A mail-order bride is a woman who lists herself in catalogs and is selected by a man for marriage. In nineteenth-century America, mail-order brides came from well-developed areas on the Eastern seaboard to marry men in Western frontier lands. In the twentieth century, the trend was towards women living in developing countries seeking men in more developed nations. In the twenty-first century, the trend is now based primarily on internet-based meeting places which do not per se qualify as mail-order bride services. The majority of the women listed in the twentieth-century and twenty-first-century services are from Southeast Asia, countries of the former Eastern Bloc and (to a lesser extent) from Latin America. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union large numbers of eastern European women have advertised themselves in such a way, primarily from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova. Men who list themselves in such publications are referred to as "mail-order husbands," although this is much less common.
The term "mail-order bride" is both criticized by owners (and customers) of international marriage agencies and used by them as an easily recognizable term.
International marriage agencyEdit
Mail-order brides work with "international marriage agencies".
An international marriage agency (also called an international introduction agency or international marriage broker) is a business that endeavors to introduce men and women of different countries for the purpose of marriage, dating, or correspondence. Many of these marriage agencies are based near women in developing countries (such as Ukraine, Russia, Colombia, Brazil, India, China, Thailand, and the Philippines). International marriage agencies encourage women to register for their services, and facilitate communication and meetings with men from developed regions of North America, Western Europe, South Korea, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. This network of smaller international marriage agencies is often affiliated with web-based international dating sites that are able to market their services on a larger scale, in compliance with regulations such as the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act. Experian, a market research firm, reports that the top 10 international dating sites attracted 12 million visitors in March 2013, up 29% from March 2012. One of the biggest international dating sites, based on the market share, is AnastasiaDate. International dating sites provide a wide variety of online communication, including instant messaging, email letters, webchat, phone translation, virtual gifts, live games, and mobile-based chat. International marriage agencies are frequently referred to as "mail-order bride" agencies. However, many consider the term "mail-order bride" derogatory and feel it demeans foreign women by comparing them to commodities for sale and by falsely implying that (unlike local women), they exercise no judgment over the men they meet and would marry anyone from a relatively wealthy country.
Services offered by marriage agencies typically include:
- Translation of correspondence between clients not speaking a common language
- Excursions, in which a man is introduced to several women interested in marriage
Few agencies still offer introductions and excursions, but pioneering marriage agency A Foreign Affair still conducts these services.
There are at least two historical roots of the mail-order bride industry that emerged in the 1800s in the American frontier: Asian workers in the frontier regions (although Asian workers were scattered throughout the world), and American men who had headed west across the United States to work out on the frontier.
European American men found financial success in the migration West, but the one thing that was missing was the company of a wife. Very few women lived there at this time, so it was hard for these men to settle down and start a family. They attempted to attract women living back East; the men wrote letters to churches and published personal advertisements in magazines and newspapers. In return, the women would write to the men and send them photographs of themselves. Courtship was conducted by letter, until a woman agreed to marry a man she had never met. Many women wanted to escape their present way of living, gain financial security and see what life on the frontier could offer them. Most of these women were single, but some were widows, divorcées or runaways.
Asian men also worked through mail-order agencies to find wives as they worked overseas in the 1800s. Key variables determining the relationship between migration and marriage were demographics, legal policies, cultural perceptions and technology. Imbalances between the number of available women and the number of men desiring partners created a demand for immigrant women. As a result of this imbalance, a new system of "picture brides" developed in predominantly male settlements. In the early 20th century, the institution of "picture brides" developed due to immigration restrictions. The Japanese-American Passport Agreement of 1907 allowed Japan to grant passports to the wives of immigrants to America. As immigration of unmarried Japanese women to America was effectively barred, the use of "picture brides" provided a mechanism for willing women to obtain a passport to America, while Japanese workers in America could gain a female helpmate of their own nationality.
