M114 155 mm howitzer
The M114 155 mm howitzer is a towed howitzer developed and used by the United States Army. It was first produced in 1942 as a medium artillery piece under the designation of 155 mm Howitzer M1. It saw service with the US Army during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, before being replaced by the M198 howitzer.
|M114 155 mm Howitzer|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||See operators|
|Wars||World War II |
Cambodian Civil War
Laotian Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
Salvadoran Civil War
|Manufacturer||Rock Island Arsenal (US)|
|No. built||10,300+|
|Mass||Travel: 5,800 kg (12,800 lb)|
Combat: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb)
|Length||Travel: 7.315 m (20 ft)|
|Barrel length||Bore: 3.564 m (11 ft 8 in) L/23|
Overall: 3.79 m (12 ft 5 in) L/24.5
|Width||Travel: 2.438 m (8 ft)|
|Height||Travel: 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in)|
|Shell||Separate-loading bagged charge|
|Caliber||155 mm (6.1 in)|
|Breech||Slow-cone interrupted screw|
|Traverse||25° left or right|
|Rate of fire||burst: 4 rpm |
sustained: 40 rph
|Muzzle velocity||563 m/s (1,847 ft/s)|
|Maximum firing range||14,600 m (16,000 yd)|
The gun was also used by the armed forces of many nations. In some countries, the M114A1 still remains in service.
A new carriage was under development for much of the 1930s for the existing World War I-era M-1918 155 mm howitzer, which was a license-built French Canon de 155 C modèle 1917 Schneider until 1939 when it was realized that it did not seem logical to put a new carriage underneath an obsolete howitzer. So development began anew with a carriage designed to be used for either the 155 mm howitzer or the 4.7-inch (120 mm) gun. This was completed by 15 May 1941 when the Howitzer M1 on the Carriage M1 was standardized. The howitzer itself differed from the older model by a lengthened barrel of 20 calibers and a new breech mechanism. Uniquely it was the sole 'slow-cone' interrupted screw mechanism to enter US service after 1920. This meant that two separate movements were necessary to open the breech, versus the single movement of the 'steep cone' mechanism that simultaneously rotated and withdrew the breech.
The M1A1 was redesignated as the M114A1 in 1962.
The carriage was also used by the 4.5 inch Gun M-1. It went through a number of minor changes over time. The original Warner electric brakes were replaced by Westinghouse air brakes on the M1A1. Both the M1 and M1A1 carriages used a mid-axle firing pedestal that was extended by a ratchet mechanism. The M1A2 replaced the ratchet with a screw-jack system and also modified the traveling lock. The M1A1E1 carriage was intended for use in jungle and muddy terrain and replaced the wheels of the M1A1 with a free-wheeling tracked suspension, but the project was terminated after V-J day without having reached production. The T-9 and T-10 carriages were projects using low-grade steel alloys that were canceled when no longer needed. The T-16 was a light-weight carriage using high-grade steel that was estimated to save some 1,200 lb (540 kg); work began in July 1945 and continued after the war, although nothing seems to have come from it.
A mid-1960s variant was the 155mm XM123 & M123A1 auxiliary-propelled howitzers. The XM123 was produced by American Machine and Foundry and outfitted with two 20 horsepower air-cooled engines produced by Consolidated Diesel Corporation, driver's seat, steering wheel, and guide wheel on the left trail, allowing it to be more rapidly emplaced when detached from the prime mover, while the XM123A1 provided a single 20 horsepower motor with electric steering. The extra weight on the left trail displaced the howitzer after each round was fired, requiring it to be realigned, and the project was abandoned. The concept was copied from the Soviet 85mm SD-44 auxiliary-propelled antitank gun developed in 1954 and used by airborne forces.
(See also similar XM124E2 Light Auxiliary Propelled 105mm Howitzer with similar configuration)
The howitzer was experimentally mounted on a lengthened chassis of the M5 light tank. The resulting vehicle received the designation 155 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage T64. A single prototype was built before the T64 project was abandoned in favor of T64E1, based on the M24 Chaffee light tank chassis. This was eventually adopted as the M41 Howitzer Motor Carriage and saw action in the Korean War. Towards the end of the Korean War the US Army replaced the M41 self-propelled howitzer with the M44 self-propelled howitzer.
