List of rulers of Württemberg

This article lists the Counts, Dukes, Electors, and Kings who ruled over different territories named Württemberg from the beginning of the County of Württemberg in the 11th century to the end of the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1918.

Monarchy of Württemberg
Provincial/State
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg 1817-1921.svg
Andersen & Klemm - Wilhelm II. von Württemberg (1892 RB25-21).jpg
William II
Details
StyleHis Majesty
First monarchConrad I (as Count)
Last monarchWilliam II (as King)
Formation1081
Abolition30 November 1918
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)Carl, Duke of Württemberg

Counts and Dukes of WürttembergEdit

House of WürttembergEdit

Partitions of Württemberg under Württemberg ruleEdit

County of Württemberg
(1089-1442)
       County of
Württemberg-Stuttgart

(1442-82)
County of
Württemberg-Montbéliard

(Stuttgart line, 1st creation)
(1473-82)
County of
Württemberg-Urach

(1442-82)
      
County of
Württemberg-Montbéliard

Revived:
1526-34 (2nd creation)
1542-50 (3rd creation)
1553-93 (4th creation)
County and Duchy of Württemberg
Elevated to Duchy in 1495; Annexed to Austria 1519-34
(1482-1617)
(Urach line until 1495; Stuttgart line until 1498)
(Montbéliard line from 1498 onwards)
       Duchy of
Württemberg-Weitlingen

(1588-1705)
      
Duchy of
Württemberg-Montbéliard

(1617-1723)
(Twice annexed to France:
1676-79, 1680-97)
Duchy of
Württemberg-Neuenstadt

(1st creation)
(1617-31)
Duchy of
Württemberg

(1617-1803)
(Winnental line from 1733)
       Duchy of
Württemberg-Oels

(1635-1792)
(Wilhelminort line from 1761)
      
Duchy of
Württemberg-Neuenstadt

(2nd creation)
(1649-1742)
      
       Duchy of
Württemberg-Winnental

(1677-1733)
             
              Duchy of
Württemberg-Wilhelminort

(1704-1761)
             
             
      
             
       Annexed to the
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Table of rulersEdit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Conrad I ? 1099-1122 1122 County of Württemberg Unknown Considered to be founder of the Württemberg dynasty.
Conrad II ? 1122-1143 1143 County of Württemberg Unknown His mother, Luitgard of Beutelsbach, was a sister of Conrad I. He served as marshal of Swabia[1] and advocate of the town of Ulm, and had large possessions in the valleys of the Neckar and the Rems. Based on the similarity between their coats of arms, it is believed that Conrad II belonged to the family of the Counts of Veringen (Veringenstadt).
Louis I c.1098 1143-1158 1158 County of Württemberg Unknown
at least one child
He presumably was Vogt of the Denkendorf monastery.
Louis II c.1137 1158-1181 1181 County of Württemberg Willibirg of Kirchberg
(1142-1179)
two children
Hartmann c.1160 1181-1240 1240 County of Württemberg ? of Veringen
no children
Sons of Louis II, ruled jointly since 1194. Hartmann inherited Veringen estates through his marriage. Hartmann's children founeded a branch of counts of Grüningen-Landau.
Louis III 1166 1194-1241 1241 County of Württemberg ? of Dillenburg/Kyburg
four children
Ulrich I the Founder   1226 1241-1265 25 February 1265 County of Württemberg Matilda of Baden
three children

Agnes of Legnica
(d.13 March 1265)
one child
Grandson of Hartmann I, through his son Hermann.
Ulrich II 1254 1265-1279 18 September 1279 County of Württemberg Unknown
Eberhard I the Illustrious   13 March 1265 1194-1241 5 June 1325 County of Württemberg Unknown
two children

Margaret of Lorraine
one child

Irmengard of Baden
three children
Ulrich III   c.1290 1325-1344 11 July 1344 County of Württemberg Sophia of Pfirt
1312
two children
Eberhard II the Jarrer   c.1315 1344-1392 15 March 1392 County of Württemberg Elisabeth of Henneberg-Schleusingen
17 September 1342
two children
Sons of Ulrich III, ruled jointly. Ulrich IV usually stood in the shadow of his elder brother Eberhard II. Because of that, he temporarily strove towards the division of the realm, which motivated Eberhard to force his brother to sign a treaty that stipulated the indivisibility of the county on December 3, 1361. On May 1, 1362, Ulrich IV relinquished his participation in the government.
Ulrich IV   c.1315 1344-1362 1366 County of Württemberg Katharina of Helfenstein
no children
Eberhard III the Clement   1364 1392-1417 16 May 1417 County of Württemberg Antonia Visconti
27 October 1380
Urach
three children

Elisabeth of Nuremberg
22 November 1412
one child
Grandson of Eberhard II, through his son Ulrich. His reign was noted by a peace-preserving policy of alliances with the neighboring principalities and imperial towns. Examples are an alliances with 14 Upper-Swabian towns, concluded 27 August 1395 and the Marbachs alliance in 1405. Acquired the County of Montbéliard marrying his son to its heiress.
Eberhard IV the Younger   23 August 1388 1392-1417 2 July 1419 County of Württemberg Henriette, Countess of Montbéliard
1407
three children
Took part in government since 1407, and ruled in Montbéliard with his wife since 1409.
Louis I[2]

Under regency of
Henriette, Countess of Montbéliard
(1419-26)
c.1412 1419-1442 24 September 1450 County of Württemberg Mechthild of the Palatinate
21 October 1436
Stuttgart
five children
Started co-ruling with his brother in 1433, but they agreed in dividing the county in 1442. Louis inherited Montbéliard from his mother in 1444. Louis remodeled Urach into his residence and implemented an active policy to strengthen the monasteries in his realm of power.
1442-1450 Württemberg-Urach
Ulrich V the Well-Loved

Under regency of
Henriette, Countess of Montbéliard
(1419-33)
  1413 1419-1442 1 September 1480 County of Württemberg Margaret of Cleves
29 January 1441
Stuttgart
one child

Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut
8 February 1445
Stuttgart
five children

Margaret of Savoy
11 November 1453
Stuttgart
three children
Took part in government since 1407, and ruled in Montbéliard with his wife since 1409.
1442-1480 Württemberg-Stuttgart
The Treaty of Nürtingen divided the County of Württemberg into two separate lines. Württemberg-Stuttgart, containing the northern and eastern parts of the old county, with the capital Stuttgart; and Württemberg-Urach, containing the southern and western parts, with the capital Urach.
Louis II

Under regency of
Eberhard of Württemberg
(1450-53)
3 April 1439 1450-1457 3 November 1457 Württemberg-Urach Unmarried
The Treaty of Münsingen reunited the two separate Lines under Eberhard V in 1482. Eberhard obtained the title of Duke in 1495.
Eberhard V & I the Bearded[3]   11 December 1445 1457-1482 24 February 1496 Württemberg-Urach Barbara Gonzaga
12 April/4 July 1474
Urach
one child
Reunited the counties of Württemberg under his rule in 14 December 1482. His title was elevated to Duke in 1495. Founded the University of Tübingen, but expelled the Jews from his lands. He left no descendants, and the duchy passed to the deposed count of Stuttgart.
1482-1495

1495-1496
County of Württemberg

Duchy of Württemberg
Henry   7 September 1448 1473-1482 15 April 1519 Württemberg-Montbéliard Elisabeth of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Bitsch
(d. 17 February 1487)
1485
one child

Eva of Salm
21 July 1488
two children
The 1473 Treaty of Urach awarded the county of Montbéliard and other Württemberg possessions on the left bank of the Rhine to Henry. In the course of a dispute between Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy and Emperor Frederick III, Charles took Henry prisoner in 1474. The captivity lasted until 1477 and Henry was treated very badly, allegedly including a mock execution. After his father's death in 1480, Henry claimed Württemberg-Stuttgart. He did not succeed, and in the 1482 Treaty of Reichenweier, he gave the county of Montbéliard to his brother, Eberhard II.
Montbéliard was annexed to Württemberg
Eberhard VI & II[3]   1 February 1447 1480-1482 17 February 1504 Württemberg-Stuttgart Elisabeth of Brandenburg
April/May 1467
Stuttgart
no children
Deposed by the count of Urach, who reunited both halves of the county, he later achieved sovereignty over the whole Württemberg as Duke Eberhard II. But he soon ran into trouble with the nobility, who disempowered him, working in close collaboration with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. He fled to Ulm, but as he didn't find support, he was forced to accept the Arbitration of Horb in 1498, which deposed and banished him, in exchange for an annual pension of 6,000 guilders.
1496-1498 Duchy of Württemberg
Ulrich

Under regency of
Estates of the realm
(1498-1503)
  8 February 1487 1498-1519

1534-1550
6 November 1550 Duchy of Württemberg Sabina of Bavaria
2 March 1511
two children
Son of Henry and nephew of Eberhard II. Infamous by his violent tendencies, which caused marital problems, and which, at a greater extent, had him deposed in January 1519 and the duchy annexed to Austria. In exile, and away from his wife, who fled to Bavaria, he befriended Philip, landgrave of Hesse. Restored in May 1534, he aimed to bring the Reformation to the Duchy and, as Henry VIII of England was doing in his country, he also supported the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Württemberg annexed to Austria: 1519-1534
George I the Cautious   4 February 1498 1526-1534

1553-1558
17 July 1558 Württemberg-Montbéliard Barbara of Hesse
1555
three children
Son of Henry and nephew of Eberhard II. He was deposed by his half-brother Ulrich and was only restored to his title under his nephew Christoph.
Montbéliard was annexed to Württemberg in 1534, and revived in 1542
Christopher the Pacific   12 May 1515 1542-1553 28 December 1568 Württemberg-Montbéliard Anna Maria of Brandenburg-Ansbach
24 February 1544
Ansbach
twelve children
He re-organized the entire administration of the church and state. He also reformed and supported the educational system. He also reconstructed the Altes Schloss in Stuttgart and hosted many celebrations.
1550-1568 Duchy of Württemberg
Louis the Pious[4]

Under regency of:
Anna Maria of Brandenburg-Ansbach,
George Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1568-77)
and Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (1568-69)
  1 January 1554 1568-1593 28 August 1593 Duchy of Württemberg Dorothea Ursula of Baden-Durlach
(20 June 1559-19 May 1583)
7 November 1575
no children

Ursula of Palatinate-Veldenz
(24 February 1572-5 March 1635)
1585
no children
Left no descendants, and the duchy passed to his brother Frederick I.
Frederick I   19 August 1557 1558-1593 29 January 1608 Württemberg-Montbéliard Sibylla of Anhalt
22 May 1581
Stuttgart
fifteen children
1593-1608 Duchy of Württemberg
Montbéliard merged into Württemberg in 1593
John Frederick   5 May 1582 1608-1628 18 July 1628 Duchy of Württemberg Barbara Sophie of Brandenburg
5 November 1609
Urach
nine children
Restored the constitution and councils abolshed by his father. After the division in 1617, and as the eldest, he kept the main duchy of Württemberg
Louis Frederick   29 January 1586 1617-1631 26 January 1631 Württemberg-Montbéliard Elisabeth Magdalena of Hesse-Darmstadt
(23 April 1600 - 9 June 1624)
14 July 1617
three children

Anna Eleonora of Nassau-Saarbrücken
15 May 1625
three children
Son of Frederick I, after the partition of 1617 received Montbéliard.
Frederick Achilles   5 May 1591 1617-1631 30 December 1631 Württemberg-Neuenstadt Unmarried Son of Frederick I, after the partition of 1617 received Neuenstadt. After his death without descendants, the duchy was briefly reannexed to the main Württemberg before being reassigned to his nephew.
Neuenstadt merged in Württemberg in 1631
Julius Frederick   3 June 1588 1617-1635 25 April 1635 Württemberg-Weiltingen Anna Sabina of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
11 December 1618
Sønderborg
nine children
Son of Frederick I, after the partition of 1617 received Weiltingen.
Eberhard III

Under regency of
Louis Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Montbéliard (1628-31) and Julius Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Weiltingen (1631-33)
  16 December 1614 1628-1674 2 July 1674 Duchy of Württemberg Anna Katharina of Salm-Kyrburg
(27 January 1614-27 June 1655)
26 February 1637
fourteen children

Maria Dorothea Sophie of Oettingen-Oettingen
(29 December 1639-29 June 1698)
20 July 1656
Ansbach
eleven children
Following a major defeat of Württemberg troops in the battle of Nördlingen on 6 September 1634, Württemberg was severely looted and plundered. Eberhard fled to Strasbourg, while many territories had already been passed on by the Emperor to other parties to push forward Catholicism in the region. The Duchy of Württemberg was reinstated after long negotiations resulting in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, despite or maybe because of the effects of war, poverty, hunger and the Bubonic plague all of which reduced the population from 350,000 in 1618 to 120,000 in 1648.
Leopold Frederick

Under regency of
George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Julius Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Weiltingen (1631-38)
30 May 1624 1631-1662 15 June 1662 Württemberg-Montbéliard Sibylle of Württemberg
(4 December 1620 - 21 May 1707)
no children
Left no descendants. The duchy passed to his brother George.
Roderick 19 October 1618 1635-1651 19 November 1651 Württemberg-Weiltingen Unmarried Died without descendants. The duchy went to his younger brother, Manfred.
Silvius I Nimrod   2 May 1622 1647-1664 24 April 1664 Württemberg-Oels Elisabeth Marie, Duchess of Oels
1 May 1647
Oleśnica
seven children
Son of Julius Frederick, acquired the duchy of Oels by marriage.
Frederick   19 December 1615 1649-1682 24 March 1682 Württemberg-Neuenstadt Clara Augusta of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 June 1653
twelve children
Son of John Frederick, he received the duchy of Neuenstadt after the death of his uncle.
Manfred 5 June 1626 1651-1662 15 May 1662 Württemberg-Weiltingen Juliana of Oldenburg
31 October 1652
three children
George II 5 October 1626 1662-1676

1679-1680

1697-1699
1 June 1699 Württemberg-Montbéliard Anne de Coligny
(1624-1680)
9 March 1648
Montbéliard
eight children
Under his rule the French occupied his lands twice.
Montbéliard occupied by France: 1676-1679, 1680-1697
Frederick Ferdinand 6 October 1654 1662-1705 8 August 1705 Württemberg-Weiltingen Elisabeth of Württemberg-Montbéliard
9 September 1689
three children
Left no surviving male descendants, and the duchy was reannexed to the main duchy of Württemberg
Weitlingen was annexed to Württemberg in 1705
Silvius II Frederick   21 February 1651 1664-1697 3 June 1697 Württemberg-Oels Eleonore Charlotte of Württemberg-Montbéliard
7 April 1672
Oleśnica
no children
William Louis   7 January 1647 1674-1677 23 June 1677 Duchy of Württemberg Magdalena Sibylla of Hesse-Darmstadt
6 November 1673
Darmstadt
four children
Died unexpectedly, with 30 years old, of an heart-attack.
Frederick Charles   12 September 1652 1677-1697 20 September 1697 Württemberg-Winnental Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach
31 October 1682
Ansbach
seven children
Son of Eberhard III, founded the new Duchy of Winnental.
Eberhard Louis

Under regency of
Magdalena Sibylla of Hesse-Darmstadt (1673-93)
  18 September 1676 1677-1733 31 October 1733 Duchy of Württemberg Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach
6 May 1697
Basel
one child
For his time, Eberhard Louis was a very tolerant ruler, commonly noted by modern scholars as "enlightened." Left no surviving descendants, and thus the main line went extinct. The duchy passed to Winnental branch.
Frederick Augustus   12 March 1654 1682-1716 6 August 1716 Württemberg-Neuenstadt Albertine Sophie Esther of Eberstein
9 February 1679
fifteen children
Left no male suriving descendants. The duchy passed to his brother.
Charles Alexander   24 January 1684 1697-1733 12 March 1737 Württemberg-Winnental Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis
1 May 1727
Frankfurt am Main
six children
Previously served as regent of the Kingdom of Serbia (1720-33). In 1733, inherited the main Duchy of Württemberg.
1733-1737 Duchy of Württemberg
Winnental merged into Württemberg in 1733
Christian Ulrich I   9 April 1652 1697-1704 5 April 1704 Württemberg-Oels Anna Elisabeth of Anhalt-Bernburg
13 March 1672
Bernburg
seven children

Sibylla Maria of Saxe-Merseburg
(28 October 1667 - 9 October 1693)
27 October 1683
Doberlug-Kirchhain
seven children

Sophie Wilhelmine of East Frisia
(17 October 1659 - 4 February 1698)
4 February 1695
Hamburg
one child

Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
(21 June 1662 - 1 June 1738)
6 December 1700
Güstrow
no children
Leopold Eberhard 21 May 1670 1699-1723 25 May 1723 Württemberg-Montbéliard Anne-Sabine Hedwiger
June 1695
(morganatic)
four children

Elisabeth Charlotte Curie
1718
Montbéliard
(morganatic)
six children
Had no legitimate descendants, and fafter his death the county was definitely annexed to Württemberg.
Montbéliard was annexed to Württemberg in 1723
Charles Frederick II[5]   7 February 1690 1704-1744 14 December 1761 Württemberg-Oels Sibylle Charlotte Juliane of Württemberg-Weiltingen
(1690-1735)
21 April 1709
Stuttgart
no children
Abdicated to his nephew, Charles Christian Erdmann. Had no descendants.
Christian Ulrich II   27 January 1691 1704-1734 7 February 1744 Württemberg-Wilhelminort Philippine Charlotte of Redern-Krappitz
(18 February 1691 - 17 June 1758)
13 July 1711
six children
Abdicated to his nephew, Charles Christian Erdmann. Had no descendants.
Charles Rudolph   29 May 1667 1716-1742 17 November 1742 Württemberg-Neuenstadt Unmarried Left no male suriving descendants. The duchy passed to his brother.
Neuenstadt was annexed to Württemberg in 1742
Charles Eugene

Under regency of
Charles Rudolph, Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt (1737-38) and Charles Frederick II, Duke of Württemberg-Oels (1738-46)
  11 February 1728 1733-1793 24 October 1793 Duchy of Württemberg Elisabeth Friederike Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
26 September 1748
Bayreuth
one child

Countess Franziska von Hohenheim
10/11 January 1785
(morganatic until 1790)
no children
Charles Christian Erdmann   26 October 1716 1744-1792 14 December 1792 Württemberg-Wilhelminort Marie Sophie Wilhelmine of Solms-Laubach
(1721-1793)
8 April 1741
Laubach
three children
1744-1792 Württemberg-Oels
Oels was annexed to the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Louis Eugene   6 January 1731 1793-1795 20 May 1795 Duchy of Württemberg Countess Sophia Albertine of Beichlingen
(15 December 1728-10 May 1807)
10/11 January 1785
(morganatic)
three children
Frederick Eugene   21 January 1732 1795-1797 23 December 1797 Duchy of Württemberg Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt
29 November 1753
twelve children
Frederick II   6 November 1754 1797-1803 30 October 1816 Duchy of Württemberg Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
15 October 1780
Brunswick[disambiguation needed]
four children

Charlotte of Great Britain
18 May 1797
London
no children
In 1803, he was raised as Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1806 raised himself as king, with approval of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Elector of Württemberg, 1803–1806Edit

In 1803, the Duke of Württemberg was raised to the rank of Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, the Empire was dissolved, and the Elector of Württemberg became an independent monarch with the title of King.

Elector of Württemberg
Württemberg Dynasty
Image Name
(Birth–Death)
Began Ended Notes
  Frederick I
Friedrich I
(1754–1816)
25 February 1803 6 August 1806 The first and only Elector of Württemberg.

Kings of Württemberg, 1806–1918Edit

The Holy Roman Empire came to an end in 1806. The Elector of Württemberg, allied to Napoleon I, anticipated its dissolution by becoming the ruler of an independent Kingdom of Württemberg in 1806.

Kings of Württemberg
Württemberg Dynasty
Image Name
(Birth–Death)
Began Ended Notes
  Frederick I
Friedrich I
(1754–1816)
1 January 1806 30 October 1816
  William I
Wilhelm I
(1781–1864)
30 October 1816 25 June 1864 Son of Frederick I.
  Charles I
Karl I
(1823–1891)
25 June 1864 6 October 1891 Son of William I. Became a subordinate ruler in the German Empire after the Unification of Germany in 1871.
  William II
Wilhelm II
(1848–1921)
6 October 1891 30 November 1918 Nephew of Charles I. The last King of Württemberg. Abdicated in the German Revolution of 1918–1919.

Because of a lack of male heirs under Salic law, on the death of Wilhelm II in 1921 the royal house had to reach back to the descendants of Friedrich II Eugen (ruled 1795–97). The line of the Duke of Urach was excluded because of a morganatic marriage back in 1800 by its forebear Duke William, and so the succession devolved to the younger branch of Altshausen.

Another morganatic descendant of Friedrich II Eugen was Mary of Teck (1867–1953), who married the British king George V when he was Duke of York.

Heads of the House of Württemberg since 1918Edit

The legal line of succession of the house of Württemberg has continued to the present, although the house no longer plays any political role.

Presidents of the Free People's State of Württemberg, 1918–1945Edit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ This fact is from coins produced under his premiership - details are available here
  2. ^ Probably styled I in reference to the numbering in the county of Montbéliard; there was only one Louis, who ruled in the 11th century and to whom no numbering is usually attributed. Louis should be numbered IV in Württemberg.
  3. ^ a b When raised as dukes, the counting of the rulers restarted.
  4. ^ Some authors unexplainably give him the number III, which would only be applicable if numberings of counts were valid for the dukes, which doesn't seem to be the case, as seen with the dukes named Eberhard.
  5. ^ Numbered II as Duke of Oels; Charles Frederick I (of Podebrady) was the father-in-law of Silvius I Nimrod.