Mail order brides: motivations and storiesEdit
Economic and social conditions for women in Russia and other Postsoviet countries are a motivational factor in finding foreign arrangements. 52 percent of Russia’s workforce is made up of women, yet according to some sources they often hold low positions of prominence in their home country and work jobs with less respect and lower wage (such as teaching or physician positions); and women earn 43 percent of what men do. On the other hand, according to Grant Thornton International Business Report for 2014, as cited by Forbes magazine, Russia has the highest proportion of women in senior management worldwide at 43%, followed closely by other Postsoviet countries such as Lithuania, Latvia, Georgia and Armenia. According to an earlier Grant Thornton International Business Report for 2012, Russia had an even higher proportion of women in senior management at 46%, still highest in the world. Finding a foreign husband gives a woman a chance to leave her country and find better economic opportunities. Marriage is a substantial part of Russian culture, with 30 years being the age at which a woman is considered an "old maid". With 4,138,273 more women than men from the ages of 15 to 64, marriage opportunities are slim at home and worsened by the life expectancy difference between men (64.3 years) and women (73.17 years), as well as the fact that a large portion of successful males are emigrating out of Russia.
In testimony before the United States Senate, Professor Donna Hughes said that two thirds of Ukrainian women interviewed wanted to live abroad and this rose to 97% in the resort city of Yalta.
Many international brides come from developing countries in Asia. The countries the women come from are faced with unemployment, malnutrition and inflation. Those who marry foreign men tend to be better-educated than most women from their country or their husbands. However, economic factors are not the only driving factor for women in Asia to enter the mail-order industry. Filipina women often entered the mail-order industry in the hope of marrying abroad, and then sponsoring their family for immigration. In some cases women were recruited based on their physical appearance, with an emphasis placed on youth and virginity. This is found among boutique agencies, most of which cater to wealthy men from other Asian nations. The majority of Asian mail-order brides come from the Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Taiwan, and China.
Since 2003, the Government of Australia's resolve to decrease what was deemed "inappropriate immigration" by then-Prime Minister John Howard has gained momentum. Initial reactions to the program were mixed. However, during the January 2004 visit to Eastern Europe by the Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, Philip Ruddock, Australian-Russian relationships were strengthened while both nations committed to a timetable for reductions in Russian human trafficking into Australia. The Australian public further embraced its government's new policies following the media circus of the Jana Klintoukh case. This case first exploded into the public's view when current-events program Today Tonight aired footage of a young Russian-born Australian, claiming she was imported via an Internet site and was kept as a sexual slave by her "husband" while being confined to his Sydney home.
In 2005, President Alexander Lukashenko attempted to regulate "marriage agencies" in Belarus and make it difficult for them to operate. He believed that Western men were draining his country of women of child-bearing age. However, as most agencies are being run from outside Belarus (either in Russia, European countries or the United States), he has been unable to stop (or otherwise regulate) this activity.
Canadian immigration laws have traditionally been similar to (but slightly less restrictive than) their U.S. counterparts; for instance, previously not requiring the Canadian citizen to prove minimum-income requirements (as has been a long-standing requirement of United States immigration laws). While there is still no formal requirement for a minimum salary, the sponsor must provide evidence of income (such as the T4 income tax slip from an employer) with their IMM 5481 Sponsorship Evaluation. Until 2001 Canada's immigration policy designated mail-order brides under the "family class" to refer to spouses and dependents and "fiancé(e)" class for those intending to marry, with only limited recognition of externally married opposite-sex "common law" relationships; same-sex partners were processed as independent immigrants or under a discretionary provision for "humane and compassionate" considerations. In 2002, the Canadian Immigration Law was completely revised. One of the major changes was conjugal partner sponsorship, available for any two people (including same-sex couples) who have had conjugal relations together for at least one year. Canadian immigration authorities frown upon conjugal-partners sponsorship for heterosexual couples, and now require the couple to marry before a visa is granted (unless serious reason can be demonstrated why the couple is not yet married).
There have been reported instances in which foreign spouses have abandoned their Canadian sponsors upon arrival in Canada or soon thereafter, often collecting welfare, which the sponsor is obligated to repay. In some of the cases, federal immigration authorities have made no attempt to revoke fraudulently-obtained landed immigrant status or deport the claimants, treating cases where one spouse is duped by the other as low-priority and difficult to prove.
A two-year conditional residence requirement (like that in force in Australia and the United States) was proposed in 2011 and is now applied to new arrivals.
China is one of the main Heritage countries of East Asian Mail-order brides. Vietnamese women are traveling to China as mail order brides for rural Han Chinese men to earn money for their families and a rise in the standard of living, matchmaking between Chinese men and Vietnamese women has increased and has not been affected by troubled relations between Vietnam and China. Some Vietnamese women from Lào Cai who married Han Chinese men stated that among their reasons for doing so was that Vietnamese men beat their wives, engaged in affairs with mistresses, and refused to help their wives with chores while Han men actively helped their wives carry out chores and care for them. Cambodian women also travel to China as mail order brides for rural men.
