Marie Byrd Land

Marie Byrd Land (MBL) is an unclaimed region of Antarctica. With an area of 1,610,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi), it is the largest unclaimed territory on Earth. It was named after the wife of American naval officer Richard E. Byrd, who explored the region in the early 20th century.[1]

Marie Byrd Land

The territory lies in West Antarctica, east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean portion of the Southern Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. It stretches between 158°W and 103°24'W. The inclusion of the area between the Rockefeller Plateau and Eights Coast is based upon Byrd's exploration.


Glaciers and rock outcrops in Marie Byrd Land seen from NASA's DC-8 aircraft on October 17, 2011

Because of its remoteness, even by Antarctic standards, most of Marie Byrd Land (the portion east of 150°W) has not been claimed by any sovereign state. It is by far the largest single unclaimed territory on Earth, with an area of 1,610,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi) (including Eights Coast, immediately east of Marie Byrd Land). In 1939, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt instructed members of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition to take steps to claim some of Antarctica as United States territory. Although this appears to have been done by members of this and subsequent expeditions, these do not appear to have been formalized prior to 1959, when the Antarctic Treaty System was set up. Some publications in the United States have shown this as a United States territory in the intervening period, and the United States Defense Department has stated that United States has a solid basis for a claim in Antarctica resulting from its activities prior to 1959.[2] The portion west of 150°W is part of Ross Dependency claimed by New Zealand.

Five coastal areas are distinguished, which are listed from west to east:

No. Sector Western border Eastern border
1 Saunders Coast 158°00'W 146°31'W
2 Ruppert Coast 146°31'W 136°50'W
3 Hobbs Coast 136°50'W 127°35'W
4 Bakutis Coast 127°35'W 114°12'W
5 Walgreen Coast 114°12'W 103°24'W
  Marie Byrd Land 158°00'W 103°24'W


Marie Byrd Land was first explored from the west where it could be accessed from the Ross Sea. The far western coast of Marie Byrd Land was seen from the decks of Robert Falcon Scott's ship Discovery in 1902. He named the peninsula adjacent to the Ross Sea King Edward VII Land and the scattered outcrops that were within sight, the Alexandra Mountains. In 1911, during Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition, Kristian Prestrud led a sledge party that visited these isolated outcrops (nunataks) in the region bordering the eastern Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf. At the same time the first Japanese Antarctic Expedition led by Nobu Shirase landed a shore party on the peninsula.[3]

Dean Smith was the pilot during aerial overflights in 1929 with Richard E. Byrd's first Antarctic expedition (1928–1930).[4] It originated from Little America near Amundsen's original base camp Framheim in the Bay of Whales, led to the discovery of the Rockefeller Mountains and the Edsel Ford Ranges farther to the east. Byrd named the region after his wife Marie. A geological party led by L. Gould briefly explored parts of the Rockefeller Mountains.[5]

The first deep overland exploration occurred during the second Byrd expedition (1933–1935) when a sledge party led by Paul Siple and Franklin Alton Wade reached as far east as the Fosdick Mountains in 1934. Aerial exploration discovered lands farther east along the Ruppert Coast.[6]

The Third Byrd Antarctic Expedition, also called the United States Antarctic Service Expedition, took place from 1939 to 1941. This expedition established two base camps 2,600 kilometres (1,600 miles) apart. West Base was near the former Little America base (68° 29' S, 163° 57' W) and East Base was near the Antarctic Peninsula on Stonington Island (68° 12' S, 67° 03' W).[7] Exploration flights out of these two bases led to the discovery of most of the Marie Byrd Land Volcanic Province (e.g. Executive Committee Range[8]) and much of the coastal region including the Walgreen, Hobbs, and Ruppert Coasts.[9] During the expedition trail parties from West Base visited the northern Ford Ranges and south slopes of the Fosdick Mountains.[10]

