The M777 howitzer is a towed 155 mm artillery piece in the howitzer class. It is used by the ground forces of Australia, Canada, Colombia, India, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, and the United States. It was first used in combat during the War in Afghanistan.

M777 Lightweight Towed Howitzer
US Marine gunners test fire an M777 howitzer
TypeTowed howitzer
Place of originUnited Kingdom
Service history
In service2005–present
Used bySee Operators
Production history
DesignerVickers Shipbuilding and Engineering
ManufacturerBAE Systems
Mass4,200 kg (9,300 lb)[6]
  • Combat: 10.7 m (35 ft)
  • Travel: 9.5 m (31 ft)
Barrel length5.08 m (16.7 ft) L/39

ShellM107, M549, M712 Copperhead, M795, ERFB, M982
Caliber155 mm (6.1 in)[7]
CarriageSplit trail
Elevation0° to +71.7°[8]
Rate of fire
  • Normal: 2-4 rpm
  • Maximum: 8 rpm for no longer than 2 minutes
Muzzle velocityCharge 8S: 827 m/s (2,710 ft/s)
Effective firing range

The M777 is manufactured by BAE Systems' Global Combat Systems division. Prime contract management is based in Barrow-in-Furness, UK as well as manufacture and assembly of the titanium structures and associated recoil components. Final integration and testing of the weapon is undertaken at BAE's facility in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, US.[10] Depending on the year, contract and systems package, the M777 has been exported for individual unit costs including US$2.025 million (in 2008) and $3.738 million (in 2017).[11][12]

Design edit

M777 Light Towed Howitzer in service with the 10th Mountain Division in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, Logar Province, Charkh District, Afghanistan

The M777 began in 1987 as the Ultralight Field Howitzer (UFH), developed by Vickers' Armaments Division in Barrow-in-Furness, UK.[13] Upon taking over responsibility for the weapon, BAE "Americanized" to a large degree the construction and assembly through its US-based BAE Systems Land and Armaments group. The M777 now uses about 70% US-built parts including the gun barrel (designated M776), which is manufactured at the Watervliet Arsenal.[14]

With a weight of 4,200 kg (9,300 lb), the M777 is 41% lighter than the 7,154 kg (15,772 lb) M198 howitzer it replaces.[15][16] Much of the weight reduction is due to the extensive use of titanium.[17] The gun barrel serves as the towing bar, with the connecting ring forged as a projection of the muzzle brake.[18] The M777 can be transported by helicopter sling-load, transport aircraft such as the Lockheed C-130 Hercules, or towed by air-braked vehicles weighing over 2.5 tonnes (5,500 lb), such as the FMTV and MTVR medium tactical vehicles.[19][20] The minimum gun crew required is five, compared to a previous nine.[21] The normal crew is eight. With a minimal emergency crew, the rate of fire is decreased.[18]

The M777A1 and M777A2 use a digital fire-control system similar to that found on self-propelled howitzers such as the M109A6 Paladin to provide navigation, pointing and self-location, allowing it to be put into action quickly.[22]

The Canadian M777 in conjunction with the traditional "glass and iron sights/mounts" uses a digital fire control system called the Digital Gun Management System (DGMS) produced by Leonardo MW with components of the Indirect Fire Control Software Suite (IFCSS) built by the Firepower team in the Canadian Army Land Software Engineering Centre.[23] The Leonardo MW portion of the system, known as LINAPS, had been proven previously through earlier use on the British Army 105 mm L118 Light Gun.[24]

XM982 Excalibur GPS-guided munition (inert)

The M777A2 may be combined with the M982 Excalibur 155 mm GPS-guided munition, which allows accurate fire at a range of up to 40 km (25 mi). This almost doubles the area covered by a single battery to about 1,250 km2 (480 sq mi). Testing at the Yuma Proving Ground by the US Army placed 13 of 14 Excalibur rounds, fired from up to 24 kilometres (15 mi), within 10 m (33 ft) of their target, suggesting a circular error probable of 5 m (16 ft).[25]