According to immigration statistics from the United States Department of Homeland Security, Colombia has ranked in the top 10 of countries since 1999 from which fiancées have emigrated for the United States. As well, the number of Colombians being admitted to the United States between 1999 and 2008 using fiancé visas (including children) has increased 321 percent.
A dissertation by Jasney E. Cogua-Lopez, "Through the Prisms of Gender and Power: Agency in International Courtship between Colombian Women and American Men", suggests various reasons for this growth, including continuing cultural inequality between the sexes despite equality being codified in the country’s laws (honor killings were not made completely illegal until 1980).
Because of the large number of Colombians wishing to leave their country by marrying foreigners, a black market for marriages to foreigners has developed, with some people allegedly paying as much as 20 million pesos ($10,000) to illegal groups.
According to Colombia Decrees No. 2668/88 and 1556/89, passed in 1988, foreigners are allowed to marry nationals in the country provided they supply the proper paperwork, including a birth certificate and proof that both parties are not already married. A notary is required, but because the laws are open to interpretation, the requirements can vary from notary to notary.
The Philippines prohibits the business of organizing or facilitating marriages between Filipinas and foreign men. The Philippine congress enacted the Anti Mail-Order Bride Law on June 13, 1990, as a result of stories in the local media about Filipinas being abused by their foreign husbands. Because of this, Filipinas often used "reverse publications" – publications in which men advertise themselves – to contact foreign men for marriage to Filipina women.
Successful prosecution under this statute is rare or non-existent as widespread deployment of the Internet in the mid-1990s brought a proliferation of websites operating outside the Philippines which legally remain beyond the reach of Filipino law. One Montana site profiled in a ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs report entitled "Pinay Brides" circumvented the restrictions by characterising its role as that of a travel agency. Thousands of Filipina women marry Americans each year.
The New York Times reports, "Every month, hundreds of South Korean men fly to Vietnam, the Philippines, Nepal and Uzbekistan on special trips. An agent escorts each man to see many women in a single day, sometimes all gathered in the same hall". Although these marriages can be successful, in some cases immigrant wives are mistreated, misunderstood and separated from their Korean husbands. One method men use when choosing young girls as wives is "Like a judge in a beauty pageant, the man interviews the women, many of them 20 years younger than he, and makes a choice". The British newspaper The Independent reports, "Last year it was reported that more than 40,000 Vietnamese women have married South Korean men and migrated there." Cambodian women are also popular with Korean men seeking foreign brides, but in March 2010 the Cambodian government banned marriages to South Korean men.
The Korea Times reports that every year, thousands of Korean men sign up for matches with Filipina brides through agencies and by mail order. Based on data from the Korean government, there are 6,191 Filipinas in South Korea who are married to Koreans. After contacting a mail-order agency, the majority of Filipina mail-order brides met their husbands by attending "show-ups", a meeting in which a group of Filipina women are brought to meet a Korean man who is looking for a wife. At the show-up the Korean man picks a prospective wife from among the group, and in a matter of days they are married.
An anthropological study on Filipina wives and Korean men by professor Kim Min-jung of the Department of Cultural Anthropology at Kangwon National University found that these Korean men find it difficult to marry Korean women, so they look for girls in poorer countries with difficult economic circumstances. The Korean men feel that because of the difficult circumstances from which the Filipina women come, cultural differences and the language barrier, they "will not run away". Further, she said, Korean men characterize Southeast Asian women as friendly, hardworking (due to agrarian backgrounds), "docile and obedient, able to speak English, and are familiar with Korean patriarchal culture".
A recent study by matchmaking firm Bien-Aller polled 274 single South Korean men through its website concerning motivations for marrying non-Korean women and found that men choose foreign brides primarily for one of four reasons. "According to the poll, 32.1 percent of the men said they felt the biggest benefit of marrying foreign women is their lack of interest in their groom's educational background and financial or social status. The next best reason was their belief that foreign brides would be submissive (23 percent), make their lives more comfortable (15.3 percent), and that the men would not have to get stressed about their in-laws (13.8 percent)."