The United States Navy (USN) mounted several expeditions to Antarctica in the period 1946 to 1959. These expeditions (Operation Highjump led by R. E. Byrd, Windmill, and Deep Freeze I–IV) included aerial photography using the Trimetrogon system of aerial photographs (TMA; vertical, left, and right oblique images over the same point) over portions of coastal Marie Byrd Land.[11]

The USN began construction of Byrd Station at 80°S, 120°W with traverses out of Little America V in 1956–57 during Deep Freeze II. These efforts were in advance of the International Geophysical Year (IGY; from July 1957 to end of 1958) that saw several exploratory overland traverses with tractor trains (Sno-cats and modified bulldozers). Starting in January 1957 (pre-IGY) Charles R. Bentley led a traverse from Little America V to the new Byrd station along the route blazed by United States Army engineers a few months before (the Army-Navy Drive[12]). His team conducted measurements of ice thickness and of the Earth's magnetic and gravity field. The following summer season (1957–58) he led a second traverse out of Byrd Station that visited volcanoes of the Marie Byrd Land Volcanic Province for the first time. The traverse reached the Sentinel Mountains beyond eastern Marie Byrd Land before returning to Byrd Station. Bentley led a third traverse out of Byrd Station to the Horlick Mountains in 1958–59. These three traverses led to the discovery of the Bentley Subglacial Trench or Trough, a deep bedrock chasm between MBL and the Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica.[13]

During 1958–1960 TMA flights and a traverse out of Byrd Station visited and mapped the Executive Committee Range. TMA were flown in western Marie Byrd Land in 1964 and 1965. Following these efforts the United States Geological Survey (USGS) mounted land surveys to establish a series of reference points and benchmarks throughout much of Marie Byrd Land during 1966–1968.[14]

USS Glacier (AGB-4) explored the parts of the Walgreen Coast and Eights Coast in 1960–61. It had parties of geologists and surveyors along that were deployed to outcrops on land. This expedition to the far eastern reaches of Marie Byrd Land determined that Thurston Peninsula as proposed by earlier expeditions was in fact an island (Thurston Island).[15] In the same season a geological party led by Campbell Craddock explored the Jones Mountains in the adjacent region.[16]

The United States Byrd Coastal Survey during 1966–1969, led by F. A. Wade, conducted geologic mapping of the Alexandra and Rockefeller Mountains and the Ford Ranges and produced a series of 1:250,000 geologic maps of the region.[17] This was a complex expedition involving remote helicopter camps and airborne geophysics.[18][19][20]

Several geological expeditions explored Marie Byrd Land during the period 1978–1993. New Zealand geologists surveyed the Ford Ranges and Edward VII Peninsula in two expeditions, 1978–79[21] and 1987–88.[22] Exploration of the Marie Byrd Land Volcanic Province began in earnest by U.S. geologists in 1984–85.[23] The WAVE project (West Antarctic Volcano Exploration[24]) focused on the volcanic province during the period 1989–1991. The SPRITE project (South Pacific Rim International Tectonic Expedition)[25] explored regions and surroundings of the Hobbs Coast in 1990–1993. Members of both projects were from the U.S., Britain, and New Zealand. During the Austral summers of 1989–1990 and 1990–1991, a geological party from the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) explored several of the mountain ranges within the northern Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land (FORCE expedition; Ford Ranges Crustal Exploration).[26] GANOVEX VII[27] a multinational expedition led by Germany visited Edward VII Peninsula in 1992–93.