In June 2012, Golf Battery, 2nd Battalion, 11th Marines, out of Camp Pendleton, California, fired the M982 Excalibur against insurgents at a range of 36 km (22 mi) in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. This was the longest operational shot in the history of the M777 howitzer, and the longest operational barrel artillery shot in history for the Marine Corps.[26]

Usually a barrel on a modern artillery system, like the M777, must be replaced after firing up to 2,500 rounds.[27]

Comparison of M777A2 and M198[28]
M777A2 M198
Weight 4,200 kg (9,300 lb) 7,300 kg (16,000 lb)
Emplacement time 2 min 10 s 6 min 35 s
Displacement time 2 min 23 s 10 min 40 s
Terrain trafficable 83% 63%
Number carried per C-130 load 2 1
Crew complement 5 9

Variants edit

XM1113 extended range artillery round, shown here at a range demonstration, uses a rocket-assist motor.
  • M777A2 – Block 1A software upgrade. Addition of an Enhanced Portable Inductive Artillery Fuze Setter (EPIAFS) to enable Excalibur and precision munition compatibility.[28][29]
  • M777ER – Upgrade created by the Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA) project to extend range from 30 to 70 km (19 to 43 mi).[30] Modified with a longer 55-caliber, 9.1 m (30 ft) barrel and supercharged propellant firing the XM1113 rocket-assisted projectile.[31]
  • M777C1 – M777 with DGMS (Canada)[32]

Ammunition edit

Colour-coded section view of an XM1113 rocket assisted projectile ammunition round

Service history edit

Australia edit

Australian soldiers firing an M777A2 during a training exercise in 2016

In 2008, the Australian Defence Force made a US Foreign Military Sales request for 57 M777A2s estimated to be worth up to US$248m.[34] Subsequently, 35 guns were purchased for the Australian Army.[35] to re-equip the 1st Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, the 4th Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, and the 8th/12th Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, to replace 155 mm M198s and 105 mm L119 Light Guns.[citation needed] The first deliveries of M777A2 began in late 2010.[36][37]

An additional 19 guns will be bought directly from American production lines to enable a total of six batteries.[38] Concurrently, the Australian Army has acquired guided 155 mm munitions in the form of the M982 Excalibur and XM1156 Precision Guidance Kit.[39] In late April 2022, Australia announced that they would donate six of their M777 howitzers, with ammunition, to aid in the defence of Ukraine during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[40]

Brazil edit

In 2010, the Brazilian Navy evaluated the 155 mm M777 as a candidate to replace the six 155 mm M114A1 howitzers of the Marine Corps branch.[41] The successor to the M114 has not yet been chosen.[citation needed]

Canada edit

Canadian soldiers fire an M777 from a forward operating base in the Helmand Province of Afghanistan, April 2007.

In December 2005, 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, conducted an inaugural firing of its first 155 mm M777 towed howitzers, for a total of six guns. The six guns delivered were supplied by the United States Marine Corps under a Foreign Military Sales (FMS) contract[42][unreliable source?] between the U.S. and Canada. The Canadian guns were first fired by A Battery, 1 RCHA, at CFB Shilo and then were deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Archer. They were put into service in the Canadian theatre of operations around Kandahar in early 2006, marking the first use of the M777 in combat operations.[43]

In the summer, they made a significant contribution during the Battle of Panjwaii when a small number of rounds were used to huge effect on Taliban elements retreating from the battle area. Many of the 72 reported killed during the heaviest period of fighting were due to artillery fire from only two of these guns. In late fall of 2006, the Canadian M777 howitzers were equipped with the Digital Gun Management System (DGMS), which greatly improved accuracy and led to these guns being used for short range close support of Canadian and US ground forces.[43]

They proved so successful that an order for an additional six guns was placed with BAE. In May 2009, the Canadian government ordered a further 25 M777s, bringing the total to 37.[44][45][46] The DGMS is also being improved with integrated communications.[47] On 22 April 2022, Canada sent four of their M777 howitzers, with ammunition, to Ukraine to aid in the defense of Ukraine during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[48][49]