Violence against foreign brides in South KoreaEdit
In June 2013, The Philippine embassy in Seoul reported that it had received many complaints from Filipinas who have married Korean men through mail-order, frequently becoming "victims of grave abuses". The Philippine police rescued 29 mail-order brides on their way to marry South Korea men whom Chief Superintendent Reginald Villasanta, head of an organised crime task force, says were "duped into promises of an instant wealthy life through marriage with Korean gentlemen". The women were advertised in online and offline "catalogs" to South Korean men. In many cases however, victims were fed false information about the background of their future spouse and family, and suffered abuse from the South Korean men, which led to "abandonment of the marital home, separation and divorce", Villasanta said.
There have been several murders of mail-order brides in South Korea. On May 24, 2011, one South Korean man "stabbed his Vietnamese wife to death while the couple’s 19-day-old baby lay next to her. The man, a farmer, had been matched up with his foreign bride through a broker. In 2010, another Vietnamese woman was killed by her husband a week after they were married. In 2008, a Vietnamese woman jumped from an apartment building to her death after being abused by her husband and mother-in-law."
In November 2009, Philippine Ambassador to South Korea Luis T. Cruz warned Filipina women against marrying Korean men. He said in recent months that the Philippine Embassy in Seoul has received complaints from Filipina wives of abuses committed by their Korean husbands that caused separation, divorce and abandonment. As language and cultural differences become an issue, the Filipina women are regarded as commodities bought for a price.
Singapore has received Vietnamese women as mail order brides.
On June 4, 2001, Turkmenian President Saparmurat Niyazov (also known as Turkmenbashi) authorized a decree that required foreigners to pay a $50,000 fee to marry a Turkmen citizen (regardless of how they met), and to live in the country and own property for one year. Authorities indicated that the law was designed to protect women from being duped into abusive relationships. In June 2005, Niyazov scrapped the $50,000 and the property-owning requirements.
Although the modern mail order industry does tend to mirror the arranged marriages of the past, the industry has developed into a lucrative and international matchmaking business with dynamics and consequences different than the traditional system. The present mail order bride industry relies heavily on stereotypes and transnational economic economies to support the commercial market. This mail order bride industry emphasizes the importance of subordination based on race and sex. Although the American mail order industry creates many heavy drawbacks the industry is heavily unregulated in the US. The US has only responded to this phenomenon through immigration laws.
U.S. immigration law provides protection for brides once they arrive. “In 1996, Congress passed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act... Section 652 of this legislation specifically addresses the mail-order bride industry”.
On January 6, 2006, President George W. Bush signed the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act (IMBRA) as part of the Violence Against Women Act. The requirements of the law are controversial, and some commentators have claimed that it presumes that American men are abusers.
In enacting IMBRA, Congress was responding to claims by the Tahirih Justice Center (TJC), a woman's advocacy group, that mail-order brides were susceptible to domestic abuse because they are unfamiliar with the laws, language and customs of their new home. The TJC insisted that special legislation was needed to protect them. The TJC asked Congress to consider several notable cases mentioned in the Congressional Record. Critics of IMBRA claim that the TJC failed to ask Congress to consider the relative amount of abuse between mail-order bride couples and other couples (including the thousands of spousal murders that occurred in the US over the past 15 years).
Two federal lawsuits (European Connections & Tours v. Gonzales, N.D. Ga. 2006; AODA v. Gonzales, S.D. Ohio 2006) sought to challenge IMBRA on constitutional grounds. The AODA case was terminated when the plaintiffs withdrew their claim. The European Connections case ended when the judge ruled against the plaintiff, finding the law constitutional regarding a dating company.
On March 26, 2007, U.S. District Judge Clarence Cooper dismissed with prejudice a suit for injunctive relief filed by European Connections, agreeing with Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and TJC that IMBRA is a constitutional exercise of Congressional authority to regulate for-profit dating websites and agencies where the primary focus is on introducing Americans to foreigners. Additionally, the federal court specifically found that: "the rates of domestic violence against immigrant women are much higher than those of the U.S. population". The judge also compared background checks on American men to background checks on firearm buyers by stating, "However, just as the requirement to provide background information as a prerequisite to purchasing a firearm has not put gun manufacturers out of business, there is no reason to believe that IMBs will be driven from the marketplace by IMBRA".
Mail Order Brides in the Wild West
Although women were wary at first to travel into the depths of the wild west, the skewed gender ratio on the east coast forced them to look elsewhere for economic support. Unmarried women were uncommon in this time period as they had little ways to support themselves economically. Thus women resorted to unconventional ways of marriage in order to secure their future. Also while men first traveled to west to export raw materials explorers began to settle in the unknown territory creating the drive to bring families and build communities. 