Colorado College geologists led expeditions to the Ford Ranges in 1998–2001 (Ford Ranges),[28] 2005–2007[29] and 2011–2013 (Fosdick Mountains).[30]

Research camps and stationsEdit

Marie Byrd Land hosted the Operation Deep Freeze base Byrd Station (NBY; originally at 80°S, 120°W, rebuilt at 80°S, 119°W), beginning in 1957, in the hinterland of Bakutis Coast. Byrd Station was the only major base in the interior of West Antarctica for many years. In 1968, the first ice core to fully penetrate the Antarctic Ice Sheet was drilled here. The year-round station was abandoned in 1972, and after operating for years as a temporary summer encampment, Byrd Surface Camp, Byrd Station was reopened by the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) in 2009–2010 to support operations in northern West Antarctica.[31]

On Ruppert Coast of Marie Byrd Land is the Russian station Russkaya, which was occupied 1980–1990 and is now closed.[32]

East of the Siple Coast off the Ross Ice Shelf, Siple Dome was established as a summer science camp in 1996. Ice cores have been drilled here to retrieve the climate history of the last 100,000 years.[33] This camp also served as a base for airborne geophysical surveys supported by the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG).[28]

In 1998–1999, a camp was operated at the Ford Ranges (FRD) in western Marie Byrd Land, supporting a part of a United States Antarctic Program (USAP) airborne survey initiated by UCSB and supported by the UTIG flying out of Siple Dome. [28]

In 2004–05, a large camp, Thwaites (THW) was established by the USAP 150 km (93 mi) north of NBY, in order to support a large airborne geophysical survey of eastern Marie Byrd Land by the UTIG.[34]

In 2006, a major encampment, WAIS Divide (WSD) was established on the divide between the Ross Sea Embayment and the Amundsen Sea Embayment, in easternmost Marie Byrd Land, in order to drill a high resolution ice core. Drilling and coring ended in 2014.[35][36]

In 2018, the International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration[37] commenced with a large and ongoing physical presence onshore of the Amundsen Sea. It entails marine, airborne, and on-ice geophysical exploration that will illuminate the character of Marie Byrd Land bedrock geology and the nature of the eastern boundary of the province. The goal is determining the stability of the glacier and prediction of global sea level rise from shrinking of the WAIS.[37]

Geography and geologyEdit

Adjacent to the continent, Marie Byrd Land is bordered by the Amundsen Sea in the east and the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf in the west. Mountain ranges are prominent along and near the coastline with a few exceptions. Marie Byrd Land is covered by the vast West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The WAIS in Marie Byrd Land drains off the continent to the east into the Ross Ice Shelf via seven ice streams. Along the coast of the Southern Ocean and the Amundsen Sea, ice drains via glaciers, the major one being the Thwaites. West Antarctica and Marie Byrd Land have elevations of up to 1500 to 2000 meters on the surface of the WAIS. In contrast, East Antarctica has interior elevations on its ice sheet of over 4000 meters.[38]

The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS[39]) that evolved over the last hundred million years, includes all or part of Marie Byrd Land.[40] The WARS extends from the Ross Sea continental shelf east into Marie Byrd Land.[41][42] The ice streams and glaciers that drain the WAIS have been proposed to follow rift valleys, now buried by ice, which formed in the WARS.[43][44] The WARS contains a volcanic province with volcanoes active from the Eocene epoch to a few thousand years ago.[45][46]

A mantle plume was discovered deep below Marie Byrd Land.[47][48][49] Heat from the plume has been proposed responsible for uplift of a significant portion of West Antarctica to form the Marie Byrd Land Dome.[50][51]

A digital map of Antarctica includes the geology of Marie Byrd Land.[52] The geologic history of Marie Byrd Land in West Antarctica was summarized in a 2020 publication.[53]

Glaciers, ice streams, and ice shelvesEdit

Prominent glaciers that drain the WAIS in MBL include the Thwaites, and also the Pine Island Glacier, both of which empty into the Amundsen Sea. Of the seven ice streams that drain into the Ross Ice Shelf, the Bindschadler and Whillans ice streams are the most extensive.[54] The seven ice streams discharge 40 percent of the WAIS.[55] Besides the Ross Ice Shelf, significant ice shelves on the coast of the Southern Ocean include the Sulzberger, and Nickerson.

