maoto and Natsha Marrian (17 August 2012). "BDlive". BDlive. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- John D. Battersby (16 August 1987). "Miners' Strike in South Africa Raises the Spirit of Resistance". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Bokoni platinum mine strike shootings" (Video). The Guardian. London. 17 October 2012.
- "AngloGold says illegal strike spreads in South Africa". JOHANNESBURG: Reuters, Ed Stoddard and Sherilee Lakmidas. 26 September 2012.
- Maeve McClenaghan (18 October 2012). "South African massacre was the tip of an iceberg". The Bureau of Investigative Journalism.
- Marikana Commission: NUM in a deep hole over the fight that started it all, by Sipho Hhlongwane, The Daily Maverick, 1 February 2013
- "Amplats fires 12,000 South African platinum miners". BBC News. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Lonmin an example of exploitation". BusinessReport. South African Press Association. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "South Africa could do more for miners, says ILO mining specialist". ILO. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Flynn, Alexis (5 September 2012). "South Africa Marikana Probe to Focus on Mining Practices, Conditions". Fox Business. Retrieved 12 September 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Safeeyah Kharsany (21 September 2012). "The sordid tale behind S Africa's mine strife – Features". Al Jazeera.
- "Fixing Statistics". The London Platinum and Palladium Market. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
- Kitco Metals Inc. "Platinum- London PM Fix 1992–present". KITCO.
- "Lonmin shares tumble". Independent Online. Reuters. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "South Africa's Lonmin Marikana mine clashes killed 30". BBC News. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Greg Marinovich (17 August 2012). "Beyond the Chaos at Marikana: The search for the real issues". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Justice Malala (17 August 2012). "The Marikana action is a strike by the poor against the state and the haves". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "NUM: Lethal force ahead of Marikana shootings was justified". Mail & Guardian. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Marikana Prequel – NUM and the murders that started it all". Daily Maverick. 12 October 2012.
- "South Africa: Marikana massacre – a turning point?". Links. 27 August 2012.
- "NUM shot at us – witness". Independent Online. 2 October 2012.
- "Marikana prequel: NUM and the murders that started it all". Daily Maverick. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Marikana 20 years in the making". Business Report. 21 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "NUM: Lethal force ahead of Marikana shootings was justified". Mail & Guardian. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Tau, Poloko (14 August 2012). "Cops killed as conflict spirals at Lonmin". Independent Online. South Africa. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "South African platinum mine union riots 'kill nine'". BBC News. 13 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Marikana inquiry updates". Times Live. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Lonmin death toll at 34, 78 injured". Moneyweb. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Miners killed like possessed vermin says lawyer". Mail & Guardian. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Marikana commission lawyers draw up battle lines". Daily Maverick. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- Davies, Nick (19 May 2015). "Marikana massacre: the untold story of the strike leader who died for workers' rights". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- Inside Story. "South Africa mine shooting: Who is to blame? – Inside Story". Al Jazeera.
- The South African Police Service and the Public Order War, by Chris McMichael, Think Africa Press, 3 September 2012
- "South Africa mine killings: Jacob Zuma announces inquiry". BBC News. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6guOlOFY7Q, eNCA, New Evidence Shows Marikana Miners Shot First, 20 August 2012
- "Marikana: 1 year later | by Benjamin Fogel". Amandla.org.za. 13 November 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Residents stunned by Marikana violence". News24. South African Press Association. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Ryk van Niekerk (16 August 2012). "South African president condemns platinum mine massacre". MineWeb. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- The New York Times, South African Official Defends Police Killing of 34, 19 August 2012
- "Police statement on Lonmin shooting". East Coast Radio. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.[permanent dead link]
- South Africa: Marikana Commission – 'Don't Single Us Out' – Police, AllAfrica, By Sipho Hlongwane, 7 November 2012, http://allafrica.com/stories/201211070802.html
- "Police open fire on South African miners". Al Jazeera. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 16 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Poplak, Richard (8 September 2012). "Marikana's Small Koppie: 14 dead, 300 metres away from Wonderkop. Why?". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Robert Nielsen (5 September 2012). "Marikana Mine Massacre". Robertnielsen21 wordpress. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Poplak, Richard (8 September 2012). "The murder fields of Marikana. The cold murder fields of Marikana". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Conflicting accounts of Lonmin shooting". Independent Online. South African Press Agency. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Pascal Fletcher (17 August 2012). "South Africa's "Hill of Horror": self-defense or massacre?". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Polgreen, Lydia (30 August 2012). "South Africa to Charge Miners in Deadly Unrest". The New York Times.
- "Fire killer cops, Marikana women urge". News24. South African Press Association. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "What's behind the Marikana massacre?". CNN. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- "Strikers march at S Africa's platinum mine – Africa". Al Jazeera. September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "South Africa's Marikana miners defy deadline". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "South African police halt peaceful protest – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "Malema barred from addressing S Africa miners – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "Cape demo against Lonmin killing". Independent Online. South African Press Association. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Protests spill over to other S African mines". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Unrest spreads to South Africa gold mine". Al Jazeera. September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "South Africa mine unrest spreads to new site". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "March of South African miners cut short". Al Jazeera. 16 September 2012.