The pull of America
A recurring theme of the mail order bride industry is women from less developed nations seeking husbands in more developed nations for a better socio-economic condition. However of the 10,000 mail order bride marriages a year 4000 of them occur in the US.The pull of America is contrived from the preconceived idea of the american dream that glorifies both American culture and men. While women seek american men due to this glorified image of the american dream, American men also seek foreign women due to their devotion to “traditional values”. It is thought that american women are not content with just being mothers and wives; that they crave personal success through careers and interests. American men engage is this industry because of the belief that foreign women make compliant housewives. It is also notable to add that the American men crave the image that comes along with a younger beautiful foreign wife.
While this prosperous economic condition attracted immigrants, newly migrants in the mail order bride industry faced many obstacles. Many women did not choose their grooms and did not have the opportunity to meet their groom before marriage. Sent to a foreign country many women lost the support of their family and friends and connection to their culture. This power dynamic creates the room for violence within this industry as human beings are turn into commodities.
Impact throughout America
With the rapid expansion of technology the modern mail order bride industry has reached an all time high. A basic search on the internet can lead to a wide range of opportunities to engage in this industry.
It is no question that immigration has become controversial issue however compared to illegal immigration and labor migration, marriage immigration has received little attention. The cause of the lack of bad publicity is not only its small numbers but also its emphasis on dependency rather than work and self autonomy. This phenomenon suggest that anti-immigration movements are fueled by employments concern and competition in the workforce.
Violence against mail-order brides in the United StatesEdit
- In September 2003, 26-year-old Ukrainian engineer and mail-order bride Alla Barney bled to death on the floor of her car after her American husband Lester Barney, 58, slashed her throat in front of the couple’s four-year-old son Daniel. Lester fled with Daniel from the scene in the parking lot of the boy’s day-care center; after an AMBER Alert was triggered, he turned Daniel over to a friend and was taken into custody by police. Alla had been granted a restraining order against Lester a few months before, and had been given temporary custody of Daniel.
- Anastasia King, a young woman from Kyrgyzstan, was found strangled and buried in a shallow grave in Washington State in December 2000. At age 18, Anastasia received an email from a 38-year-old Seattle man named Indle King, from a mail-order bride website. He flew to her country, and they were married soon after. Two years later, after considerable strife, Indle wanted another bride. He was allegedly unwilling to pay for a divorce, so he ordered a tenant in their Washington home to kill Anastasia. Weighing nearly 300 pounds, her husband pinned Anastasia down while the tenant strangled her with a necktie. Both were convicted of murder. King’s previous wife, whom he had also met through an IMB, had a domestic violence protection order issued against him, and left him because he was abusive.
- Nina Reiser was a Russian-born and trained obstetrician and gynecologist. She was murdered by her husband Hans Reiser, a businessman and computer programmer (creator of ReiserFS) whom she met after placing an ad in a mail-order bride catalog. She had a restraining order against him during their divorce proceedings. Nina was reported missing on September 5, 2006. That month Hans was detained by Oakland police due to suspicions surrounding the disappearance of his wife, and was later arrested for suspected murder. On April 28, 2008 Hans Reiser was found guilty of first-degree murder, and was sentenced to 15 years to life in prison. On July 7, 2008, Hans led Oakland police to his wife's remains with an agreement to be charged with second-degree murder instead.
- Emilita Reeves, was murdered by her husband Jack Reeves in 1994.
Legal matters for mail-order brides in the United StatesEdit
The US has traditionally regulated the naturalization of immigrants. However the need to preserve family ties has created many waivers under the law. The United Staes grew wary of the growing mail order bride industry in 1985. Congress was so concerned about these marriage scams that they changed the definition of fiancé to include prior meetings, common language, and firm intent to get married.