Mountain ranges, peaks, summits, and sub-ice topographyEdit

Due to the burial of the continental basement of MBL by the WAIS, mountain ranges are exposed towards the coast of MBL where ice thickness is smaller. Prominent ranges include the Ford Ranges in western MBL, The Flood Range, the Executive Committee Range, and the Kohler Range. The Ford Ranges are the most extensive and include more than six individual named mountains groups.[17] The Executive Committee Range includes five volcanoes, some proposed to be dormant or active. The Flood Range comprises a linear chain of Neogene and Quaternary age volcanoes.[56] The Fosdick mountains in the northern Ford Ranges are a thirty-kilometer-long span of Cretaceous metamorphic rocks. Most other exposed rock in MBL is Paleozoic metamorphosed sedimentary rock and granitiods, and Mesozoic granitiod.[17]

Away from the coasts, the WAIS buries individual mountains and ranges that are not named, the exception being major features such as the Bentley Subglacial Trench.[57]

Marie Byrd Seamount (70°0′S 118°0′W / 70.000°S 118.000°W / -70.000; -118.000) is a seamount named in association with Marie Byrd Land; name approved June, 1988 (Advisory Committee on Undersea Features, 228).

Mountain peaks and summitsEdit

Not comprehensive.

In popular cultureEdit

Byrd Station was the template for the doomed Antarctic bases in:


  1. ^ "Marie Byrd Land". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2004-11-03.
  2. ^ William J. Burns (March 9, 1996). "Presidential Decision Directive NSC-26". United States Department of State. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  3. ^ Huntford, R. (1985). The Last Place on Earth. New York: Atheneum, 567 p.
  4. ^ Rodgers 1990, pp. 96–98.
  5. ^ Byrd, R. E. (1930). Little America: Aerial Exploration in the Antarctic and the Flight to the South Pole. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 422 p.
  6. ^ Byrd, R. E. (1935). Discovery: The Story of the Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 405 p.
  7. ^ Wade, F. A. (1945). "An Introduction to the Symposium on Scientific Results of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition, 1939–1941". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 89, pp. 1–3.
  8. ^ "Executive Committee Range". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
  9. ^ "Antarctic Explorers: Richard E. Byrd: The US Antarctic Service Expedition 1939-41". South-Pole. Retrieved January 20, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ Warner, L. A. (1945). "Structure and Petrography of the Southern Edsel Ford Ranges, Antarctica". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 89, pp. 78–122.
  11. ^ Meunier, T. K. (2006). "U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946–59)". Open-File Report 2006–1117' Richard S. Williams, J., and Jane G. Ferrigno, eds.: Washington, D.C., U.S. Geological Survey, p. 14.
  12. ^ Frazier, P. W. (1957). "Across the Frozen Desert to Byrd Station". National Geographic, issue 112, p. 383–398.
  13. ^ Lewis, R. S. (1965). A Continent for Science. New York: Viking Press.
  14. ^ Southard Jr, R. B. "Topographic mapping field operations, 1967-1968." Antarctic Journal of the United States 3.4, p 111, (1968).
  15. ^ McDonald, E. A. (1962). "Exploring Antarcticas Phantom Coast". National Geographic, issue 121, pp. 250–273.
  16. ^ e.g. Craddock, C., Bastien, T. W., and Rutford, R. H. (1964). "Geology of the Jones Mountains area". In Adie, R. J. (ed.). Antarctic Geology' Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 171–187.
  17. ^ a b c e.g. Wade, F. A., et al. (1977). "Reconnaissance geologic map of the Alexandra Mountains quadrangle, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, Map A-5". Reston, Virginia: U. S. Antarctic Research Program.
  18. ^ Wade, F. Alton. "Geology of the Marie Byrd Land coastal sector of west Antarctica." Antarctic Journal of the United States, v 2 (1967): 93-94.
  19. ^ Wade, F. Alton. "Marie Byrd Land Survey II." Antarctic Journal of the United States, v 3 (1968): 88.
  20. ^ e.g. Beitzel, J. E. (1972). "Geophysical investigations in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica" (Ph.D. thesis). Madison: University of Wisconsin.
  21. ^ SD, Weaver, JD Bradshaw, and CJ Adams. "Granitoids of the Ford Ranges, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica." Geological Evolution of Antarctica 1 (1991): 345.
  22. ^ Weaver, S. D.; Adams, C. J.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Gibson, I. L. (1992). "Granites of Edward VII Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land: anorogenic magmatism related to Antarctic-New Zealand rifting". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 83 (1–2): 281–290. doi:10.1017/S0263593300007963. ISSN 1755-6929.
  23. ^ LeMasurier, W. E., and Rex, D.C. (1990). "Late Cenozoic volcanism on the Antarctic Plate: An overview". In LeMasurier, W. E., and Thompson, J. W. (eds.). Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and southern oceans. Antarctic Research Series 48. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysics Union. pp. 1–17.
  24. ^ Smellie, J. L.; Mcintosh, W. C.; Gamble, J. A.; Panter, K. S.; Kyle, P. R.; Dunbar, N. W. (1993). "Preliminary lithofacies assessment and 40Ar/39Ar ages of Cenozoic volcanic sequences in eastern Marie Byrd Land". Antarctic Science. 5 (1): 105–106. Bibcode:1993AntSc...5..105S. doi:10.1017/S0954102093000136. ISSN 1365-2079. S2CID 128876558.
  25. ^ e.g., Mukasa, S. B.; Dalziel, I. W. D. (April 2000). "Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica: Evolution of Gondwana's Pacific margin constrained by zircon U-Pb geochronology and feldspar common-Pb isotopic compositions". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 112 (4): 611–627. Bibcode:2000GSAB..112..611M. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2000)112<611:MBLWAE>2.0.CO;2.
  26. ^ Luyendyk, B. P., et al. (1992). "Recent Progress in Antarctic Earth Science". Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Antarctic Earth Science, Saitama, Japan, 1991, Terra Pub., p. 279–288