- "South Africa's Amplats fires 12,000 strikers as unrest deepens". Reuters. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- Flak, Agnieszka (5 October 2012). "South Africa's Amplats fires 12,000 strikers, union leader shot". Reuters. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Poplak, Richard (4 September 2012). "Marikana: Freed miners speak of torture in police cells". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Laing, Aislinn (3 September 2012). "Hundreds of South African miners charged with murder released from prison". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Deal sought over striking South Africa miners". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Court frees jailed South African miners – Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "South Africa miners to continue strike". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "South Africa miners stage march". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Hill, Matthew (18 September 2012). "Lonmin Workers Agree to 22% Pay Rise, to Return Sept. 20". Bloomberg.
- Waal, Mandy De (19 September 2012). "South Africa: Marikana – the Strike Might Be Over, but the Struggle Continues". allAfrica.com.
- "iafrica.com | Wage deal ends Marikana strike". News.iafrica.com. Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- "SA minister questions mine murder charges – Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Marikana: 'Common purpose not outdated or defunct'". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Lawyers for SA miners threaten court action – Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Marinovich, Greg (16 August 2012). "Marikana: NPA drops 'common purpose' charges, but critical questions remain". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "South Africa frees first batch of miners – Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Inquiry to begin on S African miners' deaths – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "Marikana inquiry faces challenges – Al Jazeera Blogs". Al Jazeera. 2 October 2012.
- Marikana mine killings: South African police 'planted weapons', BBC, 6 November 2012, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-20218828
- "MARIKANA COMMISSION INQUIRY Report" (PDF). The Marikana Commission of Inquiry. October 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2016.
- "Handling of Marikana should reassure investors – Zuma | Business". BDlive. 19 September 2012.
- "Inequality root cause of strikes in South Africa: Analyst". Press TV. 2 November 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- David Smith and Terry Macalister (16 August 2012). "South African police shoot dead striking miners". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "S Africa Lonmin killings: National mourning declared". BBC. 19 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Police boss says 34 miners killed, in self-defence". The Sowetan. Reuters. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Lydia Polgreen (18 August 2012). "South African Official Defends Police Killing of 34". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Police boss says 34 miners killed, in self-defence". The Sowetan. Reuters. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "South African defense minister first official to apologize for police killings of miners". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.[dead link]
- "Police open fire on South African miners". Al Jazeera. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 16 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Peta Thornycroft (18 August 2012). "Julius Malema calls for Jacob Zuma to resign over "massacre" of 34 striking miners". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Anger mounts over South African miners' fate – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "SACP calls for arrest of Amcu leaders". Independent Online. South African Press Association. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Atal, Maha Rafi (November 2017). "White capital: Corporate social responsibility and the limits of transformation in South Africa". The Extractive Industries and Society. 4 (4): 735–743. doi:10.1016/j.exis.2017.10.007.
- Lydia Polgreen (16 August 2012). "Mine Strike Mayhem Stuns South Africa as Police Open Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Mine massacre claim as police open fire on striking workers". The Sydney Morning Herald. Associated Press. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Lonmin killings senseless: Nehawu". The Times. South African Press Association. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "Lonmin Statement on Marikana" (PDF). Lonmin. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Thornycroft, Peta (19 August 2012). "Jacob Zuma declares period of mourning for South African miners". The Telegraph. London.
- "Striking South Africa miners given ultimatum – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "S Africa mine owner extends strike deadline – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "Mourning in S Africa over mine deaths – Africa". Al Jazeera.
- "South Africa mine extends strikers' deadline". Al Jazeera. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Cooke, Carli. "Lonmin May Struggle to Refinance Debt After Unrest, BMO Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "South Africa Lonmin killings: Anger over missing miners". BBC News. 18 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Marikana Prequel: NUM and the murders that started it all". Daily Maverick. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "MLonmin caused problem at Marikana say Police". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- Saks, David (24 August 2012). "Rabbi Goldstein, as part of NIFC-SA, reaches out to Lonmin victims" (PDF). SA Jewish Report. p. 3. Retrieved 26 August 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Davis, Rebecca (15 August 2014). "Marikana, two years on: Cape Town's protest artists remember the dead". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Police kill 34 striking miners in South Africa". The Jerusalem Post. Reuters. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Jon Herskovitz (17 August 2012). "Mine "bloodbath" shocks post-apartheid South Africa". Reuters. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Natasha Odendaal (17 August 2012). "Lonmin killings hurt SA as mining destination". Mining Weekly. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Martinez, Andres R. "South Africa Mine Deaths Show Wealth Gap Inciting Tension". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Can Zuma survive Marikana? – Al Jazeera Blogs". Al Jazeera. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Inside Story. "South Africa's economic apartheid". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Azad Essa. "Will Marikana resurrect Julius Malema?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- Awarded Films 2014 Film Festival One World, 2014.
- Q&A: Marikana miners shot down Al Jazeera, 2014.
- 'Hey Trevor Noah, you might be wrong about Marikana' The Citizen, 2016
- The class character of police violence Africa's Country, 2020
- "Platinum prices rise as violent South African mine dispute continues; other commodities mixed". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- "US 'saddened' by S.Africa mine killings". Agence France-Presse. 18 August 2012. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Jane Luscombe (18 August 2012). "Auckland protest against South Africa shooting". 3 News. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Bruce, David (2016). "Commissioners and commanders" (PDF). issafrica.s3.amazonaws.com. Institute for Security Studies (ISS), ISS Monograph N0 164. Retrieved 16 August 2018.