Marriage agencies are legal in almost all countries. On January 6, 2006, the United States Congress enacted IMBRA., which requires certain actions of some businesses prior to selling a foreign woman's address to a US citizen or resident or otherwise facilitating contact, including the following:
- The man must complete a questionnaire on his criminal and marital background
- The seller must obtain the man's record from the United States National Sex Offenders Public Registry database
- The questionnaire and record must be translated into the woman's native language and provided to her
- The woman must certify that she agrees to permit communication
- A lifetime limit of two (2) K-1 visas is imposed, with a waiver required for the approval of any subsequent fiancée visa
Visa regulations in the United StatesEdit
In order to bring a spouse into the United States, Form I-130 must be filed, which is an immigrant petition on behalf of a relative. After that, a K-3/K-4 & V-1/V-2 Entry Visa for Spouse must be filed. The Immigration and Nationalization Service advises that “in some cases, it may be to a couple's advantage to pursue a K-1 fiancee visa before getting married. In other cases, applicants may find that it is more cost effective to get married abroad and then apply for an immigrant visa overseas. In many cases, the K-1 visa application process takes just as long as the immigrant visa process”. Couples must remain together at least two years. There were 433,000 female naturalized citizens between the ages of 20 and 29 and 1,185,000 women of the same age living without U.S. citizenship according to the 2010 U.S. Census, accounting for 16.6% of the female population of that age bracket. “Despite well over 2,000 mail-order marriages a year, there is no information on the amount of mail-order brides entering the United States. The purpose of this law is two-fold: to protect the safety of mail-order brides and to prevent fraud”.
- uscis.gov Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- AM D'Aoust (2009), "Love Stops at the Border": Marriage, Citizenship, and the "Mail-Order Brides" Industry (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2010
- Marchbank, Dr. Jennifer; Letherby, Prof. Gayle (2007). Introduction to Gender: Social Science Perspectives. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-1405858441.
- Paragraph 14 International Matchmaking Organizations: A Report to Congress Archived 2014-08-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- IMBRA law: Violence Against Women and Department Of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 Archived 2010-12-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Mail Order Bride Boom". April 9, 2013. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013.
- Level of Services (paragraph 13) International Matchmaking Agencies: A Report to Congress Archived 2014-08-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- Ukrainian Mail Order Brides (AskMen): Ukrainian Mail Order Brides Archived 2011-08-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- Enns, C. (2005) Hearts west: the true stories of mail-order brides on the frontier. Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press.
- Jameson, E. (1976). Imperfect unions class and gender in cripple creek Archived 2016-04-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 1(2)
- S Sinke (1999), Migration for labor, migration for love: marriage and family formation across borders, Magazine of History, JSTOR 25163323
- Itta C. Englander, The Search for June Cleaver, archived from the original on 2011-06-29
- Waldo R. Browne (ed.), "Picture Bride," in What's What in the Labor Movement: A Dictionary of Labor Affairs and Labor Terminology. New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1921; pg. 375.
- "Russian Mail Order Bride Case Study." Welcome to American University, Washington, DC USA. Web. 10 Oct. 2010.[full citation needed]
- Hughes, Donna M. "Commercial Use of the Internet for Sexual Exploitation: Pimps and Predators on the Internet, Globalizing the Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children, Part 1." Coalition Against the Trafficking in Women (1999). The University of Rhode Island. Mar. 1999. Web. Nov. 2010.
- Scott, Mary E. "Number of Women In Senior Management Stagnant At 24%". forbes.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Women in senior management:still not enough" (PDF). grantthornton.sn. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Sullivan, Kevin. "Blissful Coexistence?; U.S. Men Seek Mail-Order Brides in Russia – The Washington Post | HighBeam Research – FREE Trial." The Washington Post. 24 May 1994. Web. 12 Nov. 2010.
- "Foreign-Born Population – CPS March 2009 Detailed Tables." Census Bureau Home Page. U.S. Census Bureau, 2 Feb. 2009. Web.
- "Human Trafficking: Mail-Order Bride Abuses" Archived 2012-07-04 at the Wayback Machine., Hughes Testimony to US Senate July 2004
- Meng, Eddy. "Mail-Order Brides: Gilded Prostitution and the Legal Response." Journal of Law Reform; 28 (1994): 197.