  27. ^ Estrada, Solveig. "Geology and Geophysics of Marie Byrd Land, Northern-Victoria Land, and Oates Coast. GANOVEX VII--." (Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe B, B and B 95) (2003).
  28. ^ a b c e.g., Luyendyk, B. P.; Wilson, D. S.; Siddoway, C. S. (October 2003). "Eastern margin of the Ross Sea Rift in western Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica: Crustal structure and tectonic development". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 4 (10): 1090. Bibcode:2003GGG.....4.1090L. doi:10.1029/2002GC000462. S2CID 2310914.
  29. ^ McFadden, R.; Siddoway, C.S.; Teyssier, C.; Fanning, C.M.; Kruckenberg, S.C. (2007). "Cretaceous Oblique Detachment Tectonics in the Fosdick Mountains, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica". In Antarctica: A Keystone in a ChangingWorld — Online Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. 2007 (1047srp046). doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp046.
  30. ^ Korhonen, F. J.; Brown, M.; Grove, M.; Siddoway, C. S.; Baxter, E. F.; Inglis, J. D. (2012). "Separating metamorphic events in the Fosdick migmatite-granite complex, West Antarctica: POLYMETAMORPHISM IN THE FOSDICK MOUNTAINS". Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 30 (2): 165–192. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2011.00961.x.
  31. ^ Antarctic Sun June 12, 2009 Retrieved on 2010-01-15
  32. ^ Website: Russian Antarctic Expedition - Project Antarctica (not secure) www dot aari dot aq/default_en dot html. Accessed January 27, 2022.
  33. ^ Brook, Edward J.; White, James W. C.; Schilla, Annie S. M.; Bender, Michael L.; Barnett, Bruce; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Alley, Richard B.; Steig, Eric J. (2005-07-01). "Timing of millennial-scale climate change at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, during the last glacial period". Quaternary Science Reviews. 24 (12): 1333–1343. Bibcode:2005QSRv...24.1333B. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.02.002. ISSN 0277-3791.
  34. ^ Diehl, Theresa M.; Holt, John W.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Young, Duncan A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Ferraccioli, Fausto (2008). "First airborne gravity results over the Thwaites Glacier catchment, West Antarctica". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 9 (4): n/a. Bibcode:2008GGG.....9.4011D. doi:10.1029/2007gc001878. ISSN 1525-2027.
  35. ^ Buizert, C.; Cuffey, K. M.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Baggenstos, D.; Fudge, T. J.; Steig, E. J.; Markle, B. R.; Winstrup, M.; Rhodes, R. H.; Brook, E. J.; Sowers, T. A. (2015-02-05). "The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 1: Methane synchronization (68–31 ka BP) and the gas age–ice age difference". Climate of the Past. 11 (2): 153–173. Bibcode:2015CliPa..11..153B. doi:10.5194/cp-11-153-2015. ISSN 1814-9332.
  36. ^ Sigl, Michael; Fudge, Tyler J.; Winstrup, Mai; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Ferris, David; McConnell, Joseph R.; Taylor, Ken C.; Welten, Kees C.; Woodruff, Thomas E.; Adolphi, Florian; Bisiaux, Marion (2016-03-30). "The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0–31 ka BP)". Climate of the Past. 12 (3): 769–786. Bibcode:2016CliPa..12..769S. doi:10.5194/cp-12-769-2016. ISSN 1814-9332.
  37. ^ a b Thwaites Glacier Project. "International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration". Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  38. ^ Herried, B., Rejcek, P., Hood, E. (2015), Antarctica (map): United States Antarctic Program (USAP) Science, WGS84 Polar Stereographic Projection scale 1:5,500,000, Polar Geospatial Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  39. ^ Behrendt, J. C.; LeMasurier, W. E.; Cooper, A. K.; Tessensohn, F.; Tréhu, A.; Damaske, D. (1991). "Geophysical studies of the West Antarctic Rift System". Tectonics. 10 (6): 1257–1273. Bibcode:1991Tecto..10.1257B. doi:10.1029/91TC00868.
  40. ^ Wilson, Douglas S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P. (2009-08-25). "West Antarctic paleotopography estimated at the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition". Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (16): L16302. Bibcode:2009GeoRL..3616302W. doi:10.1029/2009GL039297. ISSN 0094-8276.
  41. ^ Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.; Siddoway, Christine S. (2003). "Eastern margin of the Ross Sea Rift in western Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica: Crustal structure and tectonic development: EASTERN MARGIN OF THE ROSS SEA RIFT". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 4 (10). doi:10.1029/2002GC000462.
  42. ^ Tinto, K.J., Siddoway, C.S., Bell, R.E., Lockett, A. and Wilner, J., 2017, December. New Crustal Boundary Revealed Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, through ROSETTA-Ice Integrated Aerogeophysics, Geology, and Ocean Research. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 2017, pp. T22D-06).
