University of Lviv

  (Redirected from Lviv University)

The University of Lviv (Ukrainian: Львівський університет, Polish: Uniwersytet Lwowski, German: Universität Lemberg, briefly known as the Theresianum in the early 19th-century), presently the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukrainian: Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка) is the oldest institution of higher learning in present-day Ukraine dating from 1661 when John II Casimir, King of Poland, granted it its first royal charter. Over the centuries, it has undergone various transformations, suspensions, and name changes that have reflected the geo-political complexities of this part of Europe. The present institution can be dated to 1940. It is located in the historic city of Lviv in Lviv Oblast of Western Ukraine.

Ivan Franko National
University of Lviv
Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка
Львівський університет ім, Франка.jpg
Latin: Universitas Leopoliensis
Former names
Universität Lemberg
Uniwersytet Jana Kazimierza
(John Casimir University)
Motto in English
Educated citizens – glory of the Motherland
TypePublic
Established1661; 360 years ago (1661)
FounderKing of Poland
John II Casimir Vasa
PresidentVolodymyr Melnyk
Students11,649
Location,
Specialty programs111
ColorsBlue and Gold   
Websitehttps://www.lnu.edu.ua/en/
Universitas Leopoliensis Coat of Arms.png
University rankings
Global – Overall
THE World[1]1001+ (2020)

HistoryEdit

Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthEdit

The university was founded on January 20, 1661, when King John II Casimir of Poland granted a charter to the city's Jesuit Collegium, founded in 1608, giving it "the honor of an academy and the title of a university". In 1589, the Jesuits had tried to found a university earlier, but did not succeed. Establishing another seat of learning in the Kingdom of Poland was seen as a threat by the authorities of Kraków's Jagiellonian University, which did not want a rival and stymied the Jesuits' plans for the following years.

According to the Treaty of Hadiach (1658), an Orthodox Ruthenian academy was to be created in Kyiv and another one in an unspecified location. The Jesuits suspected that it would be established in Lwów/Lviv on the foundations of the Orthodox Brotherhood's school, and used this as a pretext for obtaining a royal mandate that elevated their college to the status of an academy (no city could have two academies).[2][3] King John II Casimir was a supporter of the Jesuits and his stance was crucial. The original royal charter was subsequently confirmed by another decree issued in Częstochowa on February 5, 1661.

In 1758, King Augustus III issued a decree, which described the Collegium as an academy, equal in fact status to the Jagiellonian University, with two faculties, those of Theology and Philosophy.

Austrian ruleEdit

In 1772, the city of Lwów was annexed by Austria (see: Partitions of Poland). Its German name was Lemberg and hence that of the university. In 1773 the Suppression of the Society of Jesus by Rome (Dominus ac Redemptor) was soon followed by the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which meant that the university was excluded from the Commission of National Education reform. It was renamed Theresianum by the Austrians, i.e. a State Academy. On 21 October 1784, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II signed an act of foundation of a secular university.[4] He began to Germanise the institution by bringing German-speaking professors from various parts of the empire. The university now had four faculties. To theology and philosophy were added those of law and medicine. Latin was the official language of the university, with Polish and German as auxiliary. Literary Slaveno-Rusyn (Ruthenian/Ukrainian) of the period had been used in the Studium Ruthenium (1787–1809), a special institute of the university for educating candidates for the Uniate (Greek-Catholic) priesthood.[5]

In 1805, the university was closed, as Austria, then involved in the Napoleonic wars, did not have sufficient funds to support it. Instead, it operated as a high school. The university was reopened in 1817.[4] Officially Vienna described it as an "act of mercy", but the actual reasons were different. The Austrian government was aware of the pro-Polish stance of the Russian Emperor Alexander I and the Austrians wanted to challenge it. However, the quality of the university's education was not considered high. Latin was replaced by German and most professors were mediocre. The few good ones regarded their stay in Lemberg as a springboard to other centres.[citation needed]

In 1848, when the pan-European revolution reached Lemberg (see: Revolutions of 1848), students of the university created two organizations: "The Academic Legion" and "the Academic Committee" both of which demanded that the university be Polonized. The government in Vienna answered with force, and on November 2, 1848, the centre of the city was shelled by the troops led by General Hammerstein striking the buildings of the university, especially its library. A curfew was called and the university was temporarily closed. Major demand for Ukrainians was the education of teachers and promotion of Ukrainian culture through Ukrainian courses at the university and to this end, a committee for the Defense of Ukrainian Education was created.[6]: 58 

It was reopened in January 1850, with only limited autonomy. After a few years the Austrians relented and on July 4,[citation needed] 1871 Vienna declared Polish and Ruthenian (Ukrainian) as the official languages at the university.[7] Eight years later this was changed. The Austrian authorities declared Polish as the main teaching medium with Ruthenian and German as auxiliary. Examinations in the two latter languages were possible as long as the professors used them. This move created unrest among the Ruthenians (Ukrainians), who were demanding equal rights. In 1908, a Ruthenian student of the philosophy faculty, Miroslaw Siczynski, had assassinated the Polish governor of Galicia, Andrzej Potocki.[citation needed]

Meanwhile, the University of Lemberg thrived, being one of two Polish language universities in Galicia, the other one was the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Its professors were famous across Europe, with such renowned names as Wladyslaw Abraham, Oswald Balzer, Szymon Askenazy, Stanislaw Zakrzewski, Zygmunt Janiszewski, Kazimierz Twardowski, Benedykt Dybowski, Marian Smoluchowski and Ludwik Rydygier.

In the 1870s, Ivan Franko studied at Lemberg University. He entered world history as a well-known Ukrainian scholar, public figure, writer, and translator. In 1894, the newly founded Chair of World History and the History of Eastern Europe was headed by Professor Mykhailo Hrushevskyi (1866–1934), an outstanding scholar of Ukrainian History, founder of the Ukrainian Historical School, and author of the ten-volume "History of Ukraine-Rus'", hundreds of works on History, History of Literature, Historiography, and Source Studies. In 1904, a special summer course in Ukrainian studies was organized in Lviv, primarily for Eastern Ukrainian students.[6]: 124 

The number of students grew from 1,732 in 1897 to 3,582 in 1906. Poles made up around 75% of the students, Ukrainians 20%, other nationalities 5%.[3] In mid-December 1910, Ukrainian women students at Lviv University established a Student Union's women's branch, their twenty members meeting regularly to discuss current affairs. In July 1912, they met with their Jewish counterpart branch to discuss the representation of women in the student body of the university.[6]: 64 

Second Polish RepublicEdit

 
The main building of the University of Lviv was constructed to house the Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria

During the Interbellum period, the region was part of the Second Polish Republic and the university was known as "Jan Kazimierz University"[3][8] (Polish: Uniwersytet Jana Kazimierza), in honor of its founder, King John II Casimir Vasa. The decision to name the school after the king was taken by the government of Poland on November 22, 1919.[9]

In 1920, the university was rehoused by the Polish government in the building formerly used by the Sejm of the Land,[9] which has since been the university's main location. Its first rector during the Second Polish Republic was the famous poet, Jan Kasprowicz.

Lwów was the second strongest academic center in inter-war Poland.[10] The Jan Kazimierz University was the third biggest university[11] in the country after the University of Warsaw and the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. It was one of the most influential scholarly institutions of the Second Polish Republic, notable for its schools of mathematics (Stefan Banach, Hugo Steinhaus), logics (Kazimierz Twardowski), history and law (Oswald Balzer), anthropology (Jan Czekanowski), and geography (Eugeniusz Romer).[9][3][12]

The university's library acquired, among others, the collection of Witold Kazimierz Czartoryski [pl] and 1,300 old Polish books from the 16th and 17th century, previously belonging to Józef Koziebrodzki. By September 1939, it expanded to 420,000 volumes, including 1,300 manuscripts, 3,000 diplomas and incunables, and possessed 14,000 numismatic items.[13]

In 1924 the Philosophy Faculty was divided into Humanities and Mathematics and Biology Departments, thus there were now five faculties. In the 1934/35 academic year, the breakdown of the student body was as follows:

  • Theology – 222 students
  • Law – 2,978 students
  • Medicine – 638 students (together with the Pharmaceutical Section, which had 263 students)
  • Humanities – 892 students
  • Mathematics and Biology – 870 students

Altogether, during the academic year 1934/35, there were 5900 students at the university, consisting by religious observance of:

  • 3793 Roman Catholics (64.3%)
  • 1211 Jews (20.5%)
  • 739 Ukrainian Greek-Catholics (12.5%)
  • 72 Orthodox (1.2%)
  • 67 Protestants (1.1%)

Ukrainian professors were required to take a formal oath of allegiance to Poland; most of them refused and left the university in the early 1920s. The principle of "Numerus clausus" had been introduced after which Ukrainian applicants were discriminated against – Ukrainian applications were capped at 15% of the intake, whereas Poles enjoyed a 50% quota at the time.[14]

World War IIEdit

After the German invasion of Poland and the accompanying Soviet invasion in September 1939, the Soviet administration permitted classes to continue. Initially, the school worked in the pre-war Polish system.[10] On October 18, however, the Polish rector, Professor Roman Longchamps de Bérier, was dismissed and replaced by Mykhailo Marchenko [uk], a Ukrainian historian transferred from the Institute of Ukrainian History in Kiev,[10][15] grandfather of Ukrainian journalist and dissident Valeriy Marchenko. Marchenko was tasked with Ukrainization and Sovietization of the university.[16][10] On January 8, 1940, the university was renamed Ivan Franko Lviv State University.[10] Ukrainian was introduced as the language of instruction.[17] Polish professors and administrative assistants were increasingly fired[10][15] and replaced by cadres specializing in Marxism, Leninism, political economics, as well as Ukrainian and Soviet literature, history, and geography. This was accompanied by the closure of departments seen as related to religion, free-market economics, capitalism, or the West in general. All academics specializing in Polish geography, literature, and history were dismissed.[10] Marchenko was released from his post in Spring 1940 and arrested in June 1941.[15] From 1939 to 1941, the Soviets killed 17 and imprisoned 37 academics from the University of Jan Kazimierz.[10]

After Lviv was occupied by the Nazi Germany in June 1941, the Germans closed the University of Ivan Franko[10] and killed over 20 Polish professors (as well as members of their households and guests, increasing the total number of victims to above forty).[10][18][19] The victims included lecturers from the University of Lviv and other local academic institutions. Among the killed was the last rector of the University of Jan Kazimierz, Roman Longchamps de Berier, his three sons,[10] and the former Polish prime minister and a polytechnic professor, Kazimierz Bartel.[20][a] The underground University of Jan Kazimierz was established in Autumn 1941.[10]

In the summer of 1944, the advancing Red Army, assisted by the Polish Home Army forces (locally implementing Operation Tempest), pushed the Wehrmacht out of Lviv.[21][22] and the university reopened.[4] Due to post-war border changes, the Polish population of the city was expelled[23][24] and most of Polish academics from the University of Jan Kazimierz relocated to Wrocław (former Breslau), where they took up positions in the newly established Polish institutions of higher learning.[25][26] The buildings of the university had survived the war undestroyed, however, 80% of its pre-war student and academic body was gone.[27] The traditions of Jan Kazimierz University have been duplicated at the University of Wrocław, which replaced the pre-war University of Breslau after the German inhabitants of that city had been expelled following Stalin's establishing Germany's eastern border farther to the west.

Ukrainian SSREdit

In 1964, a monument dedicated to Ivan Franko was built in front of the university.[28]

Independent UkraineEdit

 
Ivan Franko University main building (2005)

The proclamation of the independence of Ukraine in 1991 brought about radical changes in every sphere of university life.[4] Professor, Doctor Ivan Vakarchuk, a renowned scholar in the field of Theoretical Physics, had been rector of the university from 1990 till 2013. Meeting the requirements arising in recent years new faculties and departments have been set up: the Faculty of International Relations and the Faculty of Philosophy (1992), the Faculty of Pre-Entrance University Preparation (1997), the Chair of Translation Studies and Comparative Linguistics (1998). Since 1997 the following new units have come into existence within the teaching and research framework of the university: the Law College, The Humanities Centre, The Institute of Literature Studies, The Italian Language and Culture Resource Centre. The teaching staff of the university has increased amounting to 981, with scholarly degrees awarded to over two-thirds of the entire teaching staff. There are over one hundred laboratories and working units as well as the Computing Centre functioning here. The Zoological, Geological, Mineralogical Museums together with those of Numismatics, Sphragistics, and Archeology are stimulating the interests of students.[14]

FacultiesEdit

  • Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Informatics[29]
  • Faculty of International Relations[30]
  • Faculty of Biology[31]
  • Faculty of Journalism[32]
  • Faculty of Chemistry[33]
  • Faculty of Law[34]
  • Faculty of Economics[35]
  • Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics[36]
  • Faculty of Electronics[37]
  • Faculty of Philology[38]
  • Faculty of Foreign Languages[39]
  • Faculty of Philosophy[40]
  • Faculty of Geography[41]
  • Faculty of Physics[42]
  • Faculty of Geology[43]
  • Faculty of Preuniversity Training[44]
  • Faculty of History[45]
  • Department of Pedagogy[46]
  • Department of Law[47]

Research divisions and facilitiesEdit

  • Scientific Research Department[48]
  • Zoological museum[49]
  • University Library[50]
  • Journal of Physical Studies[51]
  • The Institute of Archaeology[52]
  • Ukrainian journal of computational linguistics[53]
  • Media Ecology Institute[54]
  • Modern Ukraine[55]
  • Institute for Historical Research[56]
  • Regional Agency for Sustainable Development[57]
  • Botanical Garden[58]
  • NATO Winter Academy in Lviv[59]
  • Scientific technical & educational center of low temperature studies[60]

University managementEdit

  • Rector Volodymyr Melnyk, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine;[61]
  • First Vice-Rector Andriy Gukalyuk, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor;
  • Vice-Rector for Research Roman Hladyshevsky, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor;
  • Vice-rector for scientific and pedagogical work and social issues and development Volodymyr Kachmar, Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor;
  • Vice-rector for scientific and pedagogical work and informatization Vitaliy Kukharsky, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor;
  • Vice-rector for administrative and economic work Vasyl Kurlyak, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor.[61]

International cooperationEdit

During 2016-2017, the university signed 15 cooperation agreements and two double degree agreements, two agreements were extended. In total, 147 agreements have been signed with higher education institutions from 38 countries.

The university is involved in signing the Magna Charta Universitatum. In 2000, the university became a co-founder of the European College of Polish and Ukrainian Universities (Lublin, Poland). Agreements with Alecu Russo State University of Bălți (Bălți, Moldova) and the Krakow Pedagogical Academy (Poland) have been extended.

Students of the Faculty of Geography, History and the Faculty of International Relations undergo internships in Poland, Germany, Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Employees of the Faculty of Mechanics, Mathematics, Philology, Chemistry, Faculty of International Relations and Applied Mathematics and Informatics worked in higher education institutions in Poland, Colombia, France, Switzerland, and Austria on a contract basis. Many graduates continue their studies in higher education institutions in the United States, Poland, Germany, Austria, Great Britain, and France. In 2016, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv held 5 international summer schools.

In 2016, active international cooperation was established with foreign partners. The University has conducted bilateral research with the University of Vienna (Austria), Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation, and the Hiroshima Institute of Technology (Japan), funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.

In recent years, researchers at the university have been conducting experiments funded by international organizations, including the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany), Harvard Medical School (USA), Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research (USA), and the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Alberta, International Center for Diffraction Data (USA), Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (USA), Trust Educational Foundation for Tree Research (USA), Material. Phases. Data. System company (Switzerland).

An agreement has been signed with CrossRef, which allows the DOI to be assigned to university publications. The University, with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, has a national contact point of the EU Framework Program "Horizon 2020" in the thematic areas "Future and latest technologies" and "Inclusive, innovative and smart society".

Notable alumniEdit

Notable professorsEdit

OtherEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The extent to which Ukrainian nationalists may have been involved in identifying and selecting some of the victims is still a matter of debate, as Polish historian Adam Redzik wrote, while a group of Ukrainian nationalist students most likely helped to prepare the lists of Polish academics, it is unlikely they expected or knew about their intended purposes (i.e., the executions).[10]

ReferencesEdit

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LiteratureEdit

  • Academia Militans. Uniwersytet Jana Kazimierza we Lwowie, red. Adam Redzik, Kraków 2015, ss. 1302.
  • Ludwik Finkel, Starzyński Stanisław, Historya Uniwersytetu Lwowskiego, Lwów 1894.
  • Franciszek Jaworski, Uniwersytet Lwowski. Wspomnienie jubileuszowe, Lwów 1912.
  • Adam Redzik, Wydział Prawa Uniwersytetu Lwowskiego w latach 1939–1946, Lublin 2006
  • Adam Redzik, Prawo prywatne na Uniwersytecie Jana Kazimierza we Lwowie, Warszawa 2009.
  • Józef Wołczański, Wydział Teologiczny Uniwersytetu Jana Kazimierza 1918–1939, Kraków 2000.
  • Universitati Leopoliensi, Trecentesimum Quinquagesimum Anniversarium Suae Fundationis Celebranti. In Memoriam. Praca zbiorowa. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Kraków 2011, ISBN 978-83-7676-084-1

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 49°50′26″N 24°01′20″E / 49.84056°N 24.02222°E / 49.84056; 24.02222