- http://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1123&context=ijgls/ Archived 2014-03-14 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Belarus News and Analysis" Archived 2006-07-25 at the Wayback Machine., Anna Volk (the reference cited does not actually say this, plus the fact there are more Southeast Asian women going with Western men, than in Eastern Europe altogether)
- ""IMM 5481E: Sponsorship Evaluation"" (PDF). cic.gc.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- ""LaViolette – Immigration of Same-Sex Couples"" (PDF). utoronto.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "CBSA urged to act on marriage fraud complaints". CBC News. 2011-10-29. Archived from the original on 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- "Russian bride leaves elderly man with $25K welfare bill". CBC British Columbia. 2012-10-22. Archived from the original on 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- "B.C. woman wants 'fake' husband deported". CBC British Columbia. 2010-06-14. Archived from the original on 2013-04-01. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- "Vietnamese brides happy enough with Chinese husbands". thanhniennews.com. 19 August 2014. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "'Leftover' men buy brides from Vietnam". shanghaidaily.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Rural Chinese Men Are Buying Vietnamese Brides For $3,200". businessinsider.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Joy and pain of the Vietnamese 'brides for cash'". scmp.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "The East is wed: China seeks brides for richer, for poorer". yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Hancock, Tom. "Personals: Chinese men seek Vietnamese brides, will pay RM10,000, must relocate - People - The Star Online". thestar.com.my. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- VCCorp.vn. "Cuộc sống của cô dâu Việt tại thị trấn nghèo ở Trung Quốc". kenh14.vn. Archived from the original on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Chinese Man Spends 35K For 'Obedient' Vietnamese Wife". chinasmack.com. 31 January 2010. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Yuk Wah Chan (12 November 2013). Vietnamese-Chinese Relationships at the Borderlands: Trade, Tourism and Cultural Politics. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-49457-6., p. 113.
- "A Chinese Town's Imported Cambodian Brides". chinafile.com. 19 August 2014. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
-  Archived October 31, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-04-06. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
- "Violence Against Woman – Issue of Honor Killing". Legalserviceindia.com. Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- "Colombians seeking new nationalities marry foreigners – Colombia news". Colombia Reports. 2009-11-24. Archived from the original on 2013-03-30. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- "Marriage in Colombia". Embassy of the United States – Bogota. 2012-11-27. Archived from the original on 2013-03-27. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- Trafficking And the Global Sex Industry. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Nicole Constable (2003-08-19). Romance on a Global Stage: Pen Pals, Virtual Ethnography, and "Mail-Order Brides". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Mae Ryan (26 September 2012). "Imported Filipino brides share the ups and downs of settling in America". SCPR. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (24 June 2005). "Foreign brides challenge South Korean prejudices". Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
- "Mail-order bride killed by husband". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea - Cambodia Bans Marriage to Korean Men". Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- koreatimes.co.kr Archived 2017-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. This is only the women from the Philippines.
- "Filipina Mail-Order Brides Vulnerable to Abuse". koreatimes.co.kr. 11 October 2009. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Why Korean Men Marry Foreign Women". The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition). 2012-10-18. Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- Tokbaeva, Dina (9 March 2012). "Kyrgyzstan: South Korea is Attractive Destination for "Mail-Order" Brides". Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via EurasiaNet.
- "Cook, clean, and be pretty". koreatimes.co.kr. 12 October 2012. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Uzbek Wife Married to South Korean Man a Hit on Korean TV - koreaBANG". koreabang.com. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "An Uzbek Civil Servant in Korea". chosun.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- admin (17 October 2011). "Multicultural Korea: 'Dirty' Foreigners Spoil the Sauna Water and Spread AIDS". thethreewisemonkeys.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Gay saunas in Seoul ban old, unattractive foreigners". koreaobserver.com. 2 June 2015. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Naturalized Korean decries refusal of entry to sauna". koreatimes.co.kr. 13 October 2011. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Sauna operator advised not to discriminate against foreign residents". koreatimes.co.kr. 17 January 2012. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Naturalized Korean decries refusal of entry to sauna". koreatimes.co.kr. 13 October 2011. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Hee-Yeon Cho; Lawrence Surendra; Hyo-Je Cho (12 November 2012). Contemporary South Korean Society: A Critical Perspective. Routledge. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-1-136-19128-2.
- Hyejin Kim (8 June 2010). International Ethnic Networks and Intra-Ethnic Conflict: Koreans in China. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 175–. ISBN 978-0-230-10772-4.
- Sounds of Chinese Korean: A Variationist Approach. ProQuest. 2008. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-0-549-64819-2.
- In-bŏm Chʻoe (1 January 2003). The Korean Diaspora in the World Economy. Peterson Institute. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-0-88132-358-0.
- Ton van Naerssen; Ernst Spaan; Annelies Zoomers (13 February 2008). Global Migration and Development. Routledge. pp. 271–. ISBN 978-1-135-89630-0.
