Mahmud I of Great Seljuk

Nasir al-Din Mahmud I was the sultan of the Seljuk Empire from 1092 to 1094.[1] He succeeded Malik Shah I as Sultan, but he did not gain control of the empire built by Malik Shah and Alp Arslan.

Mahmud I
Gold dinar of the Seljuk sultan Mahmud I, minted at Isfahan in 1093 or 1094.jpg
Gold dinar of Mahmud I, minted at Isfahan in 1093 or 1094
Sultan of the Seljuk Empire
Reign19 November 1092 – October 1094
Coronation19 November 1092
PredecessorMalik Shah I
RegentTerken Khatun
DiedOctober 1094
(aged 7)
Nasir al-Din Mahmud I
FatherMalik Shah I
MotherTerken Khatun
ReligionSunni Islam

Terken Khatun, the wife of Malik Shah, tried to win the throne for her 4 year old son Mahmud, who was proclaimed sultan in Baghdad.

The older son of Malik Shah, Barkiyaruq, was proclaimed too, and the armies of the two pretenders met in Borujerd, near Hamadan. The forces of Barkiyaruq won and took the capital Isfahan. After this, Mahmud and his mother were assassinated by the family of the vizir Nizam al-Mulk.

Following Malik Shah I's death, successor states split from the Great Seljuk.[2] In Anatolia, Malik Shah I was succeeded by Kilij Arslan I, who escaped from Isfahan; and in Syria by Mahmud's uncle Tutush I. Other governors in Aleppo and Amid declared independence too. The disunity within the Seljuk realms allowed for the unexpected success of the First Crusade shortly afterwards, beginning in 1096.[3]


  1. ^ International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties, Ed. Nagendra Kr Singh, (Anmol Publication PVT Ltd., 2005), 1076.
  2. ^ Asbridge, Thomas S., The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land, (Harper Collins, 2010), 22.
  3. ^ Asbridge, Thomas S., The First Crusade: A New History, (Oxford University Press, 2004), 334.


  • Bosworth, C. E. (1968). "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000–1217)". In Frye, R. N. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5: The Saljuq and Mongol periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–202. ISBN 978-0-521-06936-6.
  • Peacock, A. C. S. (2015). The Great Seljuk Empire. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 1–378. ISBN 978-0-7486-3826-0.

Preceded by Sultan of Great Seljuk
19 November 1092–1094
Succeeded by