Luigi Maria Bilio, C.R.S.P. (25 March 1826 – 30 January 1884), was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who, among other offices, was Secretary of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.

Luigi Maria Bilio

Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
Luigi Maria Bilio.jpg
ChurchRoman Catholic Church
Appointed18 October 1877
Term ended30 January 1884
PredecessorAntonio Maria Panebianco
SuccessorRaffaele Monaco La Valletta
Other post(s)
Consecration12 January 1874
by Pope Pius IX
Created cardinal22 June 1866
by Pope Pius IX
RankCardinal-Priest (1866–73)
Cardinal-Bishop (1873–84)
Personal details
Birth nameTommaso Francesco Bilio
Born25 March 1826
Alessandria, Kingdom of Sardinia
Died30 January 1884(1884-01-30) (aged 57)
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
BuriedCampo Verano
ParentsGiuseppe Bilio
Maddalena Barali
Previous post(s)
Styles of
Luigi Bilio
Template-Cardinal (Bishop).svg
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal
SeeSabina (suburbicarian see)


Bilio was born in Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy. He joined the Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Barnabites) when he was 14 years old and professed religious vows in Genoa in 1842. He was ordained in 1849 in Vercelli.

After his ordination, Bilio served as a professor of Greek and philosophy at the Collegio Ducale in Parma; and in Naples. He was a professor of philosophy, theology and canon law in Rome. He was elected Assistant Superior General of his Order. Bilio later worked as a consultor to the Congregation of the Inquisition from 1864 and for the Congregation of the Index from 1865. He had an important role in the preparation of the Syllabus of Errors and of the encyclical Quanta cura of Pope Pius IX.


Bilio was created Cardinal Priest, with the titular church of San Lorenzo in Panisperna by Pope Pius IX in the consistory of 22 June 1866. He participated in the First Vatican Council from 1869 until 1870.


Biglio was promoted to the rank of Cardinal Bishop, and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, on 22 December 1873. He was consecrated as a bishop on 12 January of the following year by Pope Pius IX. He was appointed as the Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Rites on 20 December 1876.

Biglio was nominated for the papacy during the conclave of 1878 but received only a handful of votes. The conclave elected Gioachino Pecci, who took the papal throne as Pope Leo XIII. Biglio was soon appointed as Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences and Relics by Pope Leo in 1878. Pope Leo also appointed him to serve as Apostolic Penitentiary on 18 October 1877, a position he held until his death. He also served as Secretary of the Holy Office from January 1883 until his death one year later.

Biglio died in January 1884, his body lay in state in the Church of Santi Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari in Rome and was buried in the crypt of his Order in the Campo Verano cemetery.


Catholic Church titles
Preceded by Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
22 December 1873 – 30 January 1884
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Rites
20 December 1876 – 30 March 1884
Succeeded by
Preceded by Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
18 October 1877 – 30 January 1884
Succeeded by
Preceded by Secretary of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
25 January 1883 – 30 January 1884
Succeeded by