India edit

The Indian Army first announced plans to acquire 145 guns for 30 billion (US$376 million).[50] Purchase plans were overtaken when the procurement process was restarted in July 2010. India's Ministry of Defence cleared the proposal for buying 145 guns for US$660 million on 11 May 2012 through the US Government's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) process.[51] This was put up before the Ministry of Finance for clearance and will subsequently be taken up by the Cabinet Committee on Security for final approval.[52][53] On 2 August 2013, India requested the sale of 145 M777 howitzers for US$885 million.[54]

In February 2014 the purchase was again postponed.[55] In May 2014 the purchase was cleared by India's Ministry of Defence.[56] In July 2014, the Government of India announced that it would not order the guns because of cost issues.[57] In November 2014, the selection process was restarted under the "Make In India" program.[58] In May 2015, the Ministry of Defence approved ₹29 billion (₹2,900 crore) to buy 145 M777 ultralight howitzers from the US.[59] In December 2015, the Indian Ministry of Defence said it was keen on placing a follow-up order of 500 more M777 guns.[60]

In June 2016, it was announced that 145 guns will be purchased by India for US$750 million.[61] In November 2016 the Indian government completed the deal to buy 145 howitzers from the US.[62][63] Under the agreement, BAE Systems supplied 25 ready-built howitzers, while 120 guns were manufactured in India by Mahindra Defence Systems Limited.[64]

The Indian Army received its first shipment of two howitzers in 2017 from the United States in ready to use condition.[65][66] In September 2017, the barrel of one of the howitzers was damaged while firing during calibration trials.[67][68] The Indian army used the M777 howitzer in the Himvijay exercise in Arunachal Pradesh which involved the newly raised integrated battle groups.[69]

A total of seven artillery regiments are planned, each of 18 guns. The first regiment is planned to be raised by the end of 2020 with 15 guns supplied by BAE systems and three guns supplied by Mahindra Defense Systems Limited.[70] In July 2020, in the wake of escalating tension with China, further purchases of Excalibur shells were announced by the Indian Ministry of Defence.[71]

Several of these howitzers were deployed in the Ladakh area and the north eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh at the border with China.[72]

Ukraine edit

In April 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine in the Russo-Ukraine War, the United States provided 108, Canada 4, and Australia 6 M777 howitzers with ammunition to the Ukrainian armed forces, to repel Russia.[48][73][40][74][75] Canada promised 10 barrels to replace any worn out during firing.[76] Usually a modern artillery system, like the M777, must have the barrel replaced after firing up to 2,500 rounds.[27]

A Ukrainian officer said in October 2022 that while M777 has to be towed, and has a lower fire rate than the German Panzerhaubitze 2000 and French CAESAR, it is more accurate and easier to use. BAE stated that month that it was discussing with the United States restarting production of the weapon, after good performance in Ukraine and lower cost of operation caused other nations to ask about purchasing it.[77]

In October 2022, Ukraine was given an additional 16 M777 by the US,[78] and as of October 2022 had at least 170.[77] In November 2022, according to U.S. and Ukrainian officials, a third of the roughly 350 Western-made howitzers (including 142 M777s given by the US) donated to Ukraine are out of action at any given time. Those weapons are wearing out after months of overuse, or being damaged or destroyed in combat.[79] As of late May 2023, at least 52 M777s were reported to have been destroyed or damaged.[80] One Ukrainian crew claims to have fired 6,000 rounds through their M777. During this time they have had four barrel changes. All of these barrel replacements occurred before the limit of 2,500 rounds as they noticed accuracy was decreasing.[81]

Ukrainian Brigadier General Volodomyr Karpenko in a June 2022 interview said that M777 is prone to damage by shrapnel from incoming artillery fire. He said that ordinarily two of the six M777 guns in an artillery battery would require maintenance due to shrapnel damage to sub-systems after every "artillery contact".[82] Russian forces claim to have seized a damaged and inoperable M777 during fighting in Siversk in eastern Ukraine in July 2022.[83]

As of 24 January 2024, the Oryx blog, recorded at least 79 M777s having been lost in combat (41 destroyed, 38 damaged). The Oryx's list only includes destroyed or damaged equipment of which photo or videographic evidence is available, thus the amount of equipment lost could be higher than Oryx documented.[80]

By the beginning of April 2024 the military analytical portal Lostarmour recorded around 90 destroyed and 50 damaged M777s.[84] Most of them were destroyed using UAV ZALA Lancet.

United States edit

The M777 succeeded the M198 howitzer in the United States Marine Corps and United States Army in 2005. In 2014 the US military began fielding several upgrades to its M777 howitzers including new liquid crystal display units, software updates, improved power systems, and muzzle sensors for onboard ballistic computing. Future upgrades include a touchscreen Chief Section Display, a new Mission System Computer, and a digital radio.[85]

Army edit

M777 of Battery C, 1st Battalion, 321st Airborne Field Artillery Regiment firing at Forward Operating Base Bostick, Afghanistan, 2009.

The 18th Field Artillery Brigade (Airborne) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, was the initial Army test bed unit for the XM777 which included the 1st and 3rd Battalions of the 321st Field Artillery Regiment. The initial prototypes were tested by 1st Battalion, 377th Air Assault Regiment, in 1998 also a unit of the 18th Field Artillery Brigade.

2nd Platoon, Bravo Battery, 2nd Battalion, 11th Field Artillery Regiment (2-11 FA), was the first US Army unit to fire the M777A in combat in January 2008 in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. In June 2007, the M777 in its A2 configuration was assigned to the U.S. Army's 3-321 FA. It deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in December 2007 in January 2008 making the unit the first U.S. Army unit to utilise the M777 in combat in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. In April 2008, the M777 was deployed for testing with 2-8 FA at Fort Wainwright in Fairbanks, Alaska.[86]

In July 2008, at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, 108th Field Artillery Regiment, 28th Infantry Division, Pennsylvania National Guard, became the first field artillery unit of the National Guard to field and fire the M777.

In August 2017, two soldiers from 319th Field Artillery Regiment were killed from a breech explosion and other members of their gun crew were injured while attempting to fire a M777 at an ISIL mortar position in northern Iraq.[87] Multiple firing incidents have occurred during training with the M777 including a fatal one in February 2014 with 3-321 FA[88] and previously in 2011 with Marines from Camp Lejeune also at Fort Bragg.[89]

In May 2017, the US Army announced it was buying the Swedish Bofors 155 Bonus round as an interim system as a result of the required phasing out of cluster munitions from artillery shells, complying with policy to achieve less than 1% unexploded ordnance from non-unitary explosives. The BONUS has two sensor-fused munitions deployed by a 155 mm carrier projectile that scan the ground for targets and fire explosively formed penetrators down from the air. The system has been tested from the M777 howitzer.[90]

The 3rd Cavalry Regiment deployed multiple M777A2 guns to Firebase Saham in Iraq on the border with Syria from November 2018 to April 2019 to support the Syrian Democratic Forces in the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani, the ultimately successful operation to capture the Al-Baghuz Fawqani, the final town held by ISIL.[91]

Marine Corps edit

Marines fire an M777A2 155 mm howitzer.

In May 2005, 3rd Battalion, 11th Marines, based at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, became the first Marine unit to begin fielding the new M777. 580 guns were supplied to the Marines, and 421 to the U.S. Army and National Guard.[92][93]

In March 2016, 200 Marines and four M777A2 howitzers from the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit set up Firebase Bell, officially the Karasoar Counterfire Complex, near the Iraqi town of Makhmour, supporting the Iraqi Army's Mosul offensive. The firebase was only 24 kilometres (15 mi) from ISIL-controlled territory.[94]

The Marine howitzers fired every day in support of Iraqi maneuvers, using high explosive, smoke, and illumination rounds.[94] They were relieved by Army soldiers after roughly 60 days, after firing more than 2,000 rounds in 486 fire missions.[95]

In March 2017, the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit was deployed to Syria to provide artillery support with their M777s for forces seeking to eject ISIL forces from Raqqa.[96]

Combat history edit

  • Iraq War
  • War in Afghanistan
  • Military intervention against ISIL: Multiple M777A2 guns were deployed to Iraq on the border with Syria from 8 November 2018 to April 2019 to support the Syrian Democratic Forces in the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani, the ultimately successful operation to capture the final town held by the Islamic State group. They deployed to Firebase Saham, a base freshly constructed by the U.S. Army to provide fire support during the battle, especially during cloudy days when U.S. aircraft could not see to conduct airstrikes.[91]
  • 2020–2022 China–India skirmishes: The Indian Army has apparently deployed multiple artillery platforms, including the M777 howitzers, along the Line of Actual Control or the border with China where the PLA and the Indian Army have been engaged in a stand-off for many months now.
  • 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine: The U.S. has supplied 126 M777 howitzers to Ukraine as part of several military aid packages.[97] Ukraine received 6 additional units from Australia and 4 from Canada, as well as 200,000 155 mm rounds and 72 trucks to transport the guns, enough to supply six battalions. Ukrainian forces claim they need this weapon as their own artillery does not have the range of Russian systems, while the M777 has a range greater than Russian weapons.[98]

Operators edit

A map of M777 operators in blue

Current operators edit

  • Australian Army: Originally 54 systems (M777A2),[99] reduced to 48 after 6 were donated to Ukraine in April 2022.[40]
  • Canadian Army: 33 systems, previously 37 with 4 having been donated to Ukraine. The donated howitzers will be replenished.[46][100]
  United States
  • US Army and Army National Guard: 518 systems were acquired.
  • US Marine Corps: 481 systems were acquired, with a total fleet of 999 for both service branches. The US fields a "pure fleet" of M777A2 variants.[85] In 2022 108 of the US Marine Corps' systems were donated to Ukraine.[102]

Future operators edit


Potential operators edit

  •   United Arab Emirates: On 5 May 2016, BAE Systems confirmed that it is working with Emirates Defense Technology (EDT) to develop a self-propelled version of the M777 howitzer for the UAE Armed Forces.[116]

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Artillery fire in Afghanistan (Pech river Valley) Taliban running scared!". YouTube. Archived from the original on 11 January 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  2. ^ "Rain Or Shine: Task Force Strike Artillerymen support Mosul counter-offensive". CENTCOM.
  3. ^ "CENTCOM forces engage militants in northeast Syria" (Press release). CENTCOM.
  4. ^ "Yemen War 2015 - Saudi Arabian Artillery Fired At Houthi Rebels In Northern Yemen". WarLeaks. 14 April 2015. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2017 – via YouTube. Alleged footage of an Saudi Arabian artillery launch on Houthi rebel positions in Northern Yemen.
  5. ^ "Canada delivers M777 howitzers to Ukraine". Ukrinform. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  6. ^ U.S. Upgrades and Orders More Lightweight BAE Systems Howitzers, BAE Systems, archived from the original on 10 July 2015, retrieved 9 July 2015
  7. ^ "M777 Lightweight Towed 155mm Howitzer". BAE Systems.
  8. ^ Pike, John. "M777 Lightweight 155mm howitzer (LW155)". Global security. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  9. ^ "Excalibur Projectile". What we do. Raytheon missiles & defense.
  10. ^ "U.S. Upgrades and Orders More Lightweight BAE Systems Howitzers" (Press release). USA: BAE Systems. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  11. ^ "CAST TITANIUM CUTS COST OF M777 LIGHTWEIGHT HOWITZER". Advanced Materials & Processes. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  12. ^ "Indian Army receives K9 Vajra and M777 howitzer weapon systems". 9 November 2018.
  13. ^ Pengelley, Rupert (November 1989). "155mm firepower for less than 4t: VSEL's Ultra-lightweight Field Howitzer". International Defense Review. 22 (11): 1533 – via Internet Archive.
  14. ^ "Waltervliet Arsenal Products" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2019.
  15. ^ "M777 Howitzer - Specifications". Canadian Army. 8 March 2013. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  16. ^ "M198 Towed Howitzer - Specifications". Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  17. ^ "M777 155mm Ultralightweight Field Howitzer". Army Technology. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  18. ^ a b "M777 - 155 mm lightweight towed howitzer". Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  19. ^ "M777 155mm Ultralightweight Field Howitzer". Army Technology. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  20. ^ "M777 Howitzer - Specifications". Canadian Army. 8 March 2013. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  21. ^ "M777 Lightweight 155 mm howitzer (LW155)". Archived from the original on 26 May 2005. Retrieved 26 May 2005.
  22. ^ "M777 155mm Ultralightweight Field Howitzer". Army Technology. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  23. ^ "LSEC Firepower Team". Retrieved 30 May 2017.[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ "Army News article on the Canadian DGMS". Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  25. ^ "Canada Deploys GPS Shell To Afghanistan". Retrieved 4 November 2014.[dead link]
  26. ^ Lamothe, Dan (30 June 2012). "Long shot: Artillery battery sets lethal record". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Canada will send $9M worth of howitzer replacement barrels to Ukraine". 15 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  28. ^ a b Goldman, Harvey I. (12 June 2007). "LW155 Howitzer Towed Artillery Digitization" (PDF). NDIA Armaments Technology and Firepower Symposium 12 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  29. ^ Gooding, Keith; Kratzer, David (October–December 2008). "PEO GCS's Digitized Towed Howitzer Supports the GWOT" (PDF). Army Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology Magazine. US Army Acquisition Support Center. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  30. ^ U.S. Army engineers work to create a new longer M777 155mm howitzer under the name M777ER Archived 25 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Army Recognition. 31 March 2016.
  31. ^ US Army takes 40-mile shots from extended-range cannon in demo. Defense News. 6 March 2020.
  32. ^ Government of Canada, National Defence (12 March 2015). "ARCHIVED - Defence Acquisition Guide 2016".
  33. ^ a b "Army developing safer, extended range rocket-assisted artillery round".
  34. ^ "Australia – M777A2 155MM Light-Weight Howitzers" (PDF). WASHINGTON: Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 17 July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  35. ^ "Boost in firepower" (PDF). Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper. No. 1224. Canberra: Department of Defence. 29 October 2009. p. 2. ISSN 0729-5685. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  36. ^ Bergmann, Kym (23 October 2010). "Push is on to bring out the big guns". The Australian. News Ltd. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  37. ^ Kennedy, Lt-Col Mitch; Doran, LCpl Mark (3 March 2011). "Changes in artillery" (PDF). Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper. No. 1253. Canberra: Department of Defence. p. 3. ISSN 0729-5685. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  38. ^ "Army to get more towed guns". AAP. 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  39. ^ FMS: Australia Requests Precision Guidance Kits for 155mm Munitions Archived 11 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine -, 12 August 2013
  40. ^ a b c d "Australia approves the sending of six M777 155mm towed howitzers to Ukraine". 28 April 2022.
  41. ^ "Marinha do Brasil interessada no obuseiro M777 da BAE Systems" [Brazilian Navy interested on BAE Systems' M777 howitzer]. Forças Terrestres - ForTe (in Portuguese). 19 September 2010. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  42. ^ "FMS Contract Details". Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  43. ^ a b "Afghanistan News May 9, 2007". afghanistannewscenter. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  44. ^ "BAE Wins $118m Orders for M777 Howitzer". Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  45. ^ "More howitzers on the way". Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  46. ^ a b Defence, National (6 March 2014). "Status Report on Transformational and Major Crown Projects - RPP 2014-15". Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  47. ^ "M777 equipped with new digital gun management system". Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  48. ^ a b Brewster, Murray (22 April 2022). "Canada sends four pieces of field artillery to Ukraine as country braces for renewed Russian attack". CBC News.
  49. ^ Ritchie, Sarah; Press, Jordan (22 April 2022). "Canada has sent heavy artillery and ammunition to Ukraine". CTV news. The Canadian Press.
  50. ^ Rajghatta, Chidanand (28 January 2010). "US okays howitzers worth $647 million for India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 January 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
  51. ^ HP. "India Orders 145 M777 Ultra Light Howitzers From BAE Systems". Global defence. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  52. ^ "India clears $660 million deal for artillery guns". The Economic Times. 11 May 2012.
  53. ^ "Defence Ministry clears M777 howitzers procurement projects". DNA. 11 May 2012. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  54. ^ FMS: India Requests Sale of 145 M777 155mm Light-Weight Towed Howitzers Archived 14 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine -, 7 August 2013
  55. ^ Raghuvanshi, Vivek (24 February 2014). "India Postpones Purchase of 145 Ultra Light Howitzers". Gannett Government Media. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  56. ^ "India buys new artillery guns, 27 years after Bofors". 11 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  57. ^ "Indian MoD says M777 buy in doubt over high cost, offset requirements". 13 July 2014. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  58. ^ Pandit, Rajat (23 November 2014). "Three decades on, defence minister clears Rs 15,750 crore howitzer projects". The Times of India. TNN. Archived from the original on 26 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  59. ^ Govindan, Adarsh (14 May 2015). "New Aircraft Carrier, Brahmos Missiles, C-295 Planes & M-777 Howitzers all cleared for Purchase". TNN. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  60. ^ Basu, Nayanima (14 December 2015). "Ministry keen to purchase 500 more Howitzer guns from BAE Systems". The Hindu Businessline. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  61. ^ Sehgal, Manjeet (25 June 2016). "India clears purchase of 145 ultra-light Howitzer guns from US". India Today. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017.
  62. ^ "M777 howitzer deal inked by the Indian government". 30 November 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  63. ^ Lal, Neeta (19 December 2016). "India Gets its Guns – 30 years late". Asia Sentinel. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  64. ^ "Indian Army's M777 regiment to get 3 made-in-India guns". Hindustan Times. 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  65. ^ "Army gets its first artillery guns three decades after Bofors, will be tested at Pokhran today". indian express. 18 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  66. ^ Peri, Dinakar (18 May 2017). "Two M777 Ultra-Light Howitzers arrive from U.S." The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  67. ^ Singh, Rahul (12 September 2017). "Army's new US-made M777 howitzer in trouble, barrel explodes at Pokhran range". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017.
  68. ^ Sagar, Pradip R. (12 September 2017). "Barrel of US-manufactured Howitzer gun explodes during Indian army's calibration trial". New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017.
  69. ^ a syndicated feed (13 September 2019). "India to deploy latest American weapon systems for Ex-HimVijay along China border". Business Standard.
  70. ^ "Indian Army's M777 regiment to get 3 made-in-India guns - The Economic Times". 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  71. ^ "Border clashes prompt India to fast-track weapons buys". Asia Times. 7 July 2020.
  72. ^ "Army rolls out ultra-light M-777 howitzers along China border in Arunachal".
  73. ^ Robert Burns (22 April 2022). "EXPLAINER: Why Washington is boosting heavy arms for Ukraine". Associated Press.
  74. ^ "Fact Sheet on U.S. Security Assistance for Ukraine". U.S. Department of Defense. 22 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  75. ^ a b Zengerle, Patricia; Stone, Mike (19 May 2022). "Biden administration authorizes $100 million more in Ukraine military aid". Reuters. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  76. ^ "Canada to provide further military aid for Ukraine". National Herald India. 16 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  77. ^ a b MacDonald, Alistair; Michaels, Daniel (9 October 2022). "BAE, U.S. in Talks to Restart M777 Howitzer Production After Ukraine Success". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  78. ^ Oleg Danylov (5 October 2022). "New US aid package: plus 4 HIMARS, 16 155mm M777 howitzers and precision rounds for them". Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  79. ^ Ismay, John; Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (25 November 2022). "Artillery Is Breaking in Ukraine. It's Becoming a Problem for the Pentagon". The New York Times – via
  80. ^ a b Mitzer, Stijn; Janovsky, Jakub (24 February 2022). "Attack On Europe: Documenting Ukrainian Equipment Losses During The 2022 Russian Invasion Of Ukraine". Oryx. Oryxspioenkop. Retrieved 20 September 2023.
  81. ^ Boyko Nikolov (9 November 2022). "M777 crew replaced the howitzer barrel four times due to overuse". Bulgarian Military. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
  82. ^ "Breaking: Ukraine to U.S. Defense Industry: We Need Long-Range, Precision Weapons (updated)". National Defense. 15 June 2022.
  83. ^ Colton Jones (13 July 2022). "Russian forces found damaged Ukrainian M777 howitzer". Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  84. ^ "Lostarmour: Потери 155-мм гаубиц M777 ВСУ" (in Russian). Retrieved 1 April 2024.
  85. ^ a b "PM Towed Artillery Systems". Defense Media Network. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  86. ^ "Alaska in Brief—March 27"[permanent dead link] "Army to test new howitzer in Fairbanks", Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, 27 March 2008. Accessed 27 March 2008.
  87. ^ "2 US soldiers killed in artillery mishap in Iraq identified". Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  88. ^ "82nd Airborne paratrooper dies in howitzer explosion at Fort Bragg". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. 22 February 2014. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  89. ^ "Ten injured during artillery training at Fort Bragg". WRAL. 15 March 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  90. ^ "Army Concerned Over Ban on Cluster Munitions, Land Mines". 2 May 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017.
  91. ^ a b Welch, Jason (18 December 2018). "Firebase Saham: A day in the life of joint-artillerymen securing the Iraq border". Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  92. ^ "DoD Orders 46 Additional M777 Howitzers". Deagel. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  93. ^ Budget (PDF), p. 190, archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2011, retrieved 28 February 2011
  94. ^ a b "Near ISIS front, U.S. Marine artillerymen 'fire every day'" Archived 18 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine Military Times, 7 April 2016
  95. ^ "Marines in Iraq came under 'numerous' rocket attacks, commander says"[permanent dead link] Military Times, 30 June 2016
  96. ^ "Marines have arrived in Syria to fire artillery in the fight for Raqqa". The Washington Post. 8 March 2017. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  97. ^ Caitlin M. Kenney & Kevin Baron (25 Apr 2022) How Much Can US Howitzers Help Ukraine? Explainer
  98. ^ "Trial by fire: Ukraine war becomes gruelling artillery duel". 13 May 2022.
  99. ^ Kerr, Julian (9 November 2019). "Making the M777 more lethal". Australian Defence Magazine.
  100. ^ "Canada announces artillery and other additional military aid for Ukraine". 22 April 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  101. ^ Snehesh Alex Philip (20 February 2023). "New barrel, extended range - India & US explore joint development of M777 howitzer variant". Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 4 June 2023.
  102. ^ "U.S. Marine Corps M777 howitzers shipped to support Ukraine". U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  103. ^ Vergun, David (29 April 2022). "M777 Artillery Deliveries Should Help Ukraine in the Donbas, Says Official". U.S. Department of Defense.
  104. ^ Doornbos, Caitlin (20 April 2022). "First American howitzers bound for Ukraine arrive in Europe as US troops begin training Ukrainians on the cannons". Stars and Stripes.
  105. ^ "Fact Sheet on U.S. Security Assistance for Ukraine". U.S. Department of Defense. 10 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  106. ^ "US sending Ukraine new $1 billion arms package amid grinding Donbas fight". 15 June 2022.
  107. ^ Defence, National (22 April 2022). "Canada announces artillery and other additional military aid for Ukraine". Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  108. ^ "Canada sends four pieces of field artillery to Ukraine as it braces for renewed Russian attack". 22 April 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  109. ^ "Nouvelle aide militaire de 800 millions de dollars pour Kyiv". euronews (in French). 14 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  110. ^ Lopez, Todd (21 April 2022). "Austin to Host Meeting in Germany to Discuss Ukraine". U.S. Department of Defense.
  111. ^ Mizokami, Kyle (6 May 2022). "Ukraine's New Heavy Artillery Will Cause Russia a World of Pain". Popular Mechanics.
  112. ^ McCardle, Guy (24 April 2022). "Canada is Sending Ukraine Excalibur Precision-Guided, Extended-Range Artillery Shells". SOFREP.
  113. ^ Roblin, Sebastien (16 May 2022). "Video: Ukraine Is Attacking Russian Troops with M777 U.S. 155-Millimeter Howitzers". 19FortyFive. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  114. ^ "New U.S. aid package will increase the number of Ukrainian artillery".
  115. ^ (28 February 2022). "La Infantería de Marina de Colombia se dotará de obuses M777 de 155 mm y vehículos anfibios del Cuerpo de Marines de los Estados Unidos-noticia - Noticias Defensa Colombia". (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  116. ^ Binnie, Jeremy. "BAE Systems looks to sell M777 to the UAE". IHS Jane's 360. IHS Jane's. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.

External links edit