The gun fires separate-loading, bagged charge ammunition, with up to seven different propelling charges, from 1 (the smallest) to 7 (the largest). Muzzle velocity, range and penetration in the tables below are for maximum charge in form of complete M4A1 propelling charge.
|M3||2.69 kg (5 lb 15 oz)||Base charge and four incremental charges (for charges 1 to 5)|
|M4||6.29 kg (13 lb 14 oz)||Base charge and two incremental charges (for charges 5 to 7)|
|M4A1||6.31 kg (13 lb 15 oz)||Base charge and four incremental charges (for charges 3 to 7)|
|Mk I Dummy||3.63 kg (8 lb)||Base charge and six incremental charges|
|M2 Dummy||3.34 kg (7 lb 6 oz)||Base charge and six incremental charges|
|HE||HE M102 Shell||43.13 kg (100 lb)||TNT, 7.06 kg (15 lb 9 oz)|
|HE||HE M107 Shell||43 kg (90 lb)||TNT, 6.86 kg (15 lb 2 oz)||564 m/s (1,850 ft/s)||14,955 m (16,355 yd)|
|Smoke||FS M105 Shell||45.14 kg (100 lb)||Sulfur trioxide in Chlorosulfonic acid, 7.67 kg (16 lb 15 oz)|
|Smoke||WP M105 Shell||44.55 kg (100 lb)||White phosphorus (WP), 7.08 kg (15 lb 10 oz)|
|Smoke||FS M110 Shell||45.45 kg (100 lb)||Sulfur trioxide in Chlorosulfonic acid, 7.67 kg (16 lb 15 oz)|
|Smoke||WP M110 Shell||44.63 kg (100 lb)||White phosphorus (WP), 7.08 kg (15 lb 10 oz)|
|Smoke, colored||BE M116 Shell||39.21 kg (90 lb)||Smoke mixture, 7.8 kg (17 lb 3 oz)|
|Smoke||HC BE M116 Shell||43.14 kg (100 lb)||Zinc chloride (HC), 11.7 kg (25 lb 13 oz)||564 m/s (1,850 ft/s)||14,955 m (16,355 yd)|
|Chemical||CNS M110 Shell||44.05 kg (100 lb)||Chloroacetophenone (CN), 6.26 kg (13 lb 13 oz)|
|Chemical||H M110 Shell||43.09 kg (90 lb)||Mustard gas, 5.02 kg (11 lb 1 oz)||564 m/s (1,850 ft/s)||14,972 m (16,374 yd)|
|Illumination||Illuminating M118 Shell||46.77 kg (100 lb)||Illuminant candles, 4.02 kg (8 lb 14 oz)|
|Drill||Dummy Mk I Projectile||-||-||-|
|Drill||Dummy M7 Projectile||43.09 kg (90 lb)||-||-||-|
|Concrete penetration, mm|
|Ammunition \ Distance||0||914 m (1,000 yd)||2,743 m (3,000 yd)||4,572 m (5,000 yd)|
|HE M107 Shell (meet angle 0°)||884 mm (2 ft 11 in)||792 mm (2 ft 7 in)||610 mm (2 ft)||488 mm (1 ft 7 in)|
|Different methods of measurement were used in different countries / periods. Therefore, direct comparison is often impossible.|
- Afghanistan: 24 as of 2016[update]
- Argentina: 6 as of 2016[update]
- Brazil: 95 in the Army and 8 with the Marines as of 2016[update]
- Ecuador: 12 as of 2016[update]
- El Salvador: 6
- Greece: 206 as of 2016[update]
- Iran: 70 as of 2016[update]
- Jordan: 18 as of 2016[update]
- Laos: 12 as of 2016[update]
- Lebanon: 18 as of 2016[update]
- Morocco: 20 as of 2016[update]
- Pakistan: 144 in service with the Pakistan Army.
- Peru: 36 as of 2016[update]
- Portugal: 24 as of 2016[update]
- Saudi Arabia: 50 as of 2016[update]
- South Korea
- Sudan: 12 as of 2016[update]
- Taiwan: 250 as of 2016[update]
- Thailand: 48 as of 2016[update], In reserve
- Tunisia: 12 as of 2016[update]
- Turkey: 517 as of 2016[update]
- Uruguay: 8 as of 2016[update]
- Venezuela: 12 as of 2016[update]
- Hogg - Allied Artillery of World War II, p 68.
- Hunnicutt - Stuart: A History of the American Light Tank, p 337–339, 502.
- TM 9-1331B, 155mm Howitzer M1 and Mount M14, p 205-219.
- Hunnicutt - Stuart: A History of the American Light Tank, p 502.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 231.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 377.
- Military Balance 2016, pp. 383-384.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 396.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 104.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 328.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 336.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 271.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 340.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 345.
- "Pakistan Army". Archived from the original on 13 May 2013.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 280.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 410.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 284.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 130.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 351.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 267.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 471.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 291.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 293.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 356.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 148.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 414.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 416.
- Military Balance 2016, p. 297.
- Wiener, Friedrich (1987). The armies of the NATO nations: Organization, concept of war, weapons and equipment. Truppendienst Handbooks Volume 3. Vienna: Herold Publishers. p. 494-495.
- Hogg, Ian V. (1998). Allied Artillery of World War Two. Crowood Press, Ramsbury. ISBN 1-86126-165-9.
- Hunnicutt, R. P. (1992). Stuart: A History of the American Light Tank. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-462-2.
- Technical Manual TM 9-1331B, 155mm Howitzer M1 and Mount M14. War Department, 1953.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (February 2016). The Military Balance 2016. 116. Routlegde. ISBN 9781857438352.