  43. ^ Rose, K. E. (1979). "Characteristics of Ice Flow in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica". Journal of Glaciology. 24 (90): 63–75. doi:10.3189/S0022143000014659. ISSN 0022-1430.
  44. ^ Doake CS, Crabtree RD, Dalziel IW. Subglacial morphology between Ellsworth Mountains and Antarctic Peninsula: new data and tectonic significance. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Cambridge University Press, New York 1983 (pp. 270-273).
  45. ^ Liggett, Daniela; Storey, Bryan; Cook, Yvonne; Meduna, Veronika (2015). Exploring the Last Continent: An Introduction to Antarctica. Springer. pp. 20, 21. ISBN 978-3-319-18946-8.
  46. ^ Lough, Amanda C.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Grace Barcheck, C.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Aster, Richard C.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Huerta, Audrey D.; Nyblade, Andrew; Young, Duncan A.; Wilson, Terry J. (2013). "Seismic detection of an active subglacial magmatic complex in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica". Nature Geoscience. 6 (12): 1031–1035. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6.1031L. doi:10.1038/ngeo1992. ISSN 1752-0894.
  47. ^ Carol Rasmussen (November 7, 2017). "Hot News from the Antarctic Underground". NASA. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  48. ^ Amy Sherman (November 20, 2017). "No, NASA Antarctica study didn't discredit climate change science". PolitiFact. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  49. ^ Lloyd, Andrew J.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Aster, Richard C.; Huerta, Audrey D.; Wilson, Terry J.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.; Shore, Patrick J.; Zhao, Dapeng (2015). "A seismic transect across West Antarctica: Evidence for mantle thermal anomalies beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench and the Marie Byrd Land Dome". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 120 (12): 8439–8460. Bibcode:2015JGRB..120.8439L. doi:10.1002/2015JB012455. ISSN 2169-9356.
  50. ^ LeMasurier, Wesley E.; Landis, Charles A. (1996-11-01). "Mantle-plume activity recorded by low-relief erosion surfaces in West Antarctica and New Zealand". GSA Bulletin. 108 (11): 1450–1466. Bibcode:1996GSAB..108.1450L. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1996)108<1450:MPARBL>2.3.CO;2. ISSN 0016-7606.
  51. ^ LeMasurier, Wesley E. (2006), Fütterer, Dieter Karl; Damaske, Detlef; Kleinschmidt, Georg; Miller, Hubert (eds.), "What Supports the Marie Byrd Land Dome? An Evaluation of Potential Uplift Mechanisms in a Continental Rift System", Antarctica, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 299–302, doi:10.1007/3-540-32934-x_37, ISBN 978-3-540-30673-3, retrieved 2022-01-29
  52. ^ Cox S.C., Morin P., Smith Lyttle B. (2019) GeoMAP on REMA. Abstract A253 & Poster, 13th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, 22-26 July 2019, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
  53. ^ Jordan, Tom A.; Riley, Teal R.; Siddoway, Christine S. (2020). "The geological history and evolution of West Antarctica". Nature Reviews Earth & Environment. 1 (2): 117–133. Bibcode:2020NRvEE...1..117J. doi:10.1038/s43017-019-0013-6. ISSN 2662-138X.
  54. ^ Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B. (2011-09-09). "Ice Flow of the Antarctic Ice Sheet". Science. 333 (6048): 1427–1430. Bibcode:2011Sci...333.1427R. doi:10.1126/science.1208336. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21852457. S2CID 206535206.
  55. ^ Price, S. F.; Bindschadler, R. A.; Hulbe, C. L.; Joughin, I. R. (2001). "Post-stagnation behavior in the upstream regions of Ice Stream C, West Antarctica". Journal of Glaciology. 47 (157): 283–294. Bibcode:2001JGlac..47..283P. doi:10.3189/172756501781832232. ISSN 0022-1430. S2CID 128815839.
  56. ^ LeMasurier, Wesley (2013). "Shield volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctic rift: oceanic island similarities, continental signature, and tectonic controls". Bulletin of Volcanology. 75 (6): 726. Bibcode:2013BVol...75..726L. doi:10.1007/s00445-013-0726-1. ISSN 0258-8900. S2CID 128816343.
  57. ^ Fretwell, P.; Pritchard, H. D.; Vaughan, D. G.; Bamber, J. L.; Barrand, N. E.; Bell, R.; Bianchi, C.; Bingham, R. G.; Blankenship, D. D.; Casassa, G.; Catania, G. (2013-02-28). "Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica". The Cryosphere. 7 (1): 375–393. Bibcode:2013TCry....7..375F. doi:10.5194/tc-7-375-2013. ISSN 1994-0424.
  58. ^ Rollins, James (2014). "Section 2: The Phantom Coast". The Sixth Extinction. (Sigma Force #10)

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 80°S 120°W / 80°S 120°W / -80; -120