- John D. Palmer; Amy Roberts; Young Ha Cho; Gregory S. Ching (9 November 2011). The Internationalization of East Asian Higher Education: Globalization's Impact. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-1-137-00200-6.
- Nicole Constable (3 August 2010). Cross-Border Marriages: Gender and Mobility in Transnational Asia. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 107–. ISBN 0-8122-0064-0.
- David I Steinberg (2010). Korea's Changing Roles in Southeast Asia: Expanding Influence and Relations. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 316–. ISBN 978-981-230-969-3.
- Wen-Shan Yang; Melody Chia-Wen Lu (2010). Asian Cross-border Marriage Migration: Demographic Patterns and Social Issues. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-90-8964-054-3.
- "Chinese-foreign Marriage in Mainland China". nottingham.ac.uk. 10 February 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- France-Presse, Agence. "Philippines rescues 29 mail-order brides to South Korea". abs-cbnnews.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "For better or worse: foreign brides in South Korea". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- abs-cbnnews.com Archived 2013-04-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- TAN, JUDITH (September 20, 2015). "Viet woman saves up for a year to fly to Singapore in hope of finding a husband". the new paper. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- "Taiwan men seek mail-order brides from Vietnam". 5 May 2017. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via Reuters.
- Billo, Andrew. "The Plight of Vietnam's 'Mail-Order' Brides". theatlantic.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- 中華電視公司 (20 May 2010). "烏茲別克女傳統 工程師娶妻滿意". Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via YouTube.
- ftvn53 (20 May 2010). "烏茲別克美女 百萬優生新娘". Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via YouTube.
- 中時電子報 (13 October 2011). "花150萬娶烏茲別克新娘 回台如「老佛爺」". Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via YouTube.
- TomoNews 台灣 (8 May 2013). "自認被歧視 烏茲別克妻揮刀掐女店員頸". Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via YouTube.
- "Behind the smiles of Vietnam's flight attendants". Tuoi Tre. 11 July 2014. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016.
- "Turkmenistan's Marriage Decree Helps Deepen the Isolation of Citizens". EurasiaNet.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Turkmenistan: Marriage Gets Cheaper As Turkmenbashi Drops $50,000 Dollar Foreigners' Fee". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Chun, Christine (Winter 1996). "The Mail-Order Bride Industry : The Perpetuation of Transnational Economic Inequalities and Stereotypes" (PDF). 17 U. Pa. J. Int’l L. 17:4.
- "Russian Mail Order Bride Case Study." Welcome to American University, Washington, DC USA. Web. 10 Oct. 2010.
- "Violence against women" Archived 2012-02-04 at the Wayback Machine., 109th U.S. Congress (2005–2006)
- "Mail Order Bride Law Brands U.S. Men Abusers" Archived 2006-05-19 at the Wayback Machine., Wendy McElroy January 11, 2006
- "Mail Order Bride in Works" Archived 2006-06-15 at the Wayback Machine., CBS News July 5, 2003
- "Mail Order Brides: A History of Love in the Wild West | Ancestral Findings". Ancestral Findings. 2015-07-27. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
- "How Many Mail-Order Brides?". CIS.org. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
- Elson, Amy (Fall 1997). "The Mail-Order Bride Industry and Immigration: Combating Immigration Fraud". Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies. 5. line feed character in
|title=at position 47 (help); line feed character in
|journal=at position 32 (help)
- "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 2010-07-10. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
- "Retrieve Pages". gpo.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Husband convicted in Ukrainian wife's death Lester Barney, 60, faces 30 years to life for stabbing his estranged wife in 2003. They met through a mail-order bride service". philly-archives. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Retrieve Pages". gpo.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Mail-order bride's dream of a better life ends in death". archive.org. 29 January 2009. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Kravets, David. "Reiser Defense Blasts Prosecution; Geek Defense Re-Deployed | Threat Level". Wired.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- "Reiser deal ultimately hinges on judge's OK". SFGate. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (2006; 109th Congress H.R. 3402) - GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- NSOPW. "United States Department of Justice National Sex Offender Public Website". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Apply for Green Card Through Marriage." Apply for US Immigration Services: USCIS, Green Card, US Citizenship, US Visas, Forms. Immigration Direct, 2007–2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2010.
- "Romance on a Global Stage", a 2003 anthropology study by Nicole Constable